This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on how increased expected information affects subjects' choices. We show that Claude Henry's (1974) result (the “Irreversibility Effect”) is strongly supported by our experimental data. According to the Irreversibility Effect a rational (expected utility maximizing) agent who anticipates more information before making his future choices, will take a less irreversible position today. In our experiment, present and future choices are framed respectively as portfolio and investment decisions. The degree of irreversibility (or (...) flexibility) chosen by experimental subjects in response to additional information indicated that subjects react to anticipated information as predicted by theory. (shrink)
Geraldine Brady, "From Peirce to Skolem. A Neglected Chapter in the History of Logic", Studies in the History and Philosophy of Mathematics, vol. 4, Elsevier (imprint: North-Holland), 2000, ISBN-13: 978-0444503343, ISBN-10: 0-444-50334-X, 625~pp.
The study of metaphysical possibility involves two central questions: (i) What are possible worlds? (ii) Is there an empty possible world? In looking at the first question we consider the different accounts of possible worlds-Lewisian realism, ersatzism, etc. In looking at the second question we consider the discussions of metaphysical nihilism, the modal ontological arguments, etc. In this paper I am drawing these two questions together in order to show how the position we hold on one of these issues affects (...) the position we should hold on the other. (shrink)
Among Marxists and Communists, Louis Althusser has long had a reputation for theoreticism and scientism, the factors most often cited to explain the eclipse of his work since the 1960’s. According to the standard account, the distinguishing characteristic and major flaw of his work is that it brings everything back to knowledge. In this essay, I interrogate this understanding of Althusser by reconsidering two cornerstones of Althusserian theory that seem most to exemplify his extreme privileging of epistemology: the symptom and (...) the interpellation theory of ideology. I argue not that taking them to work on the epistemological level is wrong but rather incomplete; there exists a not quite acknowledged beyond of knowledge and interpellation in Althusser, which takes the form of a traumaticnarrative of history, enjoyment, and desire. The production of knowledge in Althusser unfolds as a pathos-laden story, which on one level gestures toward the turbulent world history in which he developed his theory: primarily WW II and the post-war Stalinist revelations, along with the conflicts it provoked in the Communist Party, and the French Communist Party in particular. Although not the subject of extended analysis, these events haunt Althusser’s texts in the form of allusions and the surprisingly violent figurative language with which Althusser discusses theoretical labor. I contend that they call to be analyzed as a kind of return of the repressed, best approached through Slavoj Žižek’s psychoanalytically inflected theory of ideology. (shrink)
Heart and Soul is a collection of essays which examine those concepts and questions which are at the heart of both psychotherapy and philosophy. Topics discussed include the nature of the self, motivation and subjectivity, the limits of certainty and subjectivity in interpersonal situations, and the scope of narrative, dialogue and therapy itself. Looking at the work of key figures such as Wittgenstein, Socrates, Kierkegaard, Foucault, Lacan and Klein, contributors draw on a wide range of philosophical approaches and examine how (...) they can deepen our understanding of the processes involved in different types of psychotherapy in a wide range of clinical settings. Each chapter includes a summary of the implications to clinical practice of the ideas discussed. Contributors: Joady Brennan, John M. Heaton, Jeremy Holmes, Joan Hurd, Paul Sepping, Geraldine Shipton, Paul Sturdee, Digby Tantam, Myra Thomas, Emmy van Deurzen, Werdie van Staaden, John Wheway, and Catherine Wieder. (shrink)
Young French children freely produce subject pronouns by the age of 2. However, by age 2 and a half they fail to interpret 3rd person pronouns in an experimental setting designed to select a referent among three participants (speaker, hearer, and other). No such problems are found with 1st and 2nd person pronouns. We formalize our analysis of these empirical results in terms of direction-sensitive optimizations, showing that uni-directionality of optimization, when combined with non-adult-like constraint rankings, explains the general acquisition (...) pattern of 3rd person pronouns. Building on a specific analysis of assigning 3rd person reference by computing over alternatives (Heim 1991 ), we show that adult interpretation does not require bidirectional OT although it is fully compatible with it. What matters for comprehension in the domain investigated here is constraint ranking. (shrink)
This book is an account of the important influence on the development of mathematical logic of Charles S. Peirce and his student O.H. Mitchell, through the work of Ernst Schroder, Leopold Lowenheim, and Thoralf Skolem. As far as we know, this book is the first work delineating this line of influence on modern mathematical logic.
Older minority Americans experience worse health outcomes than their white counterparts, exhibiting the need for social justice in all areas of their health care. Justice, fairness, and equity are crucial to minimizing conditions that adversely affect the health of individuals and communities. In this paper, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is used as an example of a health care disparity among elderly Americans that requires social justice interventions. Cultural factors play a crucial role in AD screening, diagnosis, and access to care, and (...) are often a barrier to support and equality for minority communities. The “conundrum of health disparities” refers to the interplay between disparity, social justice, and cultural interpretation, and encourages researchers to understand both (1) disparity caused by economic and structural barriers to access, treatment, and diagnosis, and (2) disparity due to cultural interpretation of disease, in order to effectively address health care issues and concerns among elderly Americans. (shrink)
Since 1991, sperm donors in the UK have had the legal right to withdraw consent for the use of their sperm in fertility treatment. This has the potential to adversely affect patients. It may mean that previous recipients of a donor’s sperm cannot have further children who are full biological siblings to an existing child, and that embryos created from the donor’s sperm and a patient’s eggs must be destroyed.
Under current UK law, an embryo cannot be transferred to a woman's uterus without the consent of both of its genetic parents, that is both of the people from whose gametes the embryo was created. This consent can be withdrawn at any time before the embryo transfer procedure. Withdrawal of consent by one genetic parent can result in the other genetic parent losing the opportunity to have their own genetic children. We argue that offering couples only one type of consent (...) agreement, as happens at present, is too restrictive. An alternative form of agreement, in which one genetic parent agrees to forego the right to future withdrawal of consent, should be available alongside the current form of agreement. Giving couples such a choice will better enable them to store embryos under a consent agreement that is appropriate for their circumstances. Allowing such a choice, with robust procedures in place to ensure the validity of consent, is the best way to respect patient autonomy. (shrink)
Sibling socialisation of moral orientation was investigated in 40 dual-parent families with two children, aged 2 and 4 years. Of particular interest were: (a) the prevalence of use of care and justice moral orientations by the children during real-life dilemmas with siblings, (b) the ability of the children to combine both care and justice orientations in resolving the dilemmas, and (c) the presence of sex differences in the use of the two orientations. Data consisted of transcripts of sibling interactions during (...) sibling property disputes. Children's verbal statements to each other were coded for justice and care orientations. Siblings preferred the use of justice orientation when justifying the manner in which disputes should be resolved, a preference that increased with the age of the sibling. Care and justice were at times combined by individual children within disputes, again a finding that increased with the age of the sibling. No sex difference in the use of the two moral orientations was found; both girls and boys preferred justice over care. The implications of these findings for future research are discussed. (shrink)
A printed record of the symposium held in 1971 that was sponsored by the University of California's medical campus in San Francisco and the City and County of San Francisco to examine man's destiny and moral development.
Machine generated contents note: Introduction -- Possible Worlds -- The Subtraction Argument -- The Metaphysics of Subtraction -- World and Object -- Metaphysical Nihilism -- Anti-nihilism -- Conclusion -- Index.
This paper has been explicitly composed for oral presentation: written by ear to be (read as) heard. It stages an experiment/experience ( expérience ) with sound—and in the written text with the “sight” of sound—in order to solicit and engage the becoming sens (e) of sound in the space between resonance and response-ability it seeks to explicate and explore. The presentation begins with the sound of the first few bars of a popular song (whose identity I am withholding in this (...) submission in order to preserve the integrity of the expérience upon which its success depends), which is eventually heard in its entirety and which constitutes the point of departure, reference, and return—of resonance and response-ability—for the composition as a whole. (shrink)
Today, French public debate and bioethics research reflect an ongoing controversy about eugenics. The field of reproductive medicine is often targeted as pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), prenatal diagnosis, and prenatal detection are accused of drifting towards eugenics or being driven by eugenics considerations. This article aims at understanding why the charge against eugenics came at the forefront of the ethical debate. Above all, it aims at showing that the charge against prenatal diagnosis is groundless. The point of view presented in (...) this article has been elaborated jointly by a geneticist and a philosopher. Besides a survey of the medical, bioethical, philosophical and social sciences literature on the topic, the methodology is founded on a joint analysis of geneticist’s various consults. Evidence from office visits demonstrated that prenatal diagnosis leads to case-by-case decisions. As we have suggested, this conclusion does not mean that prenatal diagnosis is devoid of ethical issues, and we have identified at least two. The first is related to the evaluation of a decision to abort. The second line of ethical questions arises from the fact that the claim for “normality” hardly hides normative and ambiguous views about disability. As a conclusion, ethical dilemmas keep being noticeable in the field of reproductive medicine and genetic counselling, but an enquiry about eugenic tendencies probably does not allow us to understand them in the proper way. (shrink)
Using historical data from the Utah Population Database, this analysis finds significant, consistent, but small adverse mortality effects for mothers after age 50 who had mostly sons. Examination of age-dependent effects indicates that this association increases with mother’s age. Additionally, mothers who had mostly daughters faced mortality risks that increased with age. Offspring sex composition did not have a significant effect on paternal mortality. Interaction analyses were conducted to examine the effect of offspring sex composition with regard to historical period, (...) residential location, socioeconomic status, and childhood survival. No other interactions were found to be statistically significant. Having mostly boys remained detrimental to maternal mortality regardless of childhood survival. (shrink)