Search results for 'Fur trade' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Alan Herscovici (1985/1991). Second Nature: The Animal-Rights Controversy. Stoddart.
     
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  2.  2
    Ros Clubb (2006). The Welfare of Animals Bred for Their Fur in China. In Jacky Turner & Joyce D'Silva (eds.), Animals, Ethics, and Trade: The Challenge of Animal Sentience. Earthscan 180.
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  3. Sandro Castaldo, Francesco Perrini, Nicola Misani & Antonio Tencati (2009). The Missing Link Between Corporate Social Responsibility and Consumer Trust: The Case of Fair Trade Products. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 84 (1):1 - 15.
    This paper investigates the link between the consumer perception that a company is socially oriented and the consumer intention to buy products marketed by that company. We suggest that this link exists when at least two conditions prevail: (1) the products sold by that company comply with ethical and social requirements; (2) the company has an acknowledged commitment to protect consumer rights and interests. To test these hypotheses, we conducted a survey among the clients of retail chains offering Fair (...) products. The results show that socially oriented companies can successfully leverage their reputation to market products with high symbolic values. (shrink)
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  4.  57
    Geoff Moore (2004). The Fair Trade Movement: Parameters, Issues and Future Research. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 53 (1-2):73-86.
    Although Fair Trade has been in existence for more than 40 years, discussion in the business and business ethics literature of this unique trading and campaigning movement between Southern producers and Northern buyers and consumers has been limited. This paper seeks to redress this deficit by providing a description of the characteristics of Fair Trade, including definitional issues, market size and segmentation and the key organizations. It discusses Fair Trade from Southern producer and Northern trader and consumer (...)
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  5. Leendert Maanen (2016). Is There Evidence for a Mixture of Processes in Speed‐Accuracy Trade‐Off Behavior? Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (1):279-290.
    The speed-accuracy trade-off effect refers to the behavioral trade-off between fast yet error-prone respones and accurate but slow responses. Multiple theories on the cognitive mechanisms behind SAT exist. One theory assumes that SAT is a consequence of strategically adjusting the amount of evidence required for overt behaviors, such as perceptual choices. Another theory hypothesizes that SAT is the consequence of the mixture of multiple categorically different cognitive processes. In this paper, these theories are disambiguated by assessing whether the (...)
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  6.  77
    Darryl Reed (2009). What Do Corporations Have to Do with Fair Trade? Positive and Normative Analysis From a Value Chain Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics 86 (1):3 - 26.
    There has been tremendous growth in the sales of certified fair trade products since the introduction of the first of these goods in the Netherlands in 1988. Many would argue that this rapid growth has been due in large part to the increasing involvement of corporations. Still, participation by corporations in fair trade has not been welcomed by all. The basic point of contention is that, while corporate participation has the potential to rapidly extend the market for fair (...)
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  7.  13
    Iain A. Davies (2009). Alliances and Networks: Creating Success in the UK Fair Trade Market. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 86 (1):109 - 126.
    Data from a longitudinal study into the key management success factors in the fair trade industry provide insights into the essential nature of inter-organizational alliances and networks in creating the profitable and growing fair trade market in the UK. Drawing on three case studies and extensive industry interviews, we provide an interpretive perspective on the organizational relationships and business networks and the way in which these have engendered success for UK fair trade companies. Three types of benefit (...)
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  8.  46
    Patrick De Pelsmacker & Wim Janssens (2007). A Model for Fair Trade Buying Behaviour: The Role of Perceived Quantity and Quality of Information and of Product-Specific Attitudes. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 75 (4):361-380.
    In a sample of 615 Belgians a model for fair trade buying behaviour was developed. The impact of fair trade knowledge, general attitudes towards fair trade, attitudes towards fair trade products, and the perception of the quality and quantity of fair trade information on the reported amount of money spent on fair trade products were assessed. Fair trade knowledge, overall concern and scepticism towards fair trade, and the perception of the perceived quantity (...)
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  9.  57
    Caroline Josephine Doran (2009). The Role of Personal Values in Fair Trade Consumption. Journal of Business Ethics 84 (4):549 - 563.
    Research in the U. S. on fair trade consumption is sparse. Therefore, little is known as to what motivates U. S. consumers to buy fair trade products. This study sought to determine which values are salient to American fair trade consumption. The data were gathered via a Web-based version of the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) and were gleaned from actual consumers who purchase fair trade products from a range of Internet-based fair trade retailers. This study (...)
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  10.  24
    Andreas Chatzidakis, Sally Hibbert & Andrew P. Smith (2007). Why People Don't Take Their Concerns About Fair Trade to the Supermarket: The Role of Neutralisation. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 74 (1):89 - 100.
    This article explores how neutralisation can explain people's lack of commitment to buying Fair Trade (FT) products, even when they identify FT as an ethical concern. It examines the theoretical tenets of neutralisation theory and critically assesses its applicability to the purchase of FT products. Exploratory research provides illustrative examples of neutralisation techniques being used in the FT consumer context. A conceptual framework and research propositions delineate the role of neutralisation in explaining the attitude-behaviour discrepancies evident in (...)
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  11.  4
    Laura T. Raynolds (2000). Re-Embedding Global Agriculture: The International Organic and Fair Trade Movements. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 17 (3):297-309.
    The international organic agricultureand fair trade movements represent importantchallenges to the ecologically and sociallydestructive relations that characterize the globalagro-food system. Both movements critique conventionalagricultural production and consumption patterns andseek to create a more sustainable world agro-foodsystem. The international organic movement focuses onre-embedding crop and livestock production in ``naturalprocesses,'' encouraging trade in agriculturalcommodities produced under certified organicconditions and processed goods derived from thesecommodities. For its part, the fair trade movementfosters the re-embedding of international commodityproduction and distribution in ``equitable (...)
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  12.  41
    Veronika A. Andorfer & Ulf Liebe (2012). Research on Fair Trade Consumption—A Review. Journal of Business Ethics 106 (4):415-435.
    An overview and assessment of the current state of research on individual consumption of Fair Trade (FT) products is given on the basis of 51 journal publications. Arranging this field of ethical consumption research according to key research objectives, theoretical approaches, methods, and study population, the review suggests that most studies apply social psychological approaches focusing mainly on consumer attitudes. Fewer studies draw on economic approaches focusing on consumers’ willingness to pay ethical premia for FT products or sociological approaches (...)
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  13.  13
    Daniel Jaffee & Philip H. Howard (2010). Corporate Cooptation of Organic and Fair Trade Standards. Agriculture and Human Values 27 (4):387-399.
    Recent years have seen a substantial increase in alternative agrifood initiatives that attempt to use the market to curtail the negative social and environmental effects of production and trade in a globalized food system. These alternatives pose a challenge to capital accumulation and the externalization of environmental costs by large agribusiness, trading and retail firms. Yet the success of these alternatives also makes them an inviting target for corporate participation. This article examines these dynamics through a case study of (...)
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  14.  27
    Leonardo Becchetti & Benjamin Huybrechts (2008). The Dynamics of Fair Trade as a Mixed-Form Market. Journal of Business Ethics 81 (4):733 - 750.
    This article analyses the Fair Trade sector as a “mixed-form market,” i.e., a market in which different types of players (in this case, nonprofit, co-operative and for-profit organizations) coexist and compete. The purposes of this article are (1) to understand the factors that have led Fair Trade to become a mixed-form market and (2) to propose some trails to understand the market dynamics that result from the interactions between the different types of players. We start by defining briefly (...)
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  15.  1
    Daniel Jaffee (2010). Fair Trade Standards, Corporate Participation, and Social Movement Responses in the United States. Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):267 - 285.
    This article examines the development of and contestation over the standards for certified fair trade, with particular attention to the U.S. context. It charts fair trade's rapid growth in the United States since the 1999 advent of formal certification, explores the controversies generated by the strategy of market mainstreaming in the sector, and focuses on five key issues that have generated particularly heated contention within the U.S. fair trade movement. It offers a theoretical framework based in the (...)
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  16.  27
    Iain A. Davies & Andrew Crane (2003). Ethical Decision Making in Fair Trade Companies. Journal of Business Ethics 45 (1-2):79 - 92.
    This paper reports on a study of ethical decision-making in a fair trade company. This can be seen to be a crucial arena for investigation since fair trade firms not only have a specific ethical mission in terms of helping growers out of poverty, but they tend to be perceived as (and are often marketed on the basis of) having an "ethical" image. Eschewing a straightforward test of extant ethical decision models, we adopt Thompson''s proposal for a more (...)
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  17.  32
    Anil Hira & Jared Ferrie (2006). Fair Trade: Three Key Challenges for Reaching the Mainstream. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 63 (2):107 - 118.
    After nearly 20 years of work by activists, fair trade, a movement establishing alternative trading organizations to ensure minimal returns, safe working conditions, and environmentally sustainable production, is now gaining steam, with increasing awareness and availability across a variety of products. However, this article addresses several major remaining challenges: (a) a lack of agreement about what fair trade really means and how it should be certified; (b) uneven awareness and availability across different areas, with marked differences between some (...)
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  18.  43
    Iain A. Davies, Bob Doherty & Simon Knox (2010). The Rise and Stall of a Fair Trade Pioneer: The Cafédirect Story. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 92 (1):127 - 147.
    This is a case study investigating the growth of fair trade pioneer, Cafédirect. We explore the growth of the company and develop strategic insights on how Cafédirect has attained its prominent position in the UK mainstream coffee industry based on its ethical positioning. We explore the marketing, networks and communications channels of the brand which have led to rapid growth from niche player to a mainstream brand. However, the company is experiencing a slow down in its meteoric rise and (...)
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  19.  63
    A. Magdalena Hurtado, Carol A. Lambourne, Kim R. Hill & Karen Kessler (2006). The Public Health Implications of Maternal Care Trade-Offs. Human Nature 17 (2):129-154.
    The socioeconomic and ethnic characteristics of parents are some of the most important correlates of adverse health outcomes in childhood. However, the relationships between ethnic, economic, and behavioral factors and the health outcomes responsible for this pervasive finding have not been specified in child health epidemiology. The general objective of this paper is to propose a theoretical approach to the study of maternal behaviors and child health in diverse ethnic and socioeconomic environments. The specific aims are: (a) to describe a (...)
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  20.  92
    Valéry Bezençon & Sam Blili (2009). Fair Trade Managerial Practices: Strategy, Organisation and Engagement. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 90 (1):95 - 113.
    The number of distributors selling Fair Trade products is constantly increasing. What are their motivations to distribute Fair Trade products? How do they organise this distribution? Do they apply and communicate the Fair Trade values? This research, based on five case studies in Switzerland, aims at understanding and structuring the strategies and the managerial practices related to Fair Trade product distribution, as well as analysing if they denote an engagement with Fair Trade principles. The results (...)
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  21.  80
    Gavin Fridell (2009). The Co-Operative and the Corporation: Competing Visions of the Future of Fair Trade. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 86 (1):81 - 95.
    This paper provides an analysis of the fair trade network in the North through a comparative assessment of two distinctly different fair trade certified roasters: Planet Bean, a worker-owned co-operative in Guelph, Ontario; and Starbucks Coffee Company, the world's largest specialty roaster. The two organizations are assessed on the basis of their distinct visions of the fair trade mission and their understandings of "consumer sovereignty". It is concluded that the objectives of Planet Bean are more compatible with (...)
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  22.  41
    Karla Utting (2009). Assessing the Impact of Fair Trade Coffee: Towards an Integrative Framework. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 86 (1):127 - 149.
    This article presents an impact assessment framework that allows for the evaluation of positive and negative local-level impacts that have resulted from "responsible trade" interventions such as fair trade and ethical trade. The framework investigates impact relating to (1) livelihood impacts on primary stakeholders; (2) socio-economic impacts on communities; (3) organizational impacts; (4) environmental impacts; (5) policies and institutional impacts; and (6) future prospects. It identifies relevant local-level stakeholders and facilitates the analysis of conflicting interests. The framework (...)
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  23.  17
    Gwang-Suk Kim, Grace Y. Lee & Kiwan Park (2010). A Cross-National Investigation on How Ethical Consumers Build Loyalty Toward Fair Trade Brands. Journal of Business Ethics 96 (4):589 - 611.
    Although Fair Trade has recently experienced rapid growth around the world, there is lack of consumer research that investigates what determines consumers' loyalty toward Fair Trade brands. In this research, we investigate how ethical consumption values (ECV) and two mediating variables, Fair Trade product beliefs (FTPB) and Fair Trade corporate evaluation, (FTCE) determine Fair Trade brand loyalty (FTBL). On the basis of two empirical studies that use samples from the U.S. and Korea, we provide evidence (...)
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  24.  17
    Joni Valkila & Anja Nygren (2010). Impacts of Fair Trade Certification on Coffee Farmers, Cooperatives, and Laborers in Nicaragua. Agriculture and Human Values 27 (3):321-333.
    This paper analyzes the possibilities and challenges of Fair Trade certification as a movement seeking to improve the well-being of small-scale coffee growers and coffee laborers in the global South. Six months of fieldwork was conducted in 2005–2006 to study the roles of a wide range of farmers, laborers, cooperative administrators, and export companies in Fair Trade coffee production and trade in Nicaragua. The results of our evaluation of the ability of Fair Trade to meet its (...)
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  25.  25
    Corinne Gendron, Véronique Bisaillon & Ana Isabel Otero Rance (2009). The Institutionalization of Fair Trade: More Than Just a Degraded Form of Social Action. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 86 (1):63 - 79.
    The context of economic globalization has contributed to the emergence of a new form of social action which has spread into the economic sphere in the form of the new social economic movements. The emblematic figure of this new generation of social movements is fair trade, which influences the economy towards political or social ends. Having emerged from multiple alternative trade practices, fair trade has gradually become institutionalized since the professionalization of World Shops, the arrival of fair (...)
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  26.  25
    J. J. McMurtry (2009). Ethical Value-Added: Fair Trade and the Case of Café Femenino. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 86 (1):27 - 49.
    This article engages various critiques of Fair Trade, from its participation in commodification to providing a cover for "Fair-washing" corporations, and argues that Fair Trade has the potential to answer the challenges contained within them if and when it initiates an ongoing process of developing the "ethical valuedadded" content of the label. This argument is made in a number of ways. First, by distinguishing between economic and human development impacts and ethics, this article argues that these impacts are (...)
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  27.  3
    Alex Nicholls (2010). Fair Trade: Towards an Economics of Virtue. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):241 - 255.
    Over the past 10 years the sales of Fair Trade goods - particularly those carrying the Fair Trade Labelling Organizations International (FLO) certification mark - have grown exponentially. Academic interest in Fair Trade has also grown significantly over the past decade with researchers analysing the model from a wide range of theoretical perspectives. Whilst Fair Trade is generally acknowledged as a new supply chain model, it has tended to be studied at the micro/organisational level rather than (...)
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  28.  32
    Vincent Terstappen, Lori Hanson & Darrell McLaughlin (2013). Gender, Health, Labor, and Inequities: A Review of the Fair and Alternative Trade Literature. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 30 (1):21-39.
    Although research into fair and alternative trade networks has increased significantly in recent years, very little synthesis of the literature has occurred thus far, especially for social considerations such as gender, health, labor, and equity. We draw on insights from critical theorists to reflect on the current state of fair and alternative trade, draw out contradictions from within the existing research, and suggest actions to help the emancipatory potential of the movement. Using a systematic scoping review methodology, (...)
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  29.  20
    Gilles Dutilh, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Ingmar Visser & Han L. J. van der Maas (2011). A Phase Transition Model for the Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off in Response Time Experiments. Cognitive Science 35 (2):211-250.
    Most models of response time (RT) in elementary cognitive tasks implicitly assume that the speed-accuracy trade-off is continuous: When payoffs or instructions gradually increase the level of speed stress, people are assumed to gradually sacrifice response accuracy in exchange for gradual increases in response speed. This trade-off presumably operates over the entire range from accurate but slow responding to fast but chance-level responding (i.e., guessing). In this article, we challenge the assumption of continuity and propose a phase transition (...)
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  30.  21
    Caroline Josephine Doran (2010). Fair Trade Consumption: In Support of the Out-Group. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 95 (4):527 - 541.
    Two sets of self-transcendence values -universalism and benevolence - act as a source of motivation for the promotion of the welfare of the other rather than the self This article sought to determine the exact nature of the interaction between these sets of values and the consumption of fair trade products. In an earlier study, universalism values were found to have a significant influence on fair trade consumption whereas benevolence values did not, despite their shared goal and values (...)
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  31.  54
    Will Low & Eileen Davenport (2009). Organizational Leadership, Ethics and the Challenges of Marketing Fair and Ethical Trade. Journal of Business Ethics 86 (1):97 - 108.
    This article critically evaluates current developments in marketing fair trade labelled products and "no sweat" manufactured goods, and argues that both the fair trade and ethical trade movements increasingly rely on strategies for bottom-up change, converting consumers "one cup at a time". This individualistic approach, which we call "shopping for a better world", must, we argue, be augmented by more collectivist approaches to affect transformative change. Specifically, we look at the concept of mission-driven organizations pursuing leadership roles (...)
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  32.  26
    Tierney Bondy & Vishal Talwar (2011). Through Thick and Thin: How Fair Trade Consumers Have Reacted to the Global Economic Recession. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 101 (3):365-383.
    Research on fair trade has flourished over the past decade as fair trade food products have gained popularity amongst consumers in many developed economies. This study examines the effects of recessionary economic conditions on fair trade consumers’ purchasing behaviour. An online survey was administered to 306 fair trade consumers from Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The results reveal a discrepancy among fair trade consumers as only consumers that purchase fair (...) on an occasional basis adhered to established consumer behaviour norms, i.e. decreasing their purchases of fair trade products and becoming significantly more price aware. Respondents who actively consume fair trade generally remained loyal to their purchase. While some active consumers altered their purchasing behaviour, this phenomenon was not common amongst this group as no statistically significant changes were observed. Differences were also noted among the three countries as the Canadian and US fair trade consumers significantly decreased their consumption of fair trade as a result of the recession, whereas the UK consumers did not. In addition to the research results, theoretical and managerial implications will be discussed along with future research directions. (shrink)
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  33.  24
    Mireille Hildebrandt (2013). Balance or Trade-Off? Online Security Technologies and Fundamental Rights. Philosophy and Technology 26 (4):357-379.
    In this contribution, I will argue that the image of a balance is often used to defend the idea of a trade-off. To understand the drawbacks of this line of thought, I will explore the relationship between online security technologies and fundamental rights, notably privacy, nondiscrimination, freedom of speech and due process. After discriminating between three types of online security technologies, I will trace the reconfiguration of the notion of privacy in the era of smart environments. This will lead (...)
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  34.  95
    Casey Humbyrd (2009). Fair Trade International Surrogacy. Developing World Bioethics 9 (3):111-118.
    Since the development of assisted reproductive technologies, infertile individuals have crossed borders to obtain treatments unavailable or unaffordable in their own country. Recent media coverage has focused on the outsourcing of surrogacy to developing countries, where the cost for surrogacy is significantly less than the equivalent cost in a more developed country. This paper discusses the ethical arguments against international surrogacy. The major opposition viewpoints can be broadly divided into arguments about welfare, commodification and exploitation. It is argued that the (...)
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  35.  3
    Douglas L. Murray & Laura T. Raynolds (2000). Alternative Trade in Bananas: Obstacles and Opportunities for Progressive Social Change in the Global Economy. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 17 (1):65-74.
    Fair trade bananas are the latest inan increasing array of commodities that are beingpromoted by various organizations in an effort tocreate alternative production and consumption patternsto the environmentally destructive and sociallyinequitable patterns inherent in traditionalproduction and trade systems. Fair trade is touted asa strategy to achieve more sustainable developmentthrough linking environmentally and socially consciousconsumers in the North with producers pursuingenvironmentally sound and socially just productionpractices in the South. Promotion of fair tradebananas in Europe has achieved impressive initialgains (...)
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  36.  86
    Joni Valkila, Pertti Haaparanta & Niina Niemi (2010). Empowering Coffee Traders? The Coffee Value Chain From Nicaraguan Fair Trade Farmers to Finnish Consumers. Journal of Business Ethics 97 (2):257 - 270.
    This article analyzes the distribution of benefits from Fair Trade between producing and consuming countries. Fair Trade and conventional coffee production and trade were examined in Nicaragua in 2005-2006 and 2008. Consumption of the respective coffees was assessed in Finland in 2006-2009. The results indicate that consumers paid considerably more for Fair Trade-certified coffee than for the other alternatives available. Although Fair Trade provided price premiums to producer organizations, a larger share of the retail prices (...)
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  37.  14
    Richard L. Lewis, Michael Shvartsman & Satinder Singh (2013). The Adaptive Nature of Eye Movements in Linguistic Tasks: How Payoff and Architecture Shape Speed‐Accuracy Trade‐Offs. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):581-610.
    We explore the idea that eye-movement strategies in reading are precisely adapted to the joint constraints of task structure, task payoff, and processing architecture. We present a model of saccadic control that separates a parametric control policy space from a parametric machine architecture, the latter based on a small set of assumptions derived from research on eye movements in reading (Engbert, Nuthmann, Richter, & Kliegl, 2005; Reichle, Warren, & McConnell, 2009). The eye-control model is embedded in a decision architecture (a (...)
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  38.  52
    Francisco VanderHoff Boersma (2009). The Urgency and Necessity of a Different Type of Market: The Perspective of Producers Organized Within the Fair Trade Market. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 86 (1):51 - 61.
    The development of the certified Fair Trade market was initiated by a group of indigenous communities in Mexico. Over time, their vision of Fair Trade as a different type of market has become increasingly marginalized by an emphasis on poverty reduction. This article presents their understanding of what Fair Trade should and should not be. It presents the key principles of the Fair Trade market as effectiveness, ecological sustainability, social sustainability, and more direct producer-consumer relationships. The (...)
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  39.  2
    Benjamin Huybrechts (2010). Fair Trade Organizations in Belgium: Unity in Diversity? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):217 - 240.
    This article analyzes the dual process occurring in the field of Fair Trade organizations (FTOs) in Belgium. On the one hand, there has been a gradual diversification of the organizational landscape over time from pioneering volunteer-based non-profit organizations to a broader array including cooperatives, group structures, businesses and individual entrepreneurs exclusively devoted to FT. On the other hand, a process of networking is currently taking place among the various types of FTOs in the context of the creation of a (...)
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  40.  23
    Evan D. G. Fraser (2006). Crop Diversification and Trade Liberalization: Linking Global Trade and Local Management Through a Regional Case Study. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 23 (3):271-281.
    Some models anticipate that liberalized agricultural trade will lead to increased crop diversity, while other models make the opposite claim. These positions were explored in southwestern British Columbia, Canada where, between 1992 and 1998, government subsidies and other measures designed to protect horticultural farmers were lifted, exposing these farmers to foreign competition. Public hearings on the future of agriculture provided an opportunity to tap the knowledge and experience of people affected by this transition. Analysis of transcripts from these hearings, (...)
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  41.  19
    Debora C. Randall (2005). An Exploration of Opportunities for the Growth of the Fair Trade Market: Three Cases of Craft Organisations. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 56 (1):55 - 67.
    Businesses that maintain ethical standards have an advantage in the marketplace based on the increasing interest of consumers in products that have a social and ethical component. Fair trade organisations that adopt environmental, social and ethical principles in trading are in a good position to make the most of this growing interest in the market. However, it is unclear whether fair trade organisations are taking full advantage of emerging market opportunities for ethically traded products. This research (...)
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  42.  15
    Hong-zen Wang (2005). Asian Transnational Corporations and Labor Rights: Vietnamese Trade Unions in Taiwan-Invested Companies. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 56 (1):43 - 53.
    According to the reports in the past decade, some Asian subcontractors, mainly Taiwan, Hong Kong and Korea transnational corporations, tend to be labor abusive in their overseas investment destinations like China or Southeast Asia. Taking Vietnam as an example, this paper raises questions as to why Taiwanese transnational companies can control workplace unions in a trade-union-supportive regime. Given the government s constraint of political rights, and the individualized workplace unions, the function of trade unions in Vietnam (...)
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  43.  1
    Marie-Christine Renard (2010). In the Name of Conservation: CAFE Practices and Fair Trade in Mexico. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):287 - 299.
    Consumers' concerns for the environment have led to the creation of niche markets, quality certifications and labelling systems. Built by activists and NGOs, these systems were adopted by agribusiness. Such firms try to capture consumers and react to opinion campaigns, whilst appropriating the conservation (or 'fair') discourse. This leads to the rise of new forms of third-party certifications of food production based on private standards and, hence, to new forms of contract relations between producers and buyers. The nature of these (...)
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  44.  2
    Nil Özçaǧlar-Toulouse, Amina Béji-Bécheur & Patrick E. Murphy (2009). Fair Trade in France: From Individual Innovators to Contemporary Networks. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 90 (4):589 - 606.
    Fair trade aims at humanising the capitalist economy by serving the community, instead of simply striving for financial profit. The current fair trade sector is an excellent example of an innovation where networks based on ethical principles can help to effectively serve this market. Our analysis is based on 48 interviews amongst fair trade innovators in France and illustrates the advent of a new type of entrepreneur, one that is grounded in the social and solidarity economy (SSE). (...)
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  45.  41
    Robert A. Rice (2001). Noble Goals and Challenging Terrain: Organic and Fair Trade Coffee Movements in the Global Marketplace. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 14 (1):39-66.
    Social relations associated with conventional agricultural exports find their origins in long term associations based on business, family, and class alliances. Working outside these boundaries presents a host of challenges, especially where small producers with little economic or political power are concerned. Yet, in many developing countries, alternative trade organizations (ATOs) based on philosophies of social justice and/or environmental well-being are carving out spaces alongside traditional agricultural export sectors by establishing new channels of trade and marketing. Coffee provides (...)
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  46.  54
    Nicole Hassoun (2011). Free Trade, Poverty, and Inequality. Journal of Moral Philosophy 8 (1):5-44.
    Anyone familiar with The Economist knows the mantra: Free trade will ameliorate poverty by increasing growth and reducing inequality. This paper suggests that problems underlying measurement of poverty, inequality, and free trade provide reason to worry about this argument. Furthermore, the paper suggests that better evidence is necessary to establish that free trade is causing inequality and poverty to fall. Experimental studies usually provide the best evidence of causation. So, the paper concludes with a call for further (...)
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  47.  3
    Gaëlle Balineau & Ivan Dufeu (2010). Are Fair Trade Goods Credence Goods? A New Proposal, with French Illustrations. Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):331 - 345.
    In the literature, Fair Trade (FT) goods are usually associated with other products differentiated by process attributes such as organic food, genetically modified (GM) food or child labour-free clothing. All of these products are regarded as credence goods. This classification refers to the simplified definition of credence goods, which describes product attributes which consumers cannot evaluate, even after having consumed the good. Focusing on the characteristics of FT goods, this article proposes a reassessment of the (...)
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  48.  2
    Darryl Reed, Bob Thomson, Ian Hussey & Jean-Frédéric LeMay (2010). Dveloping a Nomatively Grounded Research Agenda for Fair Trade Examining the Case of Canada. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):151 - 179.
    This paper examines two issues related to research of certified fair trade goods. The first is the question of how agendas for fair trade research should be developed. The second issue is the existence of major gaps in the fair trade literature, including the study of the particular features of fair trade practice in individual northern countries. In taking up the first of these issues, the paper proposes that normative analysis should provide the basis for developing (...)
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  49. Thuriane Mahè (2010). Are Stated Preferences Confirmed by Purchasing Behaviours? The Case of Fair Trade-Certified Bananas in Switzerland. Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):301 - 315.
    As the market share of Fair Trade food products in countries of the North grows, understanding consumer preferences with regard to this recent label is becoming increasingly important. This article reports on a test of the consistency of consumers' stated preferences, for which a survey was conducted at the place and time of actual purchase decisions. The aim of the survey was to further improve the understanding of consumers' stated motivations for buying 'Fair Trade' and 'organic Fair (...)' bananas in Switzerland. Hypothetical questions with double dichotomous choices were used to compare two types of bananas - conventional and labelled - and to assess the average stated willingness-to-pay (WTP) for Fair Trade-labelled bananas. The results show that Fair Trade is largely accepted in Switzerland and that the premium for purchasing such products is influenced by age, the number of young children and the perception of the Fair Trade label. I then used a comparative test of field observations and stated preferences for bananas to measure inconsistency in choices. This comparison reveals that less than one-fifth of the answers are in principle inconsistent. These results point to the importance of confidence in the Fair Trade labels if consumers' purchases are to increase. (shrink)
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  50.  24
    Luc K. Audebrand & Thierry C. Pauchant (2009). Can the Fair Trade Movement Enrich Traditional Business Ethics? An Historical Study of its Founders in Mexico. Journal of Business Ethics 87 (3):343 - 353.
    As the need for more diversity in business ethics is becoming more pressing in our global world, we provide an historical study of a Fair Trade (FT) movement, born in rural Mexico. We first focus on the basic assumptions of its founders, which include a worker–priest, Frans van der Hoff, a group of native Indians and local farmers who formed a cooperative, and an NGO, Max Havelaar. We then review both the originalities and challenges of the FT movement and (...)
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