1. R. J. Jox, A. Schaider, G. Marckmann & G. D. Borasio (2012). Medical Futility at the End of Life: The Perspectives of Intensive Care and Palliative Care Clinicians. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (9):540-545.
    Objectives Medical futility at the end of life is a growing challenge to medicine. The goals of the authors were to elucidate how clinicians define futility, when they perceive life-sustaining treatment (LST) to be futile, how they communicate this situation and why LST is sometimes continued despite being recognised as futile. Methods The authors reviewed ethics case consultation protocols and conducted semi-structured interviews with 18 physicians and 11 nurses from adult intensive and palliative care units at a tertiary hospital in (...)
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  2. K. Kuehlmeyer, G. D. Borasio & R. J. Jox (2012). How Family Caregivers' Medical and Moral Assumptions Influence Decision Making for Patients in the Vegetative State: A Qualitative Interview Study. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (6):332-337.
    Background Decisions on limiting life-sustaining treatment for patients in the vegetative state (VS) are emotionally and morally challenging. In Germany, doctors have to discuss, together with the legal surrogate (often a family member), whether the proposed treatment is in accordance with the patient's will. However, it is unknown whether family members of the patient in the VS actually base their decisions on the patient's wishes. Objective To examine the role of advance directives, orally expressed wishes, or the presumed will of (...)
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  3. U. Wiesing, R. J. Jox, H.-J. Heßler & G. D. Borasio (2010). A New Law on Advance Directives in Germany. Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (12):779-783.
    This article presents the new German law on advance directives from 1 September 2009. The history of the parliamentary process of this law is described, the present regulations are explained, their relevance for medical practice discussed and shortcomings are identified. Finally, the new law is compared with other regulations in the international context. Previously established legal practice in Germany has now become largely confirmed by the new law: An advanced directive must be respected in any decision concerning medical treatment, regardless (...)
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