Search results for 'G. Norton' (try it on Scholar)

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Profile: Graham Norton (Cambridge University)
  1. Bryan G. Norton (1977). On the Metatheoretical Nature of Carnap's Philosophy. Philosophy of Science 44 (1):65-85.score: 300.0
    Rudolf Carnap defended two quite different critiques of traditional philosophy: in addition to the much discussed verifiability criterion, he also proposed a critique based upon "formalizability." Formalizability rests upon the principle of tolerance plus an acceptance of a linguistic methodology. Standard interpreters of Carnap (e.g., [7] and [8]) assume that the principle of tolerance (and, hence, formalizability) gains its argumentative support from verificationism. Carnap, in fact, kept the two critiques separate and independent. Indeed, verificationism is even, in spirit, inconsistent with (...)
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  2. Bryan G. Norton (2008). Beyond Positivist Ecology: Toward an Integrated Ecological Ethics. Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (4):581-592.score: 240.0
    A post-positivist understanding of ecological science and the call for an “ecological ethic” indicate the need for a radically new approach to evaluating environmental change. The positivist view of science cannot capture the essence of environmental sciences because the recent work of “reflexive” ecological modelers shows that this requires a reconceptualization of the way in which values and ecological models interact in scientific process. Reflexive modelers are ecological modelers who believe it is appropriate for ecologists to examine the motives for (...)
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  3. Bryan G. Norton (1984). Environmental Ethics and Weak Anthropocentrism. Environmental Ethics 6 (2):131-148.score: 240.0
    The assumption that environmental ethics must be nonanthropocentric in order to be adequate is mistaken. There are two forms of anthropocentrism, weak and strong, and weak anthropocentrism is adequate to support an environmental ethic. Environmental ethics is, however, distinctive vis-a-vis standard British and American ethical systems because, in order to be adequate, it must be nonindividualistic.Environmental ethics involves decisions on two levels, one kind of which differs from usual decisions affecting individual fairness while the other does not. The latter, called (...)
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  4. Kenneth T. Barnes & G. Norton (1977). Ontological Commitment. Philosophia 7 (1):181-196.score: 240.0
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  5. Bryan G. Norton (2007). The Past and Future of Environmental Ethics/Philosophy. Ethics and the Environment 12 (2):134-136.score: 240.0
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  6. Bryan G. Norton (1982). Environmental Ethics and the Rights of Future Generations. Environmental Ethics 4 (4):319-337.score: 240.0
    Do appeals to rights and/or interests of the members of future generations provide an adequate basis for an environmental ethic? Assuming that rights and interests are, semantically, individualistic concepts, I present an argument following Derek Parfit which shows that a policy of depletion may harm no existing individuals, present or future. Although this argument has, initially, an air of paradox, I showthat the argument has two intuitive analogues-the problem ofgenerating a morally justified and environmentally sound population policy and the problem (...)
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  7. Bryan G. Norton & Bruce Hannon (1997). Environmental Values: A Place-Based Approach. Environmental Ethics 19 (3):227-245.score: 240.0
    Several recent authors have recommended that “sense of place” should become an important concept in our evaluation of environmental policies. In this paper, we explore aspects of this concept, arguing that it may provide the basis for a new, “place-based” approach to environmental values. This approach is based on an empirical hypothesis that place orientation is a feature of all people’s experience of their environment. We argue that place orientation requires, in addition to a home perspective, a sense of the (...)
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  8. Bryan G. Norton (2007). A Reply to My Critics. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 20 (4):387-405.score: 240.0
    Critics of my book, Sustainability, have raised many objections which are addressed. In general, I emphasize that the book is an integrative work; it must be long and complex beause it attempts a comprehensive treatment of problems of communication, of evaluation, and of management action in environmental discourse. I explain that I depend upon the pragmatists and on work in the pragmatics of language because the current language of environmental policy discourse is inadequate to allow deliberative processes that can reach (...)
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  9. Bryan G. Norton (1991). Toward Unity Among Environmentalists. Oxford University Press.score: 240.0
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  10. Bryan G. Norton (1995). Why I Am Not a Nonanthropocentrist: Callicott and the Failure of Monistic Inherentism. Environmental Ethics 17 (4):341-358.score: 240.0
    I contrast two roles for environmental philosophers—“applied philosophy” and “practical philosophy”—and show that the strategy of applied philosophy encourages an axiological and monistic approach to theory building. I argue that the mission of applied philosophy, and the monistic theory defended by J. Baird Callicott, in particular, tends to separate philosophers and their problems from real management issues because applied philosophers and moral monists insist that theoretical exploration occurs independent of, and prior to, applications in particular situations. This separation of theory (...)
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  11. Bryan G. Norton (1992). Epistemology and Environmental Values. The Monist 75 (2):208-226.score: 240.0
  12. Bryan G. Norton (1993). Should Environmentalists Be Organicists? Topoi 12 (1):21-30.score: 240.0
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  13. Bryan G. Norton (2012). The Ways of Wickedness: Analyzing Messiness with Messy Tools. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 25 (4):447-465.score: 240.0
    The revelatory paper, “Dilemmas in the General Theory of Planning,” by Rittel and Webber (Policy Sci 4:155–169, 1973 ) has had great impact because it provides one example of an emergent consensus across many disciplines. Many “problems,” as addressed in real-world situations, involve elements that exceed the complexity of any known or hoped-for model, or are “wicked.” Many who encounter this work for the first time find that their concept of wicked problems aptly describes many environmental disputes. For those frustrated (...)
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  14. Bryan G. Norton (1986). Conservation and Preservation. Environmental Ethics 8 (3):195-220.score: 240.0
    Philosophers have paid little attention to the distinction between conservation and preservation, apparently because they have accepted John Passmore’s suggestion that conservationism is an expression of anthropocentric motives and that “true” preservationism is an expression of nonanthropocentric motives. Philosophers have therefore concentrated their efforts on this distinction in motives. This reduction,however, is insensitive to important nuances of environmentalist objectives: there are a wide variety of human reasons for preserving natural ecosystems and wild species. Preservationist policies represent a concem to protect (...)
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  15. Bryan G. Norton (2001). John Foster, Valuing Nature? Economics, Ethics, and the Environment:Valuing Nature? Economics, Ethics, and the Environment. Ethics 111 (3):630-632.score: 240.0
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  16. Bryan G. Norton (1991). Thoreau's Insect Analogies: Or Why Environmentalists Hate Mainstream Economists. Environmental Ethics 13 (3):235-251.score: 240.0
    Thoreau believed that we can learn how to live by observing nature, a view that appeals to modem environmentalists. This doctrine is exemplified in Thoreau’s use of insect analogies to illustrate how humans, like butterflies, can be transformed from the “larval” stage, which relates to the physical world through consumption, to a “perfect” state in which consumption is less important, and in which freedom and contemplation are the ends of life. This transformational idea rests upon a theory of dynamic dualism (...)
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  17. Kenneth S. Friedman, Donald Gotterbarn, M. Glouberman, Bryan G. Norton, David S. Schwarz & Walter P. Van Stigt (1979). Book Reviews. [REVIEW] Philosophia 9 (1):805-813.score: 240.0
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  18. Bryan G. Norton (1994). Economists' Preferences and the Preferences of Economists. Environmental Values 3 (4):311 - 332.score: 240.0
    Economists, who adopt the principle of consumer sovereignty, treat preferences as unquestioned for the purposes of their analysis. They also represent preferences for future outcomes as having value in the present. It is shown that these two characteristics of neoclassical modelling rest on similar reasoning and are essential to achieve high aggregatability of preferences and values. But the meaning and broader implications of these characteristics vary according to the arguments given to support these methodological choices. The resulting ambiguities raise questions (...)
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  19. Bryan G. Norton (2007). Politics and Epistemology: Inclusion and Controversy in Adaptive Management Processes. Environmental Ethics 29 (3):299-306.score: 240.0
    Kevin Elliott has argued that I defend two “conceptions” of adaptive management processes in my book, Sustainability: A Philosophy of Adaptive Ecosystem Management, calling the conceptions “political” and “metaphysical,” respectively. Elliott claims that I must choose between them. Elliott has not sufficiently explained how he proceeds from the claim that I provide two separable arguments for my adaptive management process to his conclusion that I have two conceptions of this process. Once this confusion is clarified, it becomes clear that adapting (...)
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  20. Bryan G. Norton (1980). De Re Modality, Generic Essences, and Science. Philosophia 9 (2):167-186.score: 240.0
    I have taken the traditional problem of the seeming interdependence of identity concepts and essentialistic concepts and the attendant difficulties with circularity as a starting point in my consideration of recent attempts to provide accounts ofde re essences. Having distinguished between theories of individual and generic essences, I have shown how a linguistic device based upon a new approach to referring expressions has, perhaps, provided some advance in the understanding of individualde re essences. I have argued that, however efficacious these (...)
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  21. Bryan G. Norton (1982). Environmental Ethics and Nonhuman Rights. Environmental Ethics 4 (1):17-36.score: 240.0
    If environmentalists are to combat effectively the continuing environmental decay resulting from more and more intense human exploitation of nature, they need a plausible and coherent rationale for preserving sensitive areas and other species. This need is illustrated by reference to two examples of controversies concerning large public projects in wilderness areas. Analyses of costs and benefits to presently existing human beings and the utilitarian theory which supports such theories are inadequate to provide such a rationale, as other writers have (...)
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  22. Bryan G. Norton (1997). Convergence and Contextualism: Some Clarifications and a Reply to Steverson. Environmental Ethics 19 (1):87-100.score: 240.0
    The convergence hypothesis asserts that, if one takes the full range of human values—present and future—into account, one will choose a set of policies that can also be accepted by an advocate of a consistent and reasonable nonanthropocentrism. Brian Steverson has attacked this hypothesis from a surprising direction. He attributes to deep ecologists the position that nonhuman nature has intrinsic value, interprets this position to mean that no species could ever be allowed to go extinct, and proceeds to show that (...)
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  23. Bryan G. Norton (1991). J. Baird Callicott: In Defense of the Land Ethic. Environmental Ethics 13 (2):181-186.score: 240.0
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  24. Bryan G. Norton (1999). Pragmatism, Adaptive Management, and Sustainability. Environmental Values 8 (4):451 - 466.score: 240.0
    The pragmatic conception of truth, anticipated by Henry David Thoreau and developed by C.S. Peirce and subsequent pragmatists, is proposed as a useful analogy for characterising 'sustainability.' Peirce's definitions of 'truth' provides an attractive approach to sustainability because (a) it re-focuses discussions of truth and objectivity from a search for 'correspondence' to an 'external world' (the 'conform' approach) to a more forward-looking ('transform') approach; and (b) it emphasises the crucial role of an evolving, questioning community in the conduct of inquiry. (...)
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  25. Bryan G. Norton (1987). Respect for Nature. Environmental Ethics 9 (3):261-267.score: 240.0
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  26. Bryan G. Norton (2011). What Leopold Learned From Darwin and Hadley: Comment on Callicott Et Al. Environmental Values 20 (1):7 - 16.score: 240.0
    This comment explains why the claims of Callicott et al. in their paper 'Was Aldo Leopold a Pragmatist?' (Environmental Values 18 (2009): 453—486) are incorrect. The arguments they make are shown to be based upon several misunderstandings. In addition, important contributions by Aldo Leopold to the philosophy of conservation are missed.
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  27. Bryan G. Norton (2008). Convergence, Noninstrumental Value and the Semantics of 'Love': Comment on McShane. Environmental Values 17 (1):5 - 14.score: 240.0
    Katie McShane, while accepting my 'convergence hypothesis' (the view that anthropocentrists and nonanthropocentrists will tend to propose similar policies), argues that nonanthropocentrism is nevertheless superior because it allows conservationists to have a deeper emotional commitment to natural objects than can anthropocentrists. I question this reasoning on two bases. First, McShane assumes a philosophically tendentious distinction between intrinsic and instrumental value – a distinction that presupposes a dualistic worldview. Second, I question why McShane believes anthropocentrists – weak anthropocentrists, that is – (...)
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  28. Bryan G. Norton (2013). Environmental Philosophy: A Fresh Perspective. BioScience 63 (5).score: 240.0
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  29. Bryan G. Norton (2013). Environmental Philosophy: From Theory to Practice. BioScience 63 (5):404-405.score: 240.0
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  30. Bryan G. Norton (2006). Seeing Clearly Now. BioScience 56 (7):622-623.score: 240.0
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  31. Christopher M. Raymond, Gerald G. Singh, Karina Benessaiah, Joanna R. Bernhardt, Jordan Levine, Harry Nelson, Nancy J. Turner, Bryan Norton, Jordan Tam & Kai Ma Chan (2013). Ecosystem Services and Beyond. BioScience 63 (7):536-546.score: 240.0
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  32. Bryan G. Norton (1996). Conserving Natural Value. Environmental Ethics 18 (2):209-214.score: 240.0
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  33. Bryan G. Norton (1994). Ecology and Prophecy for the New Millennium. BioScience 44 (1):37-39.score: 240.0
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  34. Bryan G. Norton (1996). Moral Naturalism and Adaptive Management. Hastings Center Report 26 (6):24-26.score: 240.0
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  35. Bryan G. Norton (2005). Price, Principle, and the Environment. Environmental Ethics 27 (3):319-322.score: 240.0
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  36. Bryan G. Norton (2005). Sustainability : A Philosophy of Adaptive Ecosystem Management. University of Chicago Press.score: 240.0
    Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-226-595 19-6 (cloth : alk. paper) . A . 1. Environmental policy. 2. Environmental management — Decision making. 3. Interdisciplinary research. 4. Communication in science. 5. Sustainable ...
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  37. Philip Brey, Lee Caragata, James Dickinson, David Glidden, Sara Gottlieb, Bruce Hannon, Ian Howard, Jeff Malpas, Katya Mandoki, Jonathan Maskit, Bryan G. Norton, Roger Paden, David Roberts, Holmes Rolston Iii, Izhak Schnell, Jonathon M. Smith, David Wasserman & Mick Womersley (1998). Philosophy and Geography Iii: Philosophies of Place. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.score: 240.0
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  38. Wilson Carey McWilliams, Bob Pepperman Taylor, Bryan G. Norton, Robyn Eckersley, Joe Bowersox, J. Baird Callicott, Catriona Sandilands, John Barry, Andrew Light, Peter S. Wenz, Luis A. Vivanco, Tim Hayward, John O'Neill, Robert Paehlke, Timothy W. Luke, Robert Gottlieb & Charles T. Rubin (2002). Democracy and the Claims of Nature: Critical Perspectives for a New Century. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.score: 240.0
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  39. Bryan G. Norton (1985). Agricultural Development and Environmental Policy: Conceptual Issues. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 2 (2):63-70.score: 240.0
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  40. Bryan G. Norton (2009). Convergence and Contextualism: Some Clarifications and a Reply to Steverson. In Ben A. Minteer (ed.), Nature in Common?: Environmental Ethics and the Contested Foundations of Environmental Policy. Temple University Press.score: 240.0
     
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  41. Bryan G. Norton (2009). Convergence and Divergence: The Convergence Hypothesis Twenty Years Later. In Ben A. Minteer (ed.), Nature in Common?: Environmental Ethics and the Contested Foundations of Environmental Policy. Temple University Press.score: 240.0
     
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  42. Bryan G. Norton (2000). Clearing the Way for a Life-Centered Ethic for Business. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics 2:159-165.score: 240.0
    I agree with much of Freeman and Reichart’s paper; so, by way of comment, I will simply supplement his argument in two ways. First, agreeing with their conclusion that we can, and should, re-direct business toward environmental protection without embracing a nonanthropocentric ethic, I will show that the pre-occupation of recent and contemporary environmental ethics with the anthropocentrism/non-anthropocentrism debate is avoidable. It rests on a misinterpretation of possible moral responses to the arrogance with which Western science, technology, and culture has (...)
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  43. Bryan G. Norton (1994). Ecology and Prophecy for the New Millennium Beginning Again: People and Nature in the New Millennium David Ehrenfeld. BioScience 44 (1):37-39.score: 240.0
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  44. Bryan G. Norton (1985). Ecological Ethics and Politics. Environmental Ethics 7 (1):71-74.score: 240.0
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  45. B. G. Norton (1991). Ecosystem Health and Sustainable Resource Management. In Robert Costanza (ed.), Ecological Economics: The Science and Management of Sustainability. Columbia University Press. 23--41.score: 240.0
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  46. Bryan G. Norton (forthcoming). Envircnrr. Or. Iii! Efrics. Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence.score: 240.0
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  47. Bryan G. Norton (2008). "Environmental Values": An Appreciation. [REVIEW] Environmental Values 17 (2):303 - 306.score: 240.0
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  48. Bryan G. Norton & Anne C. Steinemann (2001). Environmental Values and Adaptive Management. Environmental Values 10 (4):473 - 506.score: 240.0
    The trend in environmental management toward more adaptive, community-based, and holistic approaches will require new approaches to environmental valuation. In this paper, we offer a new valuation approach, one that embodies the core principles of adaptive management, which is experimental, multi-scalar, and place-based. In addition, we use hierarchy theory to incorporate spatial and temporal variability of natural systems into a multi-scalar management model. Our approach results in the consideration of multiple values within community-based ecosystem management, rather than an attempt to (...)
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  49. B. G. Norton (1996). Integration or Reduction. In Andrew Light & Eric Katz (eds.), Environmental Pragmatism. Routledge. 105--138.score: 240.0
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  50. Bryan G. Norton (2011). Modeling Sustainability in Economics and Ecology. In Kevin deLaplante, Bryson Brown & Kent A. Peacock (eds.), Philosophy of Ecology. North-Holland. 11--363.score: 240.0
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