Search results for 'Futility' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. an Exercise In Futility & David M. Zientek (2005). The Texas Advance Directives Act of 1999. HEC Forum 17 (4):245-259.score: 30.0
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  2. Lawrence Schneiderman (2011). Defining Medical Futility and Improving Medical Care. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 8 (2):123-131.score: 24.0
    It probably should not be surprising, in this time of soaring medical costs and proliferating technology, that an intense debate has arisen over the concept of medical futility. Should doctors be doing all the things they are doing? In particular, should they be attempting treatments that have little likelihood of achieving the goals of medicine? What are the goals of medicine? Can we agree when medical treatment fails to achieve such goals? What should the physician do and not do (...)
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  3. Michael Ashby (2011). The Futility of Futility: Death Causation is the 'Elephant in the Room' in Discussions About Limitation of Medical Treatment. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 8 (2):151-154.score: 24.0
    The term futility has been widely used in medical ethics and clinical medicine for more than twenty years now. At first glance it appears to offer a clear-cut categorical characterisation of medical treatments at the end of life, and an apparently objective way of making decisions that are seen to be emotionally painful for those close to the patient, and ethically, and also potentially legally hazardous for clinicians. It also appears to deal with causation, because omission of a futile (...)
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  4. Cameron Stewart (2011). Futility Determination as a Process: Problems with Medical Sovereignty, Legal Issues and the Strengths and Weakness of the Procedural Approach. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 8 (2):155-163.score: 24.0
    Futility is not a purely medical concept. Its subjective nature requires a balanced procedural approach where competing views can be aired and in which disputes can be resolved with procedural fairness. Law should play an important role in this process. Pure medical models of futility are based on a false claim of medical sovereignty. Procedural approaches avoid the problems of such claims. This paper examines the arguments for and against the adoption of a procedural approach to futility (...)
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  5. Grant Gillett (2011). Minimally Conscious States, Deep Brain Stimulation, and What is Worse Than Futility. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 8 (2):145-149.score: 24.0
    The concept of futility is sometimes regarded as a cloak for medical paternalism in that it rolls together medical and value judgments. Often, despite attempts to disambiguate the concept, that is true and it can be applied in such a way as to marginalize the real interests of a patient. I suggest we replace it with a conceptual toolkit that includes physiological futility, substantial benefit (SB), and the risk of unacceptable badness (RUB) in that these concepts allow us (...)
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  6. Colleen Gallagher & Ryan Holmes (2012). Handling Cases of 'Medical Futility'. HEC Forum 24 (2):91-98.score: 24.0
    Abstract Medical futility is commonly understood as treatment that would not provide for any meaningful benefit for the patient. While the medical facts will help to determine what is medically appropriate, it is often difficult for patients, families, surrogate decision-makers and healthcare providers to navigate these difficult situations. Often communication breaks down between those involved or reaches an impasse. This paper presents a set of practical strategies for dealing with cases of perceived medical futility at a major cancer (...)
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  7. Philip M. Rosoff (2013). Institutional Futility Policies Are Inherently Unfair. HEC Forum 25 (3):191-209.score: 24.0
    For many years a debate has raged over what constitutes futile medical care, if patients have a right to demand what doctors label as futile, and whether physicians should be obliged to provide treatments that they think are inappropriate. More recently, the argument has shifted away from the difficult project of definitions, to outlining institutional policies and procedures that take a measured and patient-by-patient approach to deciding if an existing or desired intervention is futile. The prototype is the Texas Advance (...)
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  8. Maria Bitsori, Dimitrios Georgopoulos & Emmanouil Galanakis (2009). The Question of Futility and Roger C. Bone. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (4):477-481.score: 24.0
    Medical futility, one of the most debated end-of-life issues in medical ethics, has been discussed among physicians and scholars for years but remained an unresolved question. Roger C. Bone (1941–1997), an outstanding pulmonologist and critical care specialist, devoted his last years to ethical issues of terminal care, while facing himself metastatic renal cancer. Criticising the abuse of technology in terminal care and the administrative and financial interference on medical decisions, he bequeathed important points on futility, bringing also patients’ (...)
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  9. Alireza Bagheri (2013). Medical Futility: A Cross-National Study. Imperial College Press.score: 24.0
    So-called futile care : the experience of the Unied States -- The reality of medical futility in Brazil -- Medical futility and end-of-lfe issues in Belgium -- The concept of medical futility in Venezuela -- Medical futility in Russian Federation -- Medical futility in Australia -- Medical futility in Japan -- Ethical issues and policy in medical futility in China -- Medical futility in Korea -- Medical futility from Swiss perspective -- (...)
     
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  10. Tuck Wai Chan & Desley Hegney (2012). Buddhism and Medical Futility. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (4):433-438.score: 24.0
    Religious faith and medicine combine harmoniously in Buddhist views, each in its own way helping Buddhists enjoy a more fruitful existence. Health care providers need to understand the spiritual needs of patients in order to provide better care, especially for the terminally ill. Using a recently reported case to guide the reader, this paper examines the issue of medical futility from a Buddhist perspective. Important concepts discussed include compassion, suffering, and the significance of the mind. Compassion from a health (...)
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  11. Bjørn Hofmann (2010). Too Much of a Good Thing is Wonderful? A Conceptual Analysis of Excessive Examinations and Diagnostic Futility in Diagnostic Radiology. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (2):139-148.score: 24.0
    It has been argued extensively that diagnostic services are a general good, but that it is offered in excess. So what is the problem? Is not “too much of a good thing wonderful”, to paraphrase Mae West? This article explores such a possibility in the field of radiological services where it is argued that more than 40% of the examinations are excessive. The question of whether radiological examinations are excessive cries for a definition of diagnostic futility. However, no such (...)
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  12. Nancy Jecker (2011). Medical Futility and the Death of a Child. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 8 (2):133-139.score: 22.0
    Our response to death may differ depending on the patient’s age. We may feel that death is a sad, but acceptable event in an elderly patient, yet feel that death in a very young patient is somehow unfair. This paper explores whether there is any ethical basis for our different responses. It examines in particular whether a patient’s age should be relevant to the determination that an intervention is medically futile. It also considers the responsibilities of health professionals and the (...)
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  13. Eleanor Milligan (2011). Same Coin-Different Sides? Futility and Patient Refusal of Treatment. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 8 (2):141-143.score: 21.0
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  14. Geoffrey Miller (2008). Futility by Any Other Name. The Texas 10 Day Rule. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 5 (4):265-270.score: 21.0
    This commentary examines the ethics and law in the United States as they relate to the foregoing of life sustaining treatment when such treatment is deemed medically inappropriate. In particular the article highlights the procedural approach when there is disagreement between physicians and surrogates or patients as exemplified in Texas Law. This approach, although worthy in concept, may in practice invite opposition and dissatisfaction as it may be perceived as coercive and pitting the weak against powerful adversaries and interests, in (...)
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  15. Eric Gampel (2006). Does Professional Autonomy Protect Medical Futility Judgments? Bioethics 20 (2):92-104.score: 21.0
  16. Mary Ann Baily (2011). Futility, Autonomy, and Cost in End-of-Life Care. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (2):172-182.score: 18.0
    This paper uses the controversy over the denial of care on futility grounds as a window into the broader issue of the role of cost in decisions about treatment near the end of life. The focus is on a topic that has not received the attention it deserves: the difference between refusing medical treatment and demanding it. The author discusses health care reform and the ethics of cost control, arguing that we cannot achieve universal access to quality care at (...)
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  17. Sarah Winch & Ian Kerridge (2011). No Chance, No Value, or No Way: Reassessing the Place of Futility in Health Care and Bioethics. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 8 (2):121-122.score: 18.0
    No Chance, No Value, or No Way: Reassessing the Place of Futility in Health Care and Bioethics Content Type Journal Article Pages 121-122 DOI 10.1007/s11673-011-9303-5 Authors Sarah Winch, School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia Ian Kerridge, Centre for Values, Ethics and the Law in Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia Journal Journal of Bioethical Inquiry Online ISSN 1872-4353 Print ISSN 1176-7529 Journal Volume Volume 8 Journal Issue Volume 8, Number 2.
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  18. Wayne Shelton (1998). A Broader Look at Medical Futility. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 19 (4):383-400.score: 18.0
    This paper attempts to provide a descriptive theoretical overview of the medical futility debate. I will first argue that quantitative data cannot alone resolve the medical futility debate. I will then examine two aspects of medical futility, which I call the prospective and immediate, respectively. The first involves making prospective factual and value judgments about the efficacy of proposed medical interventions, while the latter involves making value judgments about ongoing medical conditions where the clinical data are clear. (...)
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  19. S. Moratti (2009). The Development of "Medical Futility": Towards a Procedural Approach Based on the Role of the Medical Profession. Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (6):369-372.score: 18.0
    Over the past 50 years, technical advances have taken place in medicine that have greatly increased the possibilities of life-prolonging intervention. The increased possibilities of intervening have brought along new ethical questions. Not everything that is technically possible is appropriate in a specific case: not everything that could be done should be done. In the 1980s, a new term was coined to indicate a class of inappropriate interventions: “medically futile treatment”. A debate followed, with contributions from the USA and several (...)
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  20. John C. Moskop (1995). From Futility to Triage. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 20 (2):191-205.score: 18.0
    Basic disagreements about what makes human life valuable hinder use of the concept of futility to decide whether it is appropriate to continue life support for one in a permanent state of unconsciousness, or to provide intensive medical care to one in the last stages of a terminal illness (the "paradigm cases"). Triage planning (the process of establishing criteria for health care prioritization) is an attractive alternative framework for addressing the paradigm cases. Triage planning permits society to see the (...)
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  21. Hannah Reese, Celeste Beck & Daniel M. Wegner, Learning the Futility of the Thought Suppression Enterprise in Normal Experience and in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.score: 18.0
    Background:The belief that we can control our thoughts is not inevitably adaptive, particularly when it fuels mental control activities that have ironic unintended consequences. The conviction that the mind can and should be controlled can prompt people to suppress unwanted thoughts, and so can set the stage for the intrusive return of those very thoughts. An important question is whether or not these beliefs about the control of thoughts can be reduced experimentally. One possibility is that behavioral experiments aimed at (...)
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  22. Daniel P. Sulmasy (1997). Futility and the Varieties of Medical Judgment. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 18 (1-2).score: 18.0
    Pellegrino has argued that end-of-life decisions should be based upon the physician's assessment of the effectiveness of the treatment and the patient's assessment of its benefits and burdens. This would seem to imply that conditions for medical futility could be met either if there were a judgment of ineffectiveness, or if the patient were in a state in which he or she were incapable of a subjective judgment of the benefits and burdens of the treatment. I argue that a (...)
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  23. Rosemarie Tong (1995). Towards a Just, Courageous, and Honest Resolution of the Futility Debate. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 20 (2):165-189.score: 18.0
    This essay discusses the history of the "futility debate" and the motives that sometimes prompt health care professionals, health care providers, patients, and surrogates to take different sides in it. Changes in the health care system, financial responsibility shifts, technical medical advances, and medical care rationing are analyzed as contributors to the futility debate. So too are variations in the definition of futility examined as part of the current controversy. The respective attitudes of professionals, providers, patients, and (...)
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  24. Amir Halevy (1995). Is Futility a Futile Concept? Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 20 (2):123-144.score: 18.0
    This paper distinguishes four major types of futility (physiological, imminent demise, lethal condition, and qualitative) that have been advocated in the literature either in a patient dependent or a patient independent fashion. It proposes five criteria (precision, prospective, social acceptability, significant number, and non-agreement) that any definition of futility must satisfy if it is to serve as the basis for unilaterally limiting futile care. It then argues that none of the definitions that have been advocated meet the criteria, (...)
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  25. William H. Bruening (1992). Autonomy and Futility. HEC Forum 4 (5):305-313.score: 18.0
    One of the underlying ethical values of the Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA) is the legal right of patients to decide on their own medical care, i.e., to accept or refuse medical treatment. Yet, there is a growing concern that a patient's legal right to determine medical treatment might result in health care professionals violating their own personal and/or professional ethical values. I shall therefore briefly review the requirements of the PSDA and outline the consequences of this act for a particular (...)
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  26. Alireza Bagheri, Atsushi Asai & Ryuichi Ida (2006). Experts' Attitudes Towards Medical Futility: An Empirical Survey From Japan. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):1-7.score: 18.0
    BackgroundThe current debate about medical futility is mostly driven by theoretical and personal perspectives and there is a lack of empirical data to document experts and public attitudes towards medical futility.MethodsTo examine the attitudes of the Japanese experts in the fields relevant to medical futility a questionnaire survey was conducted among the members of the Japan Association for Bioethics. A total number of 108 questionnaires returned filled in, giving a response rate of 50.9%. Among the respondents 62% (...)
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  27. M. Wreen (2007). Medical Futility and Physician Discretion. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 1 (3):257-267.score: 18.0
    Some patients have no chance of surviving if not treated, but very little chance if treated. A number of medical ethicists and physicians have argued that treatment in such cases is medically futile and a matter of physician discretion. This paper is a critical examination of that position. According to Howard Brody and others, a judgment of medical futility is a purely technical matter, and one which physicians are uniquely qualified to make. Although Brody later retracted these claims, he (...)
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  28. R. J. Jox, A. Schaider, G. Marckmann & G. D. Borasio (2012). Medical Futility at the End of Life: The Perspectives of Intensive Care and Palliative Care Clinicians. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (9):540-545.score: 18.0
    Objectives Medical futility at the end of life is a growing challenge to medicine. The goals of the authors were to elucidate how clinicians define futility, when they perceive life-sustaining treatment (LST) to be futile, how they communicate this situation and why LST is sometimes continued despite being recognised as futile. Methods The authors reviewed ethics case consultation protocols and conducted semi-structured interviews with 18 physicians and 11 nurses from adult intensive and palliative care units at a tertiary (...)
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  29. Thomas Tomlinson (2007). Futility Beyond CPR: The Case of Dialysis. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 19 (1):33-43.score: 18.0
    The modern debate on whether—and why—physicians and hospitals can refuse patient or family demands for treatment on grounds of “futility” will be reaching its 20th anniversary this year (Blackhall, 1987). The early debate focused on the use of CPR, for good historical and clinical reasons, and CPR probably remains the primary target of hospital policy. But the reach of the arguments over futility extends well beyond this context, most vividly illustrated by the case of Helga Wanglie and the (...)
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  30. Dilek Özden, Şerife Karagözoğlu & Gülay Yıldırım (2013). Intensive Care Nurses' Perception of Futility: Job Satisfaction and Burnout Dimensions. Nursing Ethics 20 (4):0969733012466002.score: 18.0
    Suffering repeated experiences of moral distress in intensive care units due to applications of futility reflects on nurses’ patient care negatively, increases their burnout, and reduces their job satisfaction. This study was carried out to investigate the levels of job satisfaction and exhaustion suffered by intensive care nurses and the relationship between them through the futility dimension of the issue. The study included 138 intensive care nurses. The data were obtained with the futility questionnaire developed by the (...)
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  31. W. Harper (1998). The Role of Futility Judgments in Improperly Limiting the Scope of Clinical Research. Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (5):308-313.score: 18.0
    In medical research, the gathering and presenting of data can be limited in accordance with the futility judgments of the researchers. In that case, research results falling below the threshold of what the researchers deem beneficial would not to be reported in detail. As a result, the reported information would tend to be useful only to those who share the valuational assumptions of the researchers. Should this practice become entrenched, it would reduce public confidence in the medical establishment, aggravate (...)
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  32. Joshua Seachris (2011). Death, Futility, and the Proleptic Power of Narrative Ending. Religious Studies 47 (2):141-163.score: 18.0
    Death and futility are among a cluster of themes that closely track discussions of life’s meaning. Moreover, futility is thought to supervene on naturalistic meta-narratives because of how they will end. While the nature of naturalistic meta-narrative endings is part of the explanation for concluding that such meta-narratives are cosmically or deeply futile, this explanation is truncated. I argue that the reason the nature of the ending is thought to be normatively important is first anchored in the fact (...)
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  33. F. A. Carnevale (1998). The Utility of Futility: The Construction of Bioethical Problems. Nursing Ethics 5 (6):509-517.score: 18.0
    The aim of this article is to analyse the contemporary ‘futility discourse’ from a constructivist perspective. I will argue that bioethics discourse typically disregards the con text from which controversies emerge and the processes that inform and constrain such discourse. Constructivists have argued that scientific knowledge is expressive of the dominant paradigm within which a scientific community is working. I will outline an analysis of ‘medical futility’ as a construction of biomedical and bioethical communities (and their respective paradigms). (...)
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  34. Ruth A. Mickelsen, Daniel S. Bernstein, Mary Faith Marshall & Steven H. Miles (2013). The Barnes Case: Taking Difficult Futility Cases Public. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (1):374-378.score: 18.0
    Futility disputes are increasing and courts are slowly abandoning their historical reluctance to engage these contentious issues, particularly when confronted with inappropriate surrogate demands for aggressive treatment. Use of the judicial system to resolve futility disputes inevitably brings media attention and requires clinicians, hospitals, and families to debate these deep moral conflicts in the public eye. A recent case in Minnesota, In re Emergency Guardianship of Albert Barnes, explores this emerging trend and the complex responsibilities of clinicians and (...)
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  35. K. R. Mitchell, I. H. Kerridge & T. J. Lovat (1993). Medical Futility, Treatment Withdrawal and the Persistent Vegetative State. Journal of Medical Ethics 19 (2):71-76.score: 18.0
    Why do we persist in the relentless pursuit of artificial nourishment and other treatments to maintain a permanently unconscious existence? In facing the future, if not the present world-wide reality of a huge number of persistent vegetative state (PVS) patients, will they be treated because of our ethical commitment to their humanity, or because of an ethical paralysis in the face of biotechnical progress? The PVS patient is cut off from the normal patterns of human connection and communication, with a (...)
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  36. R. Halliday (1997). Medical Futility and the Social Context. Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (3):148-153.score: 18.0
    The concept of medical futility has come to be seen in some quarters as a value-neutral trump card when dealing with issues of power and conflicting values in medicine. I argue that this concept is potentially useful, but only in a social context that provides a normative framework for its use. This social context needs to include a broad consensus about the purpose of medicine and the nature of the physician-patient relationship.
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  37. Shan Mohammed & Elizabeth Peter (2009). Rituals, Death and the Moral Practice of Medical Futility. Nursing Ethics 16 (3):292-302.score: 18.0
    Medical futility is often defined as providing inappropriate treatments that will not improve disease prognosis, alleviate physiological symptoms, or prolong survival. This understanding of medical futility is problematic because it rests on the final outcomes of procedures that are narrow and medically defined. In this article, Walker's `expressivecollaborative' model of morality is used to examine how certain critical care interventions that are considered futile actually have broader social functions surrounding death and dying. By examining cardiopulmonary resuscitation and life-sustaining (...)
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  38. B. A. Brody & A. Halevy (1995). Is Futility a Futile Concept? Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 20 (2):123-144.score: 18.0
    This paper distinguishes four major types of futility (physiological, imminent demise, lethal condition, and qualitative) that have been advocated in the literature either in a patient dependent or a patient independent fashion. It proposes five criteria (precision, prospective, social acceptability, significant number, and non-agreement) that any definition of futility must satisfy if it is to serve as the basis for unilaterally limiting futile care. It then argues that none of the definitions that have been advocated meet the criteria, (...)
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  39. Susan Bailey (2004). The Concept of Futility in Health Care Decision Making. Nursing Ethics 11 (1):77-83.score: 18.0
    Life saving or life sustaining treatment may not be instigated in the clinical setting when such treatment is deemed to be futile and therefore not in the patient’s best interests. The concept of futility, however, is related to many assumptions about quality and quantity of life, and may be relied upon in a manner that is ethically unjustifiable. It is argued that the concept of futility will remain of limited practical use in making decisions based on the best (...)
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  40. R. A. Gatter & J. C. Moskop (1995). From Futility to Triage. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 20 (2):191-205.score: 18.0
    Basic disagreements about what makes human life valuable hinder use of the concept of futility to decide whether it is appropriate to continue life support for one in a permanent state of unconsciousness, or to provide intensive medical care to one in the last stages of a terminal illness (the “paradigm cases”). Triage planning (the process of establishing criteria for health care prioritization) is an attractive alternative framework for addressing the paradigm cases. Triage planning permits society to see the (...)
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  41. Howard Brody (1998). Bringing Clarity to the Futility Debate: Don't Use the Wrong Cases. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 7 (03):269-273.score: 18.0
    Among those who criticize the concept of a common refrain is that we really have no idea what futility means. For example, physicians seem to disagree on whether a treatment being futile means that it has a less than 5% chance of working or a 20% chance of working. If the concept is so unclear, then it seems a thin reed upon which to base a momentous ethical decision—namely, that the physician's judgment should be allowed to override the wishes (...)
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  42. Yasuhiro Kadooka, Atsushi Asai & Seiji Bito (2012). Can Physicians' Judgments of Futility Be Accepted by Patients?: A Comparative Survey of Japanese Physicians and Laypeople. BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):7.score: 18.0
    Back groundEmpirical surveys about medical futility are scarce relative to its theoretical assumptions. We aimed to evaluate the difference of attitudes between laypeople and physicians towards the issue.MethodsA questionnaire survey was designed. Japanese laypeople (via Internet) and physicians with various specialties (via paper-and-pencil questionnaire) were asked about whether they would provide potentially futile treatments for end-of-life patients in vignettes, important factors for judging a certain treatment futile, and threshold of quantitative futility which reflects the numerical probability that an (...)
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  43. J. Savulescu (2013). Just Dying: The Futility of Futility. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (9):583-584.score: 16.0
    I argue that Brierley et al are wrong to claim that parents who request futile treatment are acting against the interests of their child. A better ethical ground for withholding or withdrawing life-prolonging treatment is not that it is in the interests of the patient to die, but rather on grounds of the limitation of resources and the requirements of distributive justice. Put simply, not all treatment that might be in a person's interests must ethically be provided.
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  44. Griffin Trotter (1999). Response to “Bringing Clarity to the Futility Debate: Don't Use the Wrong Cases” by Howard Brody and “Commentary: Bringing Clarity to the Futility Debate: Are the Cases Wrong?” by L.J. Schneiderman (CQ Vol 7, No 3). [REVIEW] Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 8 (04):527-537.score: 16.0
    In a recent issue of CambridgeQuarterlyofHealthcareEthics, Howard Brody and Lawrence Schneiderman offer contrasting opinions about how to apply the concept of in medicine. Brody holds that are those in which it is reasonably certain that a given intervention when applied for the purpose of attaining a specific clinical goal. To determine which actions are futile, Brody prescribes a division of labor. Patients (or patient surrogates) are charged with choosing the goals of treatment while physicians are charged with determining whether specific (...)
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  45. Lawrence J. Schneiderman & Alexander Morgan Capron (2000). How Can Hospital Futility Policies Contribute to Establishing Standards of Practice? Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (4):524-531.score: 16.0
    A few years ago a battered infant was admitted to a California hospital. After a period of observation and testing, the physicians concluded that the infant had been beaten so badly that his brain was almost completely destroyed, leaving him permanently unconscious. The hospital had just adopted a policy specifying that life-sustaining treatment for permanent unconsciousness was futile and, therefore, not indicated. According to this policy, after suitable subspecialty consultations and deliberations, including efforts to gain parental agreement and documentation of (...)
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  46. I. M. Balfour-Lynn & R. C. Tasker (1996). At the Coalface--Medical Ethics in Practice. Futility and Death in Paediatric Medical Intensive Care. Journal of Medical Ethics 22 (5):279-281.score: 16.0
    We have conducted a retrospective study of deaths on a paediatric medical intensive care unit over a two-year period and reviewed similar series from outside the UK. There were 89 deaths out of 651 admission (13.7% mortality). In almost two-thirds of the cases death occurred with a decision to limit medical treatment or withdraw mechanical ventilation, implying that additional or further therapy was considered futile. We highlight this as a crucially important issue in the practice of intensive care. More comprehensive (...)
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  47. Robert L. Schwartz (1992). Autonomy, Futility, and the Limits of Medicine. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 1 (02):159-.score: 15.0
  48. M. D. David M. Zientek (2005). The Texas Advance Directives Act of 1999: An Exercise in Futility? HEC Forum 17 (4).score: 15.0
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  49. Nancy S. Jecker & Lawrence J. Schneiderman (1993). Medical Futility: The Duty Not to Treat. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2 (02):151-.score: 15.0
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  50. Nancy S. Jecker (2007). Medical Futility: A Paradigm Analysis. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 19 (1):13-32.score: 15.0
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