110 found
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  1.  33
    Guy Widdershoven, Tineke Abma & Bert Molewijk (2009). Empirical Ethics as Dialogical Practice. Bioethics 23 (4):236-248.
    In this article, we present a dialogical approach to empirical ethics, based upon hermeneutic ethics and responsive evaluation. Hermeneutic ethics regards experience as the concrete source of moral wisdom. In order to gain a good understanding of moral issues, concrete detailed experiences and perspectives need to be exchanged. Within hermeneutic ethics dialogue is seen as a vehicle for moral learning and developing normative conclusions. Dialogue stands for a specific view on moral epistemology and methodological criteria for moral inquiry. Responsive (...)
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  2.  13
    Tineke A. Abma, Bert Molewijk & Guy A. M. Widdershoven (2009). Good Care in Ongoing Dialogue. Improving the Quality of Care Through Moral Deliberation and Responsive Evaluation. Health Care Analysis 17 (3):217-235.
    Recently, moral deliberation within care institutions is gaining more attention in medical ethics. Ongoing dialogues about ethical issues are considered as a vehicle for quality improvement of health care practices. The rise of ethical conversation methods can be understood against the broader development within medical ethics in which interaction and dialogue are seen as alternatives for both theoretical or individual reflection on ethical questions. In other disciplines, intersubjectivity is also seen as a way to handle practical problems, and methodologies (...)
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  3.  2
    A. C. Molewijk, T. Abma, M. Stolper & G. Widdershoven (2008). Teaching Ethics in the Clinic. The Theory and Practice of Moral Case Deliberation. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (2):120-124.
    A traditional approach to teaching medical ethics aims to provide knowledge about ethics. This is in line with an epistemological view on ethics in which moral expertise is assumed to be located in theoretical knowledge and not in the moral experience of healthcare professionals. The aim of this paper is to present an alternative, contextual approach to teaching ethics, which is grounded in a pragmatic-hermeneutical and dialogical ethics. This approach is called moral case deliberation. Within moral case deliberation, healthcare professionals (...)
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  4.  3
    A. C. Molewijk, T. Abma, M. Stolper & G. Widdershoven (2008). Teaching Ethics in the Clinic. The Theory and Practice of Moral Case Deliberation. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (2):120-124.
    A traditional approach to teaching medical ethics aims to provide knowledge about ethics. This is in line with an epistemological view on ethics in which moral expertise is assumed to be located in theoretical knowledge and not in the moral experience of healthcare professionals. The aim of this paper is to present an alternative, contextual approach to teaching ethics, which is grounded in a pragmatic-hermeneutical and dialogical ethics. This approach is called moral case deliberation. Within moral case deliberation, healthcare professionals (...)
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  5.  22
    Guy Widdershoven (ed.) (2008). Empirical Ethics in Psychiatry. Oxford University Press.
    Psychiatry presents a unique array of difficult ethical questions. However, a major challenge is to approach psychiatry in a way that does justice to the real ethical issues. Recently there has been a growing body of research in empirical psychiatric ethics, and an increased interest in how empirical and philosophical methods can be combined. Empirical Ethics in Psychiatry demonstrates how ethics can engage more closely with the reality of psychiatric practice and shows how empirical methodologies from (...)
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  6.  9
    Lieke van Der Scheer & Guy Widdershoven (2004). Integrated Empirical Ethics: Loss of Normativity? [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 7 (1):71-79.
    An important discussion in contemporary ethics concerns the relevance of empirical research for ethics. Specifically, two crucial questions pertain, respectively, to the possibility of inferring normative statements from descriptive statements, and to the danger of a loss of normativity if normative statements should be based on empirical research. Here we take part in the debate and defend integrated empirical ethical research: research in which normative guidelines are established on the basis of empirical research and in which (...)
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  7.  23
    Tineke A. Abma, Vivianne E. Baur, Bert Molewijk & Guy A. M. Widdershoven (2010). Inter-Ethics: Towards an Interactive and Interdependent Bioethics. Bioethics 24 (5):242-255.
    Since its origin bioethics has been a specialized, academic discipline, focussing on moral issues, using a vast set of globalized principles and rational techniques to evaluate and guide healthcare practices. With the emergence of a plural society, the loss of faith in experts and authorities and the decline of overarching grand narratives and shared moralities, a new approach to bioethics is needed. This approach implies a shift from an external critique of practices towards embedded ethics and interactive practice improvement, and (...)
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  8.  14
    L. Dauwerse, T. Abma, B. Molewijk & G. Widdershoven (2011). Need for Ethics Support in Healthcare Institutions: Views of Dutch Board Members and Ethics Support Staff. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (8):456-460.
    Next SectionObjective The purpose of this article is to investigate the need for ethics support in Dutch healthcare institutions in order to understand why ethics support is often not used in practice and which factors are relevant in this context. Methods This study had a mixed methods design integrating quantitative and qualitative research methods. Two survey questionnaires, two focus groups and 17 interviews were conducted among board members and ethics support staff in Dutch healthcare institutions. Findings Most respondents see a (...)
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  9.  11
    F. C. Weidema, A. C. Molewijk, G. A. M. Widdershoven & T. A. Abma (2012). Enacting Ethics: Bottom-Up Involvement in Implementing Moral Case Deliberation. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 20 (1):1-19.
    In moral case deliberation (MCD), healthcare professionals meet to reflect upon their moral questions supported by a structured conversation method and non-directive conversation facilitator. An increasing number of Dutch healthcare institutions work with MCD to (1) deal with moral questions, (2) improve reflection skills, interdisciplinary cooperation and decision-making, and (3) develop policy. Despite positive evaluations of MCD, organization and implementation of MCD appears difficult, depending on individuals or external experts. Studies on MCD implementation processes have not yet been published. (...)
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  10.  1
    S. van der Dam, T. A. Abma, A. C. Molewijk, M. J. M. Kardol, Jmga Schols & G. A. M. Widdershoven (2011). Organizing Moral Case Deliberation Experiences in Two Dutch Nursing Homes. Nursing Ethics 18 (3):327-340.
    Moral case deliberation (MCD) is a specific form of clinical ethics, aiming to stimulate ethical reflection in daily practice in order to improve the quality of care. This article focuses on the implementation of MCD in nursing homes and the questions how and where to organize MCD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate one way of organizing MCD in two Dutch nursing homes. In both of these nursing homes the MCD groups had a heterogeneous composition and were organized (...)
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  11.  7
    Bert Molewijk, Maarten Verkerk, Henk Milius & Guy Widdershoven (2008). Implementing Moral Case Deliberation in a Psychiatric Hospital: Process and Outcome. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (1):43-56.
    Background Clinical moral case deliberation consists of the systematic reflection on a concrete moral case␣by health care professionals. This paper presents the study of a 4-year moral deliberation project.Objectives The objectives of this paper are to: (a) describe the practice and the theoretical background of moral deliberation, (b) describe the moral deliberation project, (c) present the outcomes of␣the evaluation of the moral case deliberation sessions, and (d) present the implementation process.Methods The implementation process is both monitored and (...)
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  12.  3
    Anneke Lucassen, Guy Widdershoven, Suzanne Metselaar, Angela Fenwick & Michael Parker (2014). Genetic Testing of Children: The Need for a Family Perspective. American Journal of Bioethics 14 (3):26-28.
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  13.  30
    Bert Molewijk, Dick Kleinlugtenbelt, Scott Pugh & Guy Widdershoven (2011). Emotions and Clinical Ethics Support. A Moral Inquiry Into Emotions in Moral Case Deliberation. HEC Forum 23 (4):257-268.
    Emotions play an important part in moral life. Within clinical ethics support (CES), one should take into account the crucial role of emotions in moral cases in clinical practice. In this paper, we present an Aristotelian approach to emotions. We argue that CES can help participants deal with emotions by fostering a joint process of investigation of the role of emotions in a case. This investigation goes beyond empathy with and moral judgment of the emotions of the case presenter. (...)
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  14. Guy Widdershoven, John McMillan, Tony Hope & van der Scheer & Lieke (2008). Introduction. In Guy Widdershoven, John McMillan, Tony Hope & Lieke van der Scheer (eds.), Empirical Ethics in Psychiatry. OUP Oxford
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  15.  7
    S. Van der Dam, T. A. Abma, M. J. M. Kardol & G. A. M. Widdershoven (2012). “Here's My Dilemma”. Moral Case Deliberation as a Platform for Discussing Everyday Ethics in Elderly Care. Health Care Analysis 20 (3):250-267.
    Our study presents an overview of the issues that were brought forward by participants of a moral case deliberation (MCD) project in two elderly care organizations. The overview was inductively derived from all case descriptions (N = 202) provided by participants of seven mixed MCD groups, consisting of care providers from various professional backgrounds, from nursing assistant to physician. The MCD groups were part of a larger MCD project within two care institutions (residential homes and nursing homes). Care providers are (...)
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  16.  13
    R. Janssens, J. J. M. van Delden & G. A. M. Widdershoven (2012). Palliative Sedation: Not Just Normal Medical Practice. Ethical Reflections on the Royal Dutch Medical Association's Guideline on Palliative Sedation. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (11):664-668.
    The main premise of the Royal Dutch Medical Association's (RDMA) guideline on palliative sedation is that palliative sedation, contrary to euthanasia, is normal medical practice. Although we do not deny the ethical distinctions between euthanasia and palliative sedation, we will critically analyse the guideline's argumentation strategy with which euthanasia is demarcated from palliative sedation. First, we will analyse the guideline's main premise, which entails that palliative sedation is normal medical treatment. After this, we will critically discuss three crucial propositions of (...)
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  17.  13
    H. M. Buiting, D. J. H. Deeg, D. L. Knol, J. P. Ziegelmann, H. R. W. Pasman, G. A. M. Widdershoven & B. D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen (2012). Older Peoples' Attitudes Towards Euthanasia and an End-of-Life Pill in The Netherlands: 2001-2009. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (5):267-273.
    Introduction With an ageing population, end-of-life care is increasing in importance. The present work investigated characteristics and time trends of older peoples' attitudes towards euthanasia and an end-of-life pill. Methods Three samples aged 64 years or older from the Longitudinal Ageing Study Amsterdam (N=1284 (2001), N=1303 (2005) and N=1245 (2008)) were studied. Respondents were asked whether they could imagine requesting their physician to end their life (euthanasia), or imagine asking for a pill to end their life if they became tired (...)
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  18.  11
    Guy Widdershoven, Bert Molewijk & Tineke Abma (2009). Improving Care and Ethics: A Plea for Interactive Empirical Ethics. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (6):99-101.
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  19.  37
    Bert Molewijk, Dick Kleinlugtenbelt & Guy Widdershoven (2011). The Role of Emotions in Moral Case Deliberation: Theory, Practice, and Methodology. Bioethics 25 (7):383-393.
    In clinical moral decision making, emotions often play an important role. However, many clinical ethicists are ignorant, suspicious or even critical of the role of emotions in making moral decisions and in reflecting on them. This raises practical and theoretical questions about the understanding and use of emotions in clinical ethics support services. This paper presents an Aristotelian view on emotions and describes its application in the practice of moral case deliberation.According to Aristotle, emotions are an original and integral part (...)
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  20.  4
    Froukje C. Weidema, Bert Ac Molewijk, Frans Kamsteeg & Guy Am Widdershoven (2013). Aims and Harvest of Moral Case Deliberation. Nursing Ethics 20 (6):617-631.
    Deliberative ways of dealing with ethical issues in health care are expanding. Moral case deliberation is an example, providing group-wise, structured reflection on dilemmas from practice. Although moral case deliberation is well described in literature, aims and results of moral case deliberation sessions are unknown. This research shows (a) why managers introduce moral case deliberation and (b) what moral case deliberation participants experience as moral case deliberation results. A responsive evaluation was conducted, explicating moral case deliberation experiences by analysing aims (...)
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  21.  26
    Tineke A. Abma, Barth Oeseburg, Guy Am Widdershoven, Minke Goldsteen & Marian A. Verkerk (2005). Two Women with Multiple Sclerosis and Their Caregivers: Conflicting Normative Expectations. Nursing Ethics 12 (5):479-492.
    It is not uncommon that nurses are unable to meet the normative expectations of chronically ill patients. The purpose of this article is to describe and illustrate Walker’s expressive-collaborative view of morality to interpret the normative expectations of two women with multiple sclerosis. Both women present themselves as autonomous persons who make their own choices, but who also have to rely on others for many aspects of their lives, for example, to find a new balance between work and social contacts (...)
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  22.  37
    Jenny Slatman & Guy Widdershoven (2009). Being Whole After Amputation. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (1):48 – 49.
  23.  3
    Suzanne Metselaar, Bert Molewijk & Guy Widdershoven (2015). Beyond Recommendation and Mediation: Moral Case Deliberation as Moral Learning in Dialogue. American Journal of Bioethics 15 (1):50-51.
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  24.  34
    Tineke Abma, Anne Bruijn, Tinie Kardol, Jos Schols & Guy Widdershoven (2012). Responsibilities in Elderly Care: Mr Powell's Narrative of Duty and Relations. Bioethics 26 (1):22-31.
    In Western countries a considerable number of older people move to a residential home when their health declines. Institutionalization often results in increased dependence, inactivity and loss of identity or self-worth (dignity). This raises the moral question as to how older, institutionalized people can remain autonomous as far as continuing to live in line with their own values is concerned. Following Walker's meta-ethical framework on the assignment of responsibilities, we suggest that instead of directing all older people towards more autonomy (...)
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  25.  8
    Tineke Abma & Guy Widdershoven (2014). Dialogical Ethics and Responsive Evaluation as a Framework for Patient Participation. American Journal of Bioethics 14 (6):27-29.
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  26.  4
    M. Plantinga, B. Molewijk, M. de Bree, M. Moraal, M. Verkerk & G. A. M. Widdershoven (2012). Training Healthcare Professionals as Moral Case Deliberation Facilitators: Evaluation of a Dutch Training Programme. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (10):630-635.
    Until recently, moral case deliberation (MCD) sessions have mostly been facilitated by external experts, mainly professional ethicists. We have developed a train the facilitator programme for healthcare professionals aimed at providing them with the competences needed for being an MCD facilitator. In this paper, we present the first results of a study in which we evaluated the programme. We used a mixed methods design. One hundred and twenty trained healthcare professionals and five trainers from 16 training groups working in different (...)
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  27.  7
    Gerben Meynen, Dick F. Swaab & Guy Widdershoven (2012). Nocebo and Informed Consent in the Internet Era. American Journal of Bioethics 12 (3):31-33.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 3, Page 31-33, March 2012.
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  28. Michael Benatar, Leslie Cannold, Dena Davis, Merle Spriggs, Julian Savulescu, Heather Draper, Neil Evans, Richard Hull, Stephen Wilkinson, David Wasserman, Donna Dickenson, Guy Widdershoven, Françoise Baylis, Stephen Coleman, Rosemarie Tong, Hilde Lindemann, David Neil & Alex John London (2006). Cutting to the Core: Exploring the Ethics of Contested Surgeries. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    When the benefits of surgery do not outweigh the harms or where they do not clearly do so, surgical interventions become morally contested. Cutting to the Core examines a number of such surgeries, including infant male circumcision and cutting the genitals of female children, the separation of conjoined twins, surgical sex assignment of intersex children and the surgical re-assignment of transsexuals, limb and face transplantation, cosmetic surgery, and placebo surgery.
     
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  29.  15
    F. C. Weidema, T. A. Abma, G. A. M. Widdershoven & A. C. Molewijk (2011). Client Participation in Moral Case Deliberation: A Precarious Relational Balance. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 23 (3):207-224.
    Moral case deliberation (MCD) is a form of clinical ethics support in which the ethicist as facilitator aims at supporting professionals with a structured moral inquiry into their moral issues from practice. Cases often affect clients, however, their inclusion in MCD is not common. Client participation often raises questions concerning conditions for equal collaboration and good dialogue. Despite these questions, there is little empirical research regarding client participation in clinical ethics support in general and in MCD in particular. This (...)
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  30.  9
    Linda Dauwerse, Froukje Weidema, Tineke Abma, Bert Molewijk & Guy Widdershoven (2014). Implicit and Explicit Clinical Ethics Support in The Netherlands: A Mixed Methods Overview Study. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 26 (2):95-109.
    Internationally, the prevalence of clinical ethics support (CES) in health care has increased over the years. Previous research on CES focused primarily on ethics committees and ethics consultation, mostly within the context of hospital care. The purpose of this article is to investigate the prevalence of different kinds of CES in various Dutch health care domains, including hospital care, mental health care, elderly care and care for people with an intellectual disability. A mixed methods design was used including two survey (...)
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  31.  2
    Elleke Gm Landeweer, Tineke A. Abma & Guy Am Widdershoven (2011). Moral Margins Concerning the Use of Coercion in Psychiatry. Nursing Ethics 18 (3):304-316.
    In the closed wards of mental health institutions, moral decisions are made concerning the use of forced seclusion. In this article we focus on how these moral decisions are made and can be improved. We present a case study concerning moral deliberations on the use of seclusion and its prevention among nurses of a closed mental health ward. Moral psychology provides an explanation of how moral judgments are developed through processes of interaction. We will make use of the Social Intuitionist (...)
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  32.  41
    G. Meynen & G. Widdershoven (2012). Competence in Health Care: An Abilities-Based Versus a Pathology-Based Approach. Clinical Ethics 7 (1):39-44.
    Competence is central to informed consent and, therefore, to medical practice. In this context, competence is regarded as synonymous with decision-making capacity. There is wide consensus that competence should be approached conceptually by identifying the abilities needed for decision-making capacity. Incompetence, then, is understood as a condition in which certain abilities relevant to decision-making capacity are lacking. This approach has been helpful both in theory and practice. There is, however, another approach to incompetence, namely to relate it to mental disorder. (...)
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  33.  21
    Minke Goldsteen, Tineke Abma, Barth Oeseburg, Marian Verkerk, Frans Verhey & Guy Widdershoven (2007). What is It to Be a Daughter? Identities Under Pressure in Dementia Care. Bioethics 21 (1):1–12.
  34.  18
    Donna Dickenson & Guy Widdershoven (2001). Ethical Issues in Limb Transplants. Bioethics 15 (2):110–124.
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  35.  14
    Merel A. Visse, Truus Teunissen, Albert Peters, Guy A. M. Widdershoven & Tineke A. Abma (2010). Dialogue for Air, Air for Dialogue: Towards Shared Responsibilities in COPD Practice. Health Care Analysis 18 (4):358-373.
    For the past several years patients have been expected to play a key role in their recovery. Self management and disease management have reached a hype status. Considering these recent trends what does this mean for the division of responsibilities between doctors and patients? What kind of role should healthcare providers play? With findings based on a qualitative research project of an innovative practice for people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) we reflect on these questions. In-depth interviews conducted with (...)
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  36.  3
    L. Dauwerse, T. A. Abma, B. Molewijk & G. Widdershoven (2013). Goals of Clinical Ethics Support: Perceptions of Dutch Healthcare Institutions. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 21 (4):323-337.
    In previous literature, ethicists mention several goals of Clinical Ethics Support (CES). It is unknown what key persons in healthcare institutions see as main–—and sub-goals of CES. This article presents the goals of CES as perceived by board members and members of ethics support staff. This is part of a Dutch national research using a mixed methods design with questionnaires, focus groups and interviews. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed and combined in an iterative process. Four main clusters of goals (...)
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  37.  2
    Guy A. M. Widdershoven, Andrea Ruissen, Anton J. L. M. van Balkom & Gerben Meynen (forthcoming). Competence in Chronic Mental Illness: The Relevance of Practical Wisdom: Table 1. Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2014-102575.
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  38.  7
    Guy A. M. Widdershoven (2007). How to Combine Hermeneutics and Wide Reflective Equilibrium? Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 10 (1):49-52.
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  39.  17
    Bert Molewijk & Guy A. M. Widdershoven (2012). Don't Solve the Issues! Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (04):448-456.
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  40.  21
    S. Dam, T. A. Abma, M. J. M. Kardol & G. A. M. Widdershoven (2012). “Here's My Dilemma”. Moral Case Deliberation as a Platform for Discussing Everyday Ethics in Elderly Care. Health Care Analysis 20 (3):250-267.
    Our study presents an overview of the issues that were brought forward by participants of a moral case deliberation (MCD) project in two elderly care organizations. The overview was inductively derived from all case descriptions (N = 202) provided by participants of seven mixed MCD groups, consisting of care providers from various professional backgrounds, from nursing assistant to physician. The MCD groups were part of a larger MCD project within two care institutions (residential homes and nursing homes). Care providers are (...)
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  41.  4
    Guy Widdershoven (2005). Interpretation and Dialogue in Hermeneutic Ethics. In Richard E. Ashcroft (ed.), Case Analysis in Clinical Ethics. Cambridge University Press 57--76.
  42.  14
    Merel Visse, Guy A. M. Widdershoven & Tineke A. Abma (2012). Moral Learning in an Integrated Social and Healthcare Service Network. Health Care Analysis 20 (3):281-296.
    The traditional organizational boundaries between healthcare, social work, police and other non-profit organizations are fading and being replaced by new relational patterns among a variety of disciplines. Professionals work from their own history, role, values and relationships. It is often unclear who is responsible for what because this new network structure requires rules and procedures to be re-interpreted and re-negotiated. A new moral climate needs to be developed, particularly in the early stages of integrated services. Who should do what, with (...)
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  43. Bert Molewijk & Guyam Widdershoven (2012). Don't Solve the Issues! Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (4):448.
     
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  44.  12
    Halime Celik, Toine Lagro‐Janssen, Ineke Klinge, Trudy Van Der Weijden & Guy Widdershoven (2009). Maintaining Gender Sensitivity in the Family Practice: Facilitators and Barriers. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):1220-1225.
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  45.  7
    Rouven Porz, Elleke Landeweer & Guy Widdershoven (2011). Theory and Practice of Clinical Ethics Support Services: Narrative and Hermeneutical Perspectives. Bioethics 25 (7):354-360.
    In this paper we introduce narrative and hermeneutical perspectives to clinical ethics support services (CESS). We propose a threefold consideration of ‘theory’ and show how it is interwoven with ‘practice’ as we go along. First, we look at theory in its foundational role: in our case ‘narrative ethics’ and ‘philosophical hermeneutics’ provide a theoretical base for clinical ethics by focusing on human identities entangled in stories and on moral understanding as a dialogical process. Second, we consider the role of theoretical (...)
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  46.  5
    K. Schipper, G. A. M. Widdershoven & T. A. Abma (2011). Citizenship and Autonomy in Acquired Brain Injury. Nursing Ethics 18 (4):526-536.
    In ethical theory, different concepts of autonomy can be distinguished. In this article we explore how these concepts of autonomy are combined in theory in the citizenship paradigm, and how this turns out in the practice of care for people with acquired brain injury. The stories of a professional caregiver and a client with acquired brain injury show that the combination of various concepts of autonomy in practice leads to tensions between caregivers and clients. These dynamics are discussed from a (...)
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  47.  12
    Tineke A. Abma & Guy Am Widdershoven (2006). Moral Deliberation in Psychiatric Nursing Practice. Nursing Ethics 13 (5):546-557.
    Moral deliberation has been receiving more attention in nursing ethics. Several ethical conversation models have been developed. This article explores the feasibility of the so-called CARE (Considerations, Actions, Reasons, Experiences) model as a framework for moral deliberation in psychiatric nursing practice. This model was used in combination with narrative and dialogical approaches to foster discourse between various stakeholders about coercion in a closed admission clinic in a mental hospital in the Netherlands. The findings demonstrate that the CARE model provides a (...)
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  48.  8
    Guy Widdershoven, Annemie Halsema & Jenny Slatman (2010). Sex and Enhancement: A Phenomenological-Existential View. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):20-22.
  49.  1
    Albine Moser, Rob Houtepen, Cor Spreeuwenberg & Guy Widdershoven (2010). Realizing Autonomy in Responsive Relationships. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (3):215-223.
    The goal of this article is to augment the ethical discussion among nurses with the findings from empirical research on autonomy of older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. There are many factors influencing autonomy. These include: health conditions, treatment, knowledge, experience and skills, personal approach as well as familial patterns, type of relationship, life history and social context. Fifteen older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus were interviewed in a nurse-led diabetes clinic. These participants perceive three processes which support (...)
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  50. T. A. Abma, B. Oeseburg, M. Goldsteen, G. A. M. Widdershoven & M. Verkerk (2005). Two Women with Multiple Sclerosis. Conflicting Normative Expectations Between Patients and Their Caregivers. Nursing Ethics 12 (5):479-492.
     
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