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Gert Helgesson [25]G. Helgesson [14]
  1. Gert Helgesson (2014). Autonomy, the Right Not to Know, and the Right to Know Personal Research Results: What Rights Are There, and Who Should Decide About Exceptions? Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 42 (1):28-37.
    This paper defends the right not to know personal health information, while it discards the right of research participants to receive individual research results. Disagreement regarding the right not to know stems from two different conceptions of autonomy, leading to opposing normative conclusions. Researchers occasionally have good reason to inform research participants about incidental findings in spite of the absence of a right to know such information. Such decisions have to be made by health care personnel and researchers on a (...)
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  2. Gert Helgesson (2014). Time for a Change in the Understanding of What Constitutes Text Plagiarism? Research Ethics 10 (4):187-195.
    Plagiarism is plaguing research publications in many fields. It is problematic by being misleading about who deserves credit for scientific results, images, text or ideas, by involving scientific fraud and by distorting meta-analyses. However, different research traditions put different emphasis on the originality of text. Traditional rules regarding correct quotation seem to fit the humanities and many social sciences better than the natural and engineering sciences. This article suggests that we should stop applying a common standard regarding plagiarism to all (...)
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  3. Linus Johnsson, Stefan Eriksson, Gert Helgesson & Mats G. Hansson (2014). Making Researchers Moral: Why Trustworthiness Requires More Than Ethics Guidelines and Review. Research Ethics 10 (1):29-46.
    Research ethics, once a platform for declaring intent, discussing moral issues and providing advice and guidance to researchers, has developed over time into an extra-legal regulatory system, complete with steering documents (ethics guidelines), overseeing bodies (research ethics committees) and formal procedures (informed consent). The process of institutionalizing distrust is usually motivated by reference to past atrocities committed in the name of research and the need to secure the trustworthiness of the research system. This article examines some limitations of this approach. (...)
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  4. Linus Johnsson, Gert Helgesson, Mats G. Hansson & Stefan Eriksson (2013). Adequate Trust Avails, Mistaken Trust Matters: On the Moral Responsibility of Doctors as Proxies for Patients' Trust in Biobank Research. Bioethics 27 (9):485-492.
    In Sweden, most patients are recruited into biobank research by non-researcher doctors. Patients' trust in doctors may therefore be important to their willingness to participate. We suggest a model of trust that makes sense of such transitions of trust between domains and distinguishes adequate trust from mistaken trust. The unique position of doctors implies, we argue, a Kantian imperfect duty to compensate for patients' mistaken trust. There are at least three kinds of mistaken trust, each of which requires a different (...)
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  5. Manne Sjöstrand, Stefan Eriksson, Niklas Juth & Gert Helgesson (2013). Paternalism in the Name of Autonomy. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (6):jht049.
    Different ideas of the normative relevance of autonomy can give rise to profoundly different action-guiding principles in healthcare. If autonomy is seen as a value rather than as a right, it can be argued that patients’ decisions should sometimes be overruled in order to protect or promote their own autonomy. We refer to this as paternalism in the name of autonomy. In this paper, we discuss different elements of autonomy (decision-making capacity, efficiency, and authenticity) and arguments in favor of paternalism (...)
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  6. Manne Sjöstrand, Gert Helgesson, Stefan Eriksson & Niklas Juth (2013). Autonomy-Based Arguments Against Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia: A Critique. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (2):225-230.
    Respect for autonomy is typically considered a key reason for allowing physician assisted suicide and euthanasia. However, several recent papers have claimed this to be grounded in a misconception of the normative relevance of autonomy. It has been argued that autonomy is properly conceived of as a value, and that this makes assisted suicide as well as euthanasia wrong, since they destroy the autonomy of the patient. This paper evaluates this line of reasoning by investigating the conception of valuable autonomy. (...)
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  7. Gert Helgesson (2012). In Defense of Broad Consent. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (01):40-50.
    Proper procedures for informed consent are widely recognized as an ethical requirement for biomedical research involving human beings, in particular as a means to respect the autonomy and personal integrity of potential and actual research participants.
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  8. E. Malmqvist, K. Natunen, M. Lehtinen & G. Helgesson (2012). Just Implementation of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (4):247-249.
    Many countries are now implementing human papillomavirus vaccination. There is disagreement about who should receive the vaccine. Some propose vaccinating both boys and girls in order to achieve the largest possible public health impact. Others regard this approach as too costly and claim that only girls should be vaccinated. We question the assumption that decisions about human papillomavirus vaccination policy should rely solely on estimates of overall benefits and costs. There are important social justice aspects that also need to be (...)
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  9. Gert Helgesson & Stefan Eriksson (2011). Does Informed Consent Have an Expiry Date? A Critical Reappraisal of Informed Consent as a Process. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 20 (1):85-92.
    Informed consent is central to modern research ethics. Informed consent procedures have mainly been justified in terms of respect for autonomy, the core idea being that it should be every competent individual’s right to decide for herself whether or not to participate in scientific studies. A number of conditions are normally raised with regard to morally valid informed consent. These include that potential research subjects get adequate information, understand those aspects that are relevant to them, and, based on that information, (...)
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  10. Gert Helgesson & Stefan Eriksson (2011). Four Themes in Recent Swedish Bioethics Debates. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 20 (3):409-417.
    A wide variety of bioethical themes have recently been debated and researched in Sweden, including genetic screening, HPV vaccination strategies, end-of-life care, injustices and priority setting in healthcare, dual-use research, and the never-ending story of scientific fraud. Also, there are some new events related to Swedish biobanking that might be of general interest. Here we will concentrate on four themes: end-of-life care, dual-use research, scientific fraud, and biobanking.
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  11. Gert Helgesson & Stefan Eriksson (2011). The Moral Primacy of the Human Being: A Reply to Parker. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (1):56-57.
    In a previous paper in the Journal of Medical Ethics, the authors argued that the research ethical principle stating that the individual shall have priority over science, found in many guidelines, is utterly unclear and because of this should be explicated or otherwise deleted. In a recent commentary, Parker argued that this leaves us defending a position that would allow totalitarian regimes to pursue glory at the expense of its citizens. The present response addresses this and similar accusations.
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  12. Erik Malmqvist, Gert Helgesson, Johannes Lehtinen, Kari Natunen & Matti Lehtinen (2011). The Ethics of Implementing Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Developed Countries. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (1):19-27.
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the world’s most common sexually transmitted infection. It is a prerequisite for cervical cancer, the second most common cause of death in cancer among women worldwide, and is also believed to cause other anogenital and head and neck cancers. Vaccines that protect against the most common cancer-causing HPV types have recently become available, and different countries have taken different approaches to implementing vaccination. This paper examines the ethics of alternative HPV vaccination strategies. It devotes particular (...)
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  13. Erik Malmqvist, Niklas Juth, Niels Lynöe & Gert Helgesson (2011). Early Stopping of Clinical Trials: Charting the Ethical Terrain. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 21 (1):51-78.
    Randomized and double-blind clinical trials are widely regarded as the most reliable way of studying the effects of medical interventions. According to received wisdom, if a new drug or treatment is to be accepted in clinical practice, its safety and efficacy must first be demonstrated in such trials. For ethical and scientific reasons, it is generally considered necessary to monitor a trial in various ways as it proceeds and to analyze data as they accumulate. Monitoring and interim analyses are often (...)
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  14. G. Helgesson, M. G. Hansson, J. Ludvigsson & U. Swartling (2010). What Parents Find Important When Participating in Longitudinal Studies: Results From a Questionnaire. Clinical Ethics 5 (1):28-34.
    The objective of the present paper is to explore parents' views on safety and confidentiality, information and consent, the importance of different kinds of research, and their responsibilities regarding children's participation. A questionnaire was distributed to 2500 families in south-east Sweden with children born during the years 1997–1999; 1302 responded. The sample was chosen to include views of families with and without earlier research experience. A clear majority of responding parents stated that parents have a moral responsibility to let their (...)
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  15. A. T. Höglund, G. Helgesson & S. Eriksson (2010). Ethical Dilemmas and Ethical Competence in the Daily Work of Research Nurses. Health Care Analysis 18 (3):239-251.
    In spite of the growing interest in nursing ethics, few studies have focused on ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses working with clinical studies as ‘research nurses’. The aim of the present study was to describe and explore ethical dilemmas that Swedish research nurses experience in their day-to-day work. In a qualitative study a purposeful sample of six research nurses from five wards of differing disciplines in four Swedish hospitals was interviewed. The analysis displayed several examples of ethical dilemmas, primarily tensions (...)
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  16. Anna T. Höglund, Stefan Eriksson & Gert Helgesson (2010). The Role of Guidelines in Ethical Competence-Building: Perceptions Among Research Nurses and Physicians. Clinical Ethics 5 (2):95-102.
    The aim of the present study was to describe and explore the perception of ethical guidelines and their role in ethical competence-building among Swedish physicians and research nurses. Twelve informants were interviewed in depth. The results demonstrated that the informants had a critical attitude towards ethical guidelines and claimed to make little use of them in practical moral judgements. Ethical competence was seen primarily as character-building, related to virtues such as being empathic, honest and loyal to patients. Ethical competence was (...)
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  17. Niels Lynöe, Niklas Juth & Gert Helgesson (2010). How to Reveal Disguised Paternalism. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (1):59-65.
    In a Swedish setting physicians are unlikely to give explicitly paternalistic reasons when asked about their attitudes towards patients’ involvement in decision-making. There is considerable risk that they will disguise their paternalism by giving ‘socially correct answers’. We suggest that disguised paternalism can be revealed with the help of indexes based on certain responses in postal questionnaires. The indexes were developed using material from a study examining attitudes of Swedish physicians to physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Apart from being asked about their (...)
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  18. G. Helgesson, A. Lindblad, H. Thulesius & N. Lynoe (2009). Reasoning About Physician-Assisted Suicide: Analysis of Comments by Physicians and the Swedish General Public. Clinical Ethics 4 (1):19-25.
    Two questionnaires directed to Swedish physicians and a sample of the Swedish population investigated attitudes towards physician-assisted suicide (PAS). The aim of the present work was to analyse qualitative data from these questionnaires in order to explore how respondents reason about PAS. Data were analysed in two steps. First, we categorized different kinds of responses and identified pro and con arguments. Second, we identified general conclusions from the responses. The data reflect the differences in attitudes towards PAS among the public (...)
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  19. U. Swartling, G. Helgesson, M. G. Hansson & J. Ludvigsson (2009). Split Views Among Parents Regarding Children's Right to Decide About Participation in Research: A Questionnaire Survey. Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (7):450-455.
    Based on extensive questionnaire data, this paper focuses on parents’ views about children’s right to decide about participation in research. The data originates from 4000 families participating in a longitudinal prospective screening as 1997. Although current regulations and recommendations underline that children should have influence over their participation, many parents in this study disagree. Most (66%) were positive providing information to the child about relevant aspects of the study. However, responding parents were split about whether or not children should at (...)
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  20. M. Wessel, G. Helgesson & N. Lynoe (2009). Experiencing Bad Treatment: Qualitative Study of Patient Complaints Concerning Their Treatment by Public Health-Care Practitioners in the County of Stockholm. Clinical Ethics 4 (4):195-201.
    The aim of this study was to investigate patients' experiences of not being treated well in medical health care in Stockholm County, Sweden. The study was conducted by implementing qualitative content analysis using categorization of empirical material for 2006 and 2007 provided by the Patients' Advisory Committee (Patientnämnden) in Stockholm. Complaints about not being treated well accounted for 13% of all complaints to the Patients' Advisory Committee. A sample of those who complained about their medical treatment shows that about 30% (...)
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  21. Alister Browne, Quentin Eichbaum, Stefan Eriksson, Colin Farrelly, Joel Frader, Matti Häyry & Gert Helgesson (2008). Y. Michael Barilan, MD, is a Physician in the Department of Internal Medicine at Meir Hospital, Tel Aviv, Israel. Michael Boylan, Ph. D., is Professor in the Department of Philosophy, Mary-Mount University, Arlington, Virginia. [REVIEW] Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 17:1-3.
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  22. Carl-Åke Elmersjö & Gert Helgesson (2008). Notions of Just Health Care at Three Swedish Hospitals. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (2):145-151.
    This article investigates what notions of “just health care” are found at three Swedish hospitals among health care personnel and whether these notions are relevant to what priorities are actually made. Fieldwork at all three hospitals and 114 in-depth interviews were conducted. Data have been subject to conceptual and ethical analysis and categorisation. According to our findings, justice is an important idea to health care personnel at the studied hospitals. Two main notions of just health care were found. The main (...)
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  23. G. Helgesson & S. Eriksson (2008). Against the Principle That the Individual Shall Have Priority Over Science. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (1):54-56.
    This paper highlights a feature common to many ethical guidelines—namely, the idea that the interests of the individual shall always prevail over the interests of science and society. The paper presents how some major ethical guidelines treat the balancing of research interests against those of research subjects and spells out the difficulties in interpreting the principle of the primacy of the individual in a way that can be action-guiding. It suggests various alternative interpretations of the primacy of the individual and (...)
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  24. G. Helgesson & N. Lynoe (2008). Should Physicians Fake Diagnoses to Help Their Patients? Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (3):133-136.
    Are fake diagnoses and false or misleading certificates permissible means of helping patients? This question is examined in relation to four examples from Swedish health care: the sterilisation case, the asylum case, the virginity case, and the adoption case.We argue that both consequentialist and deontological ethical theories, to be reasonable, need to balance values, principles, and interests such as wellbeing, truthfulness, autonomy, personal integrity, trust in the medical profession, and abidance by national legislation.We conclude that it can be justifiable for (...)
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  25. G. Helgesson & U. Swartling (2008). Views on Data Use, Confidentiality and Consent in a Predictive Screening Involving Children. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (3):206-209.
    Data from the 5–6 year control questionnaire of the ABIS study, a Swedish prospective screening of children for Type 1 diabetes, indicates a genuine trust in the researchers—very few participating families expressed concern about their participation. Nevertheless, a majority do not want their research data to be used beyond the agreement of the original consent. They want to be asked for renewed consent in such cases. A vast majority also want potential high-risk information about their child to be communicated to (...)
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  26. Manne Sjöstrand & Gert Helgesson (2008). Coercive Treatment and Autonomy in Psychiatry. Bioethics 22 (2):113–120.
  27. U. Swartling & G. Helgesson (2008). Self-Assessed Understanding as a Tool for Evaluating Consent: Reflections on a Longitudinal Study. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (7):557-562.
    Based on extensive clinical questionnaire data, this paper explores the relation between research subjects’ self-assessed understanding and actual knowledge of a large-scale predictive screening study, and its implications for the proper handling of information and consent routines in longitudinal studies. The intitial data show that low self-assessed understanding among participants was correlated with limited knowledge, concern over participation and collected samples, less satisfaction with information, and feeling passive or negative towards the study. Among those reporting high understanding, a non-negligible number (...)
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  28. U. Swartling, G. Helgesson, M. G. Hansson & J. Ludvigsson (2008). Parental Authority, Research Interests and Children's Right to Decide in Medical Research – an Uneasy Tension? Clinical Ethics 3 (2):69-74.
    There is an increased focus on, and evidence of, children's capability to both understand and make decisions about issues relating to participation in medical research. At the same time there are divergent ideas of when, how and to what extent children should be allowed to decide for themselves. Furthermore, little is known about parents' views on these matters, an important issue since they often provide the formal consent. In this questionnaire study of 2500 families in south-east Sweden (with and without (...)
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  29. Ulrica Swartling, Gert Helgesson, Mats G. Hansson & Johnny Ludvigsson (2008). Parental Authority, Research Interests and Children's Right to Decide in Medical Research–an Uneasy Tension? Clinical Ethics 3 (2):69-74.
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  30. S. Eriksson, G. Helgesson & A. T. Höglund (2007). Being, Doing, and Knowing: Developing Ethical Competence in Health Care. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 5 (2-4):207-216.
    There is a growing interest in ethical competence-building within nursing and health care practising. This tendency is accompanied by a remarkable growth of ethical guidelines. Ethical demands have also been laid down in laws. Present-day practitioners and researchers in health care are thereby left in a virtual cross-fire of various legislations, codes, and recommendations, all intended to guide behaviour. The aim of this paper was to investigate the role of ethical guidelines in the process of ethical competence-building within health care (...)
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  31. Stefan Eriksson, Anna T. Höglund & Gert Helgesson (2007). Do Ethical Guidelines Give Guidance? A Critical Examination of Eight Ethics Regulations. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 17 (01):15-29.
    The number of legal and nonlegal ethical regulations in the biomedical field has increased tremendously, leaving present-day practitioners and researchers in a virtual crossfire of legislations and guidelines. Judging by the production and by the way these regulations are motivated and presented, they are held to be of great importance to ethical practice. This view is shared by many commentators. For instance, Commons and Baldwin write that, within the nursing profession, patient care can be performed unethically or ethically depending on (...)
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  32. Malin Masterton, Mats G. Hansson, Anna T. Höglund & Gert Helgesson (2007). Can the Dead Be Brought Into Disrepute? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (2):137-149.
    Queen Christina of Sweden was unconventional in her time, leading to hypotheses on her gender and possible hermaphroditic nature. If genetic analysis can substantiate the latter claim, could this bring the queen into disrepute 300 years after her death? Joan C. Callahan has argued that if a reputation changes, this constitutes a change only in the group of people changing their views and not in the person whose reputation it is. Is this so? This paper analyses what constitutes change and (...)
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  33. Malin Masterton, Gert Helgesson, Anna T. Höglund & Mats G. Hansson (2007). Queen Christina's Moral Claim on the Living: Justification of a Tenacious Moral Intuition. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 10 (3):321-327.
    In the long-running debate on the interest of the dead, Joan C. Callahan argues against such interests and although Søren Holm for practical reasons is prepared to consider posthumous interests, he does not see any moral basis to support such interests. He argues that the whole question is irresolvable, yet finds privacy interests where Tutankhamen is concerned. Callahan argues that there can be reasons to hold on to the fiction that there are posthumous interests, namely if it is comforting for (...)
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  34. Stefan Eriksson, Gert Helgesson & Pär Segerdahl (2006). Provide Expertise or Facilitate Ethical Reflection? A Comment on the Debate Between Cowley and Crosthwaite. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 9 (3):389-392.
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  35. G. Helgesson (2005). How to Handle Informed Consent in Longitudinal Studies When Participants Have a Limited Understanding of the Study. Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (11):670-673.
    Empirical findings from a Swedish longitudinal screening study show that many of the research subjects had a limited understanding of the study. Nevertheless they were satisfied with the understanding they had and found it sufficient for informed continued participation. Were they wrong? In this paper, it is argued that the kind of understanding that is morally required depends partly on the kind of understanding on which the research subjects want to base their decisions, and partly on what kind of knowledge (...)
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  36. Gert Helgesson (2005). Children, Longitudinal Studies, and Informed Consent. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 8 (3):307-313.
  37. Gert Helgesson & Linus Johnsson (2005). The Right to Withdraw Consent to Research on Biobank Samples. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 8 (3):315-321.
  38. S. O. Hansson & G. Helgesson (2003). What is Stability? Synthese 136 (2):219 - 235.
    Although stability is a central notion in several academic disciplines, the parallelsremain unexplored since previous discussions of the concept have been almostexclusively subject-specific. In the literature we have found three basic conceptsof stability, that we call constancy, robustness, and resilience. They are all foundin both the natural and the social sciences. To analyze the three concepts we introducea general formal framework in which stability relates to transitions between states. Itcan then be shown that robustness is a limiting case of resilience, (...)
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  39. Gert Helgesson (2002). What Is Implicit? (¿Qué Está Implícito?). Critica 34 (100):33 - 54.
    This paper briefly surveys previous analyses of implicitness and proposes a new, two-dimensional account. The first dimension concerns whether an assumption follows or not in terms of analytical or contextual implications or because it is a reasonable interpretation. The second dimension concerns the intentions of the author. Both dimensions are needed for identifying implicit assumptions in critical analyses of texts. A definition of clear cases of implicit assumptions is given. /// Este artículo examina brevemente análisis previos sobre lo implícito y (...)
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