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  1.  31 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1983). The Decline of Sparta. Classical Quarterly 33 (02):385-.
    In CQ n.s. 26 . 62–84 I argued that the defeat of Sparta in 371 B.C. was not due to the pursuit of unwise policies towards the other Greek states. Unwise policies there had been. Sparta being by no means superior to Athens in the formulation of foreign policy, but these did not affect the position on the eve of Leuctra when, with Thebes politically isolated, and with some of the Boeotians disaffected, Cieombrotus at the head of a numerically superior (...)
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  2.  22 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1967). G. T. Griffith (Ed.): Alexander the Great: The Main Problems. Pp.Xii+382. Cambridge: Heffer, 1966. Cloth, 45s. Net (Paper, 27s. 6d. Net). [REVIEW] The Classical Review 17 (03):396-397.
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  3.  21 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1993). Sparta and Her Allies in the Sixth Century. Classical Quarterly 43 (02):364-.
    In the first book of his History Thucydides shows ‘the Spartans and the Allies’, to give the Peloponnesian League its formal title, making the decision that Athens had broken the Thirty Years Peace. After receiving the complaints of various allies, the Spartans discussed in the assembly the conduct of Athens and what should be done about it and ended by voting that the treaty had been broken and that the Athenians were in the wrong . This decision they communicated to (...)
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  4.  20 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1995). Early Greek Tyranny and the People. Classical Quarterly 45 (01):73-.
    Over sixty years ago, it was written of early Greek tyranny that it ‘had arisen only in towns where an industrial and commercial regime tended to prevail over rural economy, but where an iron hand was needed to mobilize the masses and to launch them in assault on the privileged classes… But tyranny nowhere endured. After it had performed the services which the popular classes expected of it, after it had powerfully contributed to material prosperity and to the development of (...)
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  5.  17 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1975). The Oath of Plataea Peter Siewert: Der Eid von Plataiai. (Vestigia, 16.) Pp. Xi+118. Munich: Beck, 1972. Cloth, DM.26. The Classical Review 25 (02):263-265.
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  6.  15 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1976). Agesilaus and Sparta. Classical Quarterly 26 (01):62-.
    In 404 Sparta stood supreme, militarily and politically master of Greece, in concord with Persia. By 362, the year at which Xenophon terminated his history on the sad note of ‘even greater confusion and uncertainty’, she was eclipsed militarily, never to win a great battle again; and so far from being master even of the Peloponnese that she would spend the rest of time struggling to recover her own ancestral domain of Messenia, no longer a world power, merely a local (...)
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  7.  11 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1992). Early Colonisation. Classical Quarterly 42 (02):289-.
    It is commonly supposed that in the eighth century B.c. there was a ‘population explosion’ in Greece which moved the Greeks to send out colonies. A. J. Graham in the Cambridge Ancient History iii, 3 is typical: ‘The basic active cause of the colonizing movement was overpopulation’; ‘at the very time when the Archaic colonising movement began, in the second half of the eighth century, there was a marked increase in population in Greece’ . The presumed connection between overpopulation and (...)
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  8.  10 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1960). Alexander's Generalship J. F. C. Fuller: The Generalship of Alexander the Great. Pp. 319; 3 Plates, 21 Maps. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1958. Cloth, 35s. Net. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 10 (01):57-59.
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  9.  9 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1981). The King's Peace. Classical Quarterly 31 (01):69-.
    Nothing about Xenophon's Hellenica is more outrageous than his treatment of the relations of Persia and the Greeks. It was orthodoxy in the circle of Agesilaus that Theban medizing, barbarismos, had sabotaged the plans for a glorious anabasis and recalled him to the defence of his city . Not until the Thebans woo and win the fickle favour of the King , does anything like detail emerge. In the regrettable interlude, the less said the better. If the third speech of (...)
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  10.  9 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1972). Epaminondas and Thebes. Classical Quarterly 22 (02):254-.
    Epaminondas the soldier has been much admired. His two great battles rank as masterpieces of the military art. Epaminondas himself perhaps regarded them as his greatest achievements, to judge by his last words as reported by Diodorus . He had been carried from the battlefield of Mantinea with a spear stuck in his chest. The doctors declared that when the spear was removed he would die. After hearing that his own shield was safe and that the Boeotians had won, he (...)
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  11.  8 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1965). Gaugamela Reconsidered E. W. Marsden: The Campaign of Gaugamela Pp. Xii+80; I Map, I Diagram. Liverpool: University Press, 1964. Cloth, 27s. 6d. Net. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 15 (02):203-205.
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  12.  8 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1984). Athenian Naval Power in The Fourth Century. Classical Quarterly 34 (02):334-.
    The reader of Demosthenes can hardly avoid the impression that there was something sadly awry with the Athenian naval system in the two decades prior to Chaeronea. The war in the north Aegean was essentially a naval war, and Demosthenes frequently enough blamedAthen's failure on her lack of preparation. ‘Why do you think, Athenians,… that all our expeditionary forces are too late for the critical moments?…In the business of the war and the preparation for it everything is in disorder, unreformed, (...)
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  13.  8 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1979). On the Crown H. Wankel: Demosthenes, Rede Für Ktesiphon Über den Kranz. 2 Vols. Pp. 636, 740. Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1976. DM. 325 (Paper, DM. 285). [REVIEW] The Classical Review 29 (02):214-217.
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  14.  8 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1980). Military Logistics Donald W. Engels: Alexander the Great and the Logistics of the Macedonian Army. Pp. Xiv + 194. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1978. £10·50. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 30 (02):244-246.
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  15.  7 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1981). J. B. Wilson: Pylos 425 B.C. A Historical and Topographical Study of Thucydides' Account of the Campaign. Pp. V+147; 4 Maps, 1 Aerial Photo. Warminster, Wilts: Aris and Phillips, 1979. £6.75. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 31 (01):132-.
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  16.  7 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1979). Xenophon's Poroi Philippe Gauthier: Un commentaire historique des Poroi de Xenophon. Pp. xiv + 289. Geneva-Paris; Librairie Droz, 1976. Paper. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 29 (01):17-19.
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  17.  6 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1963). Demosthenes' Policy After The Peace Of Philocrates. I. Classical Quarterly 13 (01):120-.
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  18.  5 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1962). The Defence of Olynthus. Classical Quarterly 12 (01):122-.
    Demosthenes prophesied1 that, unless Athens stopped Philip in the north, she would have to deal with him in Greece itself, and the events of 346 proved him right. Right in this much, he has been presumed right in general, and the policies of those he opposed have received only scant consideration before being dismissed as the selfish pursuit of peace by the rich, who were so blinded by their material interests that they could not see the real issues involved. It (...)
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  19.  5 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1968). The Oxyrhynchus Historian A. F. Bruce: An Historical Commentary on the 'Hellenica Oxyrhynchia'. Pp. Xi + 177. Cambridge: University Press, 1967. Cloth, 30s. Net. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 18 (03):288-290.
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  20.  5 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1978). Wise Before the Event Virginia J. Hunter: Thucydides: The Artful Reporter. Pp. Xi + 210. Toronto: Hakkert, 1973. Cloth. The Classical Review 28 (02):233-234.
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  21.  5 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1979). Phokion Hans-Joachim Gehrke: Phokion. Studien zur Erfassung seiner historischen Gestalt. Pp. viii + 252. Munich: C. H. Beck, 1976. Paper, DM. 53. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 29 (02):270-272.
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  22.  5 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1968). The Oxyrhynchus Historian. The Classical Review 18 (03):288-.
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  23.  5 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1983). Lysander J.-F. Bommelaer: Lysandre de Sparte. Histoire et traditions. (Bibliothèque des Écoles Françaises d'Athènes et de Rome, 240.) Pp. xi + 261; 3 maps. Paris: Boccard, 1981. Paper. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 33 (01):73-75.
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  24.  5 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1963). Eubulus. Journal of Hellenic Studies 83:47.
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  25.  4 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1978). The Peace of Philocrates Again. Classical Quarterly 28 (01):93-.
    In REG 73 and 75 I discussed various points connected with the Peace of Philocrates, a number of which have been assailed by M. M. Markle in CQ N.S. 24 in an article entitled ‘The Strategy of Philip in 346 B.C.’. Time passes, and, although de Ste. Croix in his Origins of the Peloponnesian War , p.105, felt able to declare that ‘a book shortly to be published by M. M. Markle makes a valuable and original contribution to our understanding (...)
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  26.  4 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1969). The Crowning of Demosthenes. Classical Quarterly 19 (01):163-.
    In the course of Demosthenes' lifetime, indeed within a mere decade, the whole balance of power in the Greek world was destroyed. By 338 the city states were completely overshadowed by the national state of Macedon, and it is the concern of all students of Demosthenes to analyse this dramatic change. The task is not easy. The evidence is most unsatisfactory. None of the great historians of the age has survived in other than a few precious fragments, and in the (...)
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  27.  4 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1972). The Sicilian Expedition Peter Green: Armada From Athens. Pp. Xvi+392; 4 Maps. London: Hodder & Stoughton (New York: Doubleday), 1970. Cloth, £3.15 ($7.95). [REVIEW] The Classical Review 22 (02):245-248.
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  28.  4 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1973). The Foundation of the Second Athenian Confederacy. Classical Quarterly 23 (01):47-.
    It is notorious that Xenophon omitted all notice of the foundation of the Second Athenian Confederacy, and alluded to Athens' alliances in the 370s so sparingly that if the Hellenica was the only evidence for the period it would hardly be possible to infer the existence of the Confederacy. All that could be said would be that the raid of Sphodrias so embittered the Athenians that they joined with the Thebans in resisting Sparta , rinding in the course of the (...)
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  29.  4 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1983). Lysander. The Classical Review 33 (01):73-.
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  30.  4 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1977). Chester G. Starr: Political Intelligence in Classical Greece. Pp. Viii + 48. Leiden: Brill, 1974. Paper, Fl. 18. The Classical Review 27 (01):132-133.
  31.  3 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1978). Philip A. Stadter: The Speeches in Thucydides. Pp. Xii + 172. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1974. Cloth, £6·25. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 28 (02):345-346.
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  32.  3 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1980). The Corinthian War Charles D. Hamilton: Sparta's Bitter Victories. Politics and Diplomacy in the Corinthian War. Pp. 346; 2 Maps. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1979. £12·25. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 30 (02):242-244.
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  33.  3 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1965). The Mathematics of Cleisthenes. The Classical Review 15 (02):202-.
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  34.  3 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1960). Franz Hampl: Alexander der Grosse. Pp. 92. Göttingen: Musterschmidt, 1958. Paper, DM. 3.60. The Classical Review 10 (01):80-81.
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  35.  3 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell, J. Day & M. Chambers (1966). Aristotle's History of Athenian Democracy. Journal of Hellenic Studies 86:247.
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  36.  2 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1971). Twelve Characters in Thucydides H. D. Westlake: Individuals in Thucydides. Pp. X+324. Cambridge: University Press, 1968. Cloth, £3·25. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 21 (03):357-359.
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  37.  2 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell & H. Beister (1972). Untersuchungen zu der Zeit der thebanischen Hegemonie. Journal of Hellenic Studies 92:229.
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  38.  2 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1963). Demosthenes' Policy After the Peace of Philocrates. II. Classical Quarterly 13 (02):200-.
    It is perhaps worth briefly discussing a subject on which Demosthenes has so much to say and on which there is so little satisfactory evidence. In every speech which he delivered after 346 he referred, in greater or less detail, to breaches of the Peace of Philocrates, and this insistence on Philip's may mislead us. The case of Cardia is suggestive. In 341, in the speech On the Chersonese, he sought to create the impression that Philip was acting in breach (...)
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  39.  2 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1989). The Greek Historians of the West Lionel Pearson: The Greek Historians of the West. Timaeus and His Predecessors. (Philological Monographs of the American Philological Association, 35.) Pp. Xi + 305. Atlanta, Georgia: Scholars Press, 1987. $41.95 (Members $30), Paper $21.95 (Members $15). [REVIEW] The Classical Review 39 (02):244-245.
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  40.  2 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1961). The Common Peace of 366/5 B.C. Classical Quarterly 11 (1-2):80-.
    Under 336/5 Diodorus records: Of such a Common Peace prompted by Persia Xenophon gives no hint. After recording the failure of the Theban attempt to summon a Congress at Thebes to swear a peace on the basis of the terms negotiated by Pelopidas at Susa, he goes on to record negotiations where by certain allies of Sparta made peace with Thebes, but his account contains no mention of either Persia or Athens. To his narrative the Archidamus of Isocrates seems to (...)
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  41.  1 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell & L. Braccesi (1969). Il problema del decreto di Temistocle. Journal of Hellenic Studies 89:176.
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  42.  1 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1972). Thucydides on the Nature of Power A. Geoffrey Woodhead: Thucydides on the Mature of Power. Pp. Xii+222. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press (London: Oxford University Press), 1970. Cloth, £290. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 22 (02):186-188.
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  43.  1 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1965). The Mathematics of Cleisthenes Pierre Lévêque, Pierre Vidal-Naquet: Clisthéne L' Athénien. (Annales Littéraires de l'Niversité de Besançon 65.) Pp. 163; 14 Figs. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1964. Paper, 20 Fr. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 15 (02):202-203.
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  44.  1 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell, F. Jacoby & H. Bloch (1960). Abhandlungen zur griechischen Geschichtschreibung von Felix Jacoby. Zu seinem achtzigsten Geburtstag am 19 Mars 1956. Journal of Hellenic Studies 80:220.
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  45.  1 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1973). C. Bradford Welles: Alexander and the Hellenistic World. Pp. Xvi+265; 17 Plates, 1 Fig., 3 Maps. Toronto: A. M. Hakkert, 1970. Paper. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 23 (01):103-.
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  46.  1 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1976). The Imperialism of Thrasybulus. Classical Quarterly 26 (02):270-.
    The achievement of Thrasybulus on his last voyage has been variously estimated. Busolt saw no more than a series of strong-arm acts that added up to very little. Beloch spoke of the Second Athenian Empire. For others there were mere renewals of friendship. This note has as its starting-point that Thrasybulus sought to restore the fifth-century empire. If one looks merely at the list of places explicitly mentioned, the sum is not large. Thasos and its peraea, Samothrace and possibly its (...)
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  47.  1 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1978). H. F. Harding: The Speeches of Thucydides. Pp. X + 373. Lawrence, Kansas: Coronado Press, 1973. Paper, $12.5O. The Classical Review 28 (02):346-.
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  48.  1 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell & M. Worrle (1968). Untersuchungen zur Verfassungsgeschichte von Argos im 5. Jahrhundert vor Christus. Journal of Hellenic Studies 88:219.
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  49.  1 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell (1972). Thucydides on the Nature of Power. The Classical Review 22 (02):186-.
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  50.  0 DLs
    G. L. Cawkwell & M. Gigante (1957). La Costituzione degli Ateniesi. Studi sullo pseudo-Senofonte. Journal of Hellenic Studies 77:335.
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