21 found
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Profile: Geoffrey John Newman (Birkbeck College)
Profile: Grace Newman (University of Birmingham)
Profile: Gregory Newman (University of Stirling)
Profile: Gerald Newman
  1. Julian De Freitas, Kevin P. Tobia, George E. Newman & Joshua Knobe (2016). Normative Judgments and Individual Essence. Cognitive Science 40 (1).
    A growing body of research has examined how people judge the persistence of identity over time—that is, how they decide that a particular individual is the same entity from one time to the next. While a great deal of progress has been made in understanding the types of features that people typically consider when making such judgments, to date, existing work has not explored how these judgments may be shaped by normative considerations. The present studies demonstrate that normative beliefs do (...)
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  2.  74
    Joshua Knobe, Sandeep Prasada & George Newman (2013). Dual Character Concepts and the Normative Dimension of Conceptual Representation. Cognition 127 (2):242-257.
    Five experiments provide evidence for a class of ‘dual character concepts.’ Dual character concepts characterize their members in terms of both (a) a set of concrete features and (b) the abstract values that these features serve to realize. As such, these concepts provide two bases for evaluating category members and two different criteria for category membership. Experiment 1 provides support for the notion that dual character concepts have two bases for evaluation. Experiments 2-4 explore the claim that dual character concepts (...)
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  3.  62
    George E. Newman, Julian De Freitas & Joshua Knobe (2015). Beliefs About the True Self Explain Asymmetries Based on Moral Judgment. Cognitive Science 39 (1):96-125.
    Past research has identified a number of asymmetries based on moral judgments. Beliefs about what a person values, whether a person is happy, whether a person has shown weakness of will, and whether a person deserves praise or blame seem to depend critically on whether participants themselves find the agent's behavior to be morally good or bad. To date, however, the origins of these asymmetries remain unknown. The present studies examine whether beliefs about an agent's “true self” explain these observed (...)
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  4.  37
    George E. Newman, Daniel M. Bartels & Rosanna K. Smith (2014). Are Artworks More Like People Than Artifacts? Individual Concepts and Their Extensions. Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (4):647-662.
    This paper examines people's reasoning about identity continuity and its relation to previous research on how people value one-of-a-kind artifacts, such as artwork. We propose that judgments about the continuity of artworks are related to judgments about the continuity of individual persons because art objects are seen as physical extensions of their creators. We report a reanalysis of previous data and the results of two new empirical studies that test this hypothesis. The first study demonstrates that the mere categorization of (...)
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  5.  22
    George E. Newman & Frank C. Keil, Where's the Essence? Developmental Shifts in Children's Beliefs About Internal Features.
    The present studies investigated children’s and adults’ intuitive beliefs about the physical nature of essences. Adults and children (ranging in age from 6 to 10 years old) were asked to reason about two different ways of determining an unknown object’s category: taking a tiny internal sample from any part of the object (distributed view of essence), or taking a sample from one specific region (localized view of essence). Results from three studies indicated that adults strongly endorsed the distributed view, and (...)
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  6.  2
    Nina Strohminger, Joshua Knobe & George Newman (forthcoming). The True Self: A Psychological Concept Distinct From the Self. Perspectives on Psychological Science.
    A long tradition of psychological research has explored the distinction between characteristics that are part of the self and those that lie outside of it. Recently, a surge of research has begun examining a further distinction. Even among characteristics that are internal to the self, people pick out a subset as belonging to the true self. These factors are judged as making people who they really are, deep down. In this paper, we introduce the concept of the true self and (...)
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  7.  3
    George E. Newman & Rosanna K. Smith (2016). Kinds of Authenticity. Philosophy Compass 11 (10):609-618.
    The concept of authenticity plays an important role in how people reason about objects, other people, and themselves. However, despite a great deal of academic interest in this concept, to date, the precise meaning of the term, authenticity, has remained somewhat elusive. This paper reviews the various definitions of authenticity that have been proposed in the literature and identifies areas of convergence. We then outline a novel framework that organizes the existing definitions of authenticity along two key dimensions: describing the (...)
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  8.  1
    T. Andrew Poehlman & George E. Newman (2014). Potential: The Valuation of Imagined Future Achievement. Cognition 130 (1):134-139.
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  9.  22
    George E. Newman, Kristi L. Lockhart & Frank C. Keil (2010). “End-of-Life” Biases in Moral Evaluations of Others. Cognition 115 (2):343-349.
  10. George E. Newman & Paul Bloom (2012). Art and Authenticity: The Importance of Originals in Judgments of Value. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 141 (3):558-569.
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  11.  2
    Lance J. Rips, Sergey Blok & George Newman (2006). Tracing the Identity of Objects. Psychological Review 113 (1):1-30.
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  12.  57
    Geoffrey Newman (1995). Adrian Stokes and Venice. British Journal of Aesthetics 35 (3):254-261.
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  13.  26
    George E. Newman, Sergey V. Blok & Lance J. Rips (2006). Beliefs in Afterlife as a by-Product of Persistence Judgments. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (5):480-481.
    We agree that supernatural beliefs are pervasive. However, we propose a more general account rooted in how people trace ordinary objects over time. Tracking identity involves attending to the causal history of an object, a process that may implicate hidden mechanisms. We discuss experiments in which participants exhibit the same “supernatural” beliefs when reasoning about the fates of cups and automobiles as those exhibited by Bering's participants when reasoning about spirits.
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  14.  4
    Frank C. Keil & George E. Newman (2010). Darwin and Development: Why Ontogeny Does Not Recapitulate Phylogeny for Human Concepts. In Denis Mareschal, Paul Quinn & Stephen E. G. Lea (eds.), The Making of Human Concepts. OUP Oxford 317.
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  15.  4
    George E. Newman (2013). The Duality of Art: Body and Soul. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (2):153 - 153.
    Bullot & Reber (B&R) make a strong case for the role of causal reasoning in the appreciation of artwork. Although I agree that an artistic design stance is important for art appreciation, I suggest that it is a subset of a more general framework for evaluating artworks as the causal extensions of individuals, which includes inferences about the creator's mind, as well as more physical notions of essence.
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  16.  8
    G. Newman (1974). Book Reviews : Epistemics and Economics: A Critique of Economic Doctrines. By G. L. S. SHACKLE. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, I973. Pp. 482. $25.25. [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 4 (3):409-412.
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  17.  1
    Frank C. Keil & George E. Newman (2015). Order, Order Everywhere, and Only an Agent to Think: The Cognitive Compulsion to Infer Intentional Agents. Mind and Language 30 (2):117-139.
    Several studies demonstrate that an intuitive link between agents and order emerges within the first year of life. This appreciation seems importantly related to similar forms of inference, such as the Argument from Design. We suggest, however, that infants and young children may be more accurate in their tendencies to infer agents from order than older children and adults, who often infer intentional agents when there are none. Thus, the earliest inferences about intentional agents based on order may be quite (...)
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  18.  3
    Graeme R. Newman & Ronald V. Clarke (2007). Commentary: The Situational Prevention of Terrorism: Some Ethical Considerations. Criminal Justice Ethics 26 (1):2-66.
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  19. Sergey V. Blok, George E. Newman & Lance J. Rips (2007). Out of Sorts? Some Remedies for Theories of Object Concepts: A Reply to Rhemtulla and Xu. Psychological Review 114 (4):1096-1102.
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  20. Sergey V. Blok, George E. Newman & Lance J. Rips (2007). Postscript: Sorting Out Object Persistence. Psychological Review 114 (4):1103-1104.
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  21. Wayne C. Booth, Dudley Barlow, Orson Scott Card, Anthony Cunningham, John Gardner, Marshall Gregory, John J. Han, Jack Harrell, Richard E. Hart, Barbara A. Heavilin, Marianne Jennings, Charles Johnson, Bernard Malamud, Toni Morrison, Georgia A. Newman, Joyce Carol Oates, Jay Parini, David Parker, James Phelan, Richard A. Posner, Mary R. Reichardt, Nina Rosenstand, Stephen L. Tanner, John Updike, John H. Wallace, Abraham B. Yehoshua & Bruce Young (2005). Ethics, Literature, and Theory: An Introductory Reader. Sheed & Ward.
    Do the rich descriptions and narrative shapings of literature provide a valuable resource for readers, writers, philosophers, and everyday people to imagine and confront the ultimate questions of life? Do the human activities of storytelling and complex moral decision-making have a deep connection? What are the moral responsibilities of the artist, critic, and reader? What can religious perspectives—from Catholic to Protestant to Mormon—contribute to literary criticism? Thirty well known contributors reflect on these questions, including iterary theorists Marshall Gregory, James Phelan, (...)
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