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  1. Marije S. Koelewijn-van Loon, Anneke van Dijk-de Vries, Trudy van der Weijden, Glyn Elwyn & Guy Am Widdershoven (forthcoming). Ethical Issues in Cardiovascular Risk Management: Patients Need Nurses' Support. Nursing Ethics.
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  2. A. M. Ruissen, T. A. Abma, A. J. L. M. Van Balkom, G. Meynen & G. A. M. Widdershoven (forthcoming). Moving Perspectives on Patient Competence: A Naturalistic Case Study in Psychiatry. Health Care Analysis:1-15.
    Patient competence, defined as the ability to reason, appreciate, understand, and express a choice is rarely discussed in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and coercive measures are seldom used. Nevertheless, a psychiatrist of psychologist may doubt whether OCD patients who refuse treatment understand their disease and the consequences of not being treated, which could result in tension between respecting the patient’s autonomy and beneficence. The purpose of this article is to develop a notion of competence that is grounded in (...)
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  3. Margreet Stolper, Bert Molewijk & Guy Widdershoven (forthcoming). Learning by Doing. Training Health Care Professionals to Become Facilitator of Moral Case Deliberation. HEC Forum:1-13.
    Moral case deliberation is a dialogue among health care professionals about moral issues in practice. A trained facilitator moderates the dialogue, using a conversation method. Often, the facilitator is an ethicist. However, because of the growing interest in MCD and the need to connect MCD to practice, healthcare professionals should also become facilitators themselves. In order to transfer the facilitating expertise to health care professionals, a training program has been developed. This program enables professionals in health care institutions to acquire (...)
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  4. S. van der Dam, B. Molewijk, G. A. M. Widdershoven & T. A. Abma (forthcoming). Ethics Support in Institutional Elderly Care: A Review of the Literature. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Ethics.
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  5. Yolande Voskes, Martijn Kemper, Elleke Gm Landeweer & Guy Am Widdershoven (forthcoming). Preventing Seclusion in Psychiatry: A Care Ethics Perspective on the First Five Minutes at Admission. Nursing Ethics.
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  6. Guy A. M. Widdershoven & Frank W. S. M. Verheggen (forthcoming). Improving Informed Consent by Implementing Shared Decisionmaking in Health Care. Irb.
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  7. Tineke Abma & Guy Widdershoven (2014). Dialogical Ethics and Responsive Evaluation as a Framework for Patient Participation. American Journal of Bioethics 14 (6):27-29.
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  8. Linda Dauwerse, Froukje Weidema, Tineke Abma, Bert Molewijk & Guy Widdershoven (2014). Implicit and Explicit Clinical Ethics Support in The Netherlands: A Mixed Methods Overview Study. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 26 (2):95-109.
    Internationally, the prevalence of clinical ethics support (CES) in health care has increased over the years. Previous research on CES focused primarily on ethics committees and ethics consultation, mostly within the context of hospital care. The purpose of this article is to investigate the prevalence of different kinds of CES in various Dutch health care domains, including hospital care, mental health care, elderly care and care for people with an intellectual disability. A mixed methods design was used including two survey (...)
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  9. Anneke Lucassen, Guy Widdershoven, Suzanne Metselaar, Angela Fenwick & Michael Parker (2014). Genetic Testing of Children: The Need for a Family Perspective. American Journal of Bioethics 14 (3):26-28.
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  10. Mia Svantesson, Jan Karlsson, Pierre Boitte, Jan Schildman, Linda Dauwerse, Guy Widdershoven, Reidar Pedersen, Martijn Huisman & Bert Molewijk (2014). Outcomes of Moral Case Deliberation - the Development of an Evaluation Instrument for Clinical Ethics Support (the Euro-MCD). BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):30.
    Clinical ethics support, in particular Moral Case Deliberation, aims to support health care providers to manage ethically difficult situations. However, there is a lack of evaluation instruments regarding outcomes of clinical ethics support in general and regarding Moral Case Deliberation (MCD) in particular. There also is a lack of clarity and consensuses regarding which MCD outcomes are beneficial. In addition, MCD outcomes might be context-sensitive. Against this background, there is a need for a standardised but flexible outcome evaluation instrument. The (...)
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  11. L. Dauwerse, T. A. Abma, B. Molewijk & G. Widdershoven (2013). Goals of Clinical Ethics Support: Perceptions of Dutch Healthcare Institutions. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 21 (4):323-337.
    In previous literature, ethicists mention several goals of Clinical Ethics Support (CES). It is unknown what key persons in healthcare institutions see as main–—and sub-goals of CES. This article presents the goals of CES as perceived by board members and members of ethics support staff. This is part of a Dutch national research using a mixed methods design with questionnaires, focus groups and interviews. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed and combined in an iterative process. Four main clusters of goals (...)
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  12. Froukje C. Weidema, Bert Ac Molewijk, Frans Kamsteeg & Guy Am Widdershoven (2013). Aims and Harvest of Moral Case Deliberation. Nursing Ethics 20 (6):617-631.
    Deliberative ways of dealing with ethical issues in health care are expanding. Moral case deliberation is an example, providing group-wise, structured reflection on dilemmas from practice. Although moral case deliberation is well described in literature, aims and results of moral case deliberation sessions are unknown. This research shows (a) why managers introduce moral case deliberation and (b) what moral case deliberation participants experience as moral case deliberation results. A responsive evaluation was conducted, explicating moral case deliberation experiences by analysing aims (...)
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  13. Tineke Abma, Anne Bruijn, Tinie Kardol, Jos Schols & Guy Widdershoven (2012). Responsibilities in Elderly Care: Mr Powell's Narrative of Duty and Relations. Bioethics 26 (1):22-31.
    In Western countries a considerable number of older people move to a residential home when their health declines. Institutionalization often results in increased dependence, inactivity and loss of identity or self-worth (dignity). This raises the moral question as to how older, institutionalized people can remain autonomous as far as continuing to live in line with their own values is concerned. Following Walker's meta-ethical framework on the assignment of responsibilities, we suggest that instead of directing all older people towards more autonomy (...)
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  14. H. M. Buiting, D. J. H. Deeg, D. L. Knol, J. P. Ziegelmann, H. R. W. Pasman, G. A. M. Widdershoven & B. D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen (2012). Older Peoples' Attitudes Towards Euthanasia and an End-of-Life Pill in The Netherlands: 2001-2009. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (5):267-273.
    Introduction With an ageing population, end-of-life care is increasing in importance. The present work investigated characteristics and time trends of older peoples' attitudes towards euthanasia and an end-of-life pill. Methods Three samples aged 64 years or older from the Longitudinal Ageing Study Amsterdam (N=1284 (2001), N=1303 (2005) and N=1245 (2008)) were studied. Respondents were asked whether they could imagine requesting their physician to end their life (euthanasia), or imagine asking for a pill to end their life if they became tired (...)
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  15. S. Dam, T. A. Abma, M. J. M. Kardol & G. A. M. Widdershoven (2012). “Here's My Dilemma”. Moral Case Deliberation as a Platform for Discussing Everyday Ethics in Elderly Care. Health Care Analysis 20 (3):250-267.
    Our study presents an overview of the issues that were brought forward by participants of a moral case deliberation (MCD) project in two elderly care organizations. The overview was inductively derived from all case descriptions (N = 202) provided by participants of seven mixed MCD groups, consisting of care providers from various professional backgrounds, from nursing assistant to physician. The MCD groups were part of a larger MCD project within two care institutions (residential homes and nursing homes). Care providers are (...)
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  16. R. Janssens, J. J. M. van Delden & G. A. M. Widdershoven (2012). Palliative Sedation: Not Just Normal Medical Practice. Ethical Reflections on the Royal Dutch Medical Association's Guideline on Palliative Sedation. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (11):664-668.
    The main premise of the Royal Dutch Medical Association's (RDMA) guideline on palliative sedation is that palliative sedation, contrary to euthanasia, is normal medical practice. Although we do not deny the ethical distinctions between euthanasia and palliative sedation, we will critically analyse the guideline's argumentation strategy with which euthanasia is demarcated from palliative sedation. First, we will analyse the guideline's main premise, which entails that palliative sedation is normal medical treatment. After this, we will critically discuss three crucial propositions of (...)
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  17. G. Meynen & G. Widdershoven (2012). Competence in Health Care: An Abilities-Based Versus a Pathology-Based Approach. Clinical Ethics 7 (1):39-44.
    Competence is central to informed consent and, therefore, to medical practice. In this context, competence is regarded as synonymous with decision-making capacity. There is wide consensus that competence should be approached conceptually by identifying the abilities needed for decision-making capacity. Incompetence, then, is understood as a condition in which certain abilities relevant to decision-making capacity are lacking. This approach has been helpful both in theory and practice. There is, however, another approach to incompetence, namely to relate it to mental disorder. (...)
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  18. Gerben Meynen, Dick F. Swaab & Guy Widdershoven (2012). Nocebo and Informed Consent in the Internet Era. American Journal of Bioethics 12 (3):31-33.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 3, Page 31-33, March 2012.
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  19. Bert Molewijk & Guy A. M. Widdershoven (2012). Don't Solve the Issues! Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (04):448-456.
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  20. Bert Molewijk & Guyam Widdershoven (2012). Don't Solve the Issues! Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (4):448.
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  21. K. Ohnsorge, H. R. G. Keller, G. A. Widdershoven & C. Rehmann-Sutter (2012). 'Ambivalence' at the End of Life: How to Understand Patients' Wishes Ethically. Nursing Ethics 19 (5):629-641.
    Health-care professionals in end-of-life care are frequently confronted with patients who seem to be ‘ambivalent’ about treatment decisions, especially if they express a wish to die. This article investigates this phenomenon by analysing two case stories based on narrative interviews with two patients and their caregivers. First, we argue that a respectful approach to patients requires acknowledging that coexistence of opposing wishes can be part of authentic, multi-layered experiences and moral understandings at the end of life. Second, caregivers need to (...)
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  22. M. Plantinga, B. Molewijk, M. de Bree, M. Moraal, M. Verkerk & G. A. M. Widdershoven (2012). Training Healthcare Professionals as Moral Case Deliberation Facilitators: Evaluation of a Dutch Training Programme. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (10):630-635.
    Until recently, moral case deliberation (MCD) sessions have mostly been facilitated by external experts, mainly professional ethicists. We have developed a train the facilitator programme for healthcare professionals aimed at providing them with the competences needed for being an MCD facilitator. In this paper, we present the first results of a study in which we evaluated the programme. We used a mixed methods design. One hundred and twenty trained healthcare professionals and five trainers from 16 training groups working in different (...)
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  23. S. Van der Dam, T. A. Abma, M. J. M. Kardol & G. A. M. Widdershoven (2012). “Here's My Dilemma”. Moral Case Deliberation as a Platform for Discussing Everyday Ethics in Elderly Care. Health Care Analysis 20 (3):250-267.
    Our study presents an overview of the issues that were brought forward by participants of a moral case deliberation (MCD) project in two elderly care organizations. The overview was inductively derived from all case descriptions (N = 202) provided by participants of seven mixed MCD groups, consisting of care providers from various professional backgrounds, from nursing assistant to physician. The MCD groups were part of a larger MCD project within two care institutions (residential homes and nursing homes). Care providers are (...)
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  24. A. H. G. van Elteren, T. A. Abma & G. A. M. Widdershoven (2012). Empirical Ethics Within Rapidly Changing Practices. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (04):493-504.
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  25. Merel Visse, Guy A. M. Widdershoven & Tineke A. Abma (2012). Moral Learning in an Integrated Social and Healthcare Service Network. Health Care Analysis 20 (3):281-296.
    The traditional organizational boundaries between healthcare, social work, police and other non-profit organizations are fading and being replaced by new relational patterns among a variety of disciplines. Professionals work from their own history, role, values and relationships. It is often unclear who is responsible for what because this new network structure requires rules and procedures to be re-interpreted and re-negotiated. A new moral climate needs to be developed, particularly in the early stages of integrated services. Who should do what, with (...)
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  26. F. C. Weidema, A. C. Molewijk, G. A. M. Widdershoven & T. A. Abma (2012). Enacting Ethics: Bottom-Up Involvement in Implementing Moral Case Deliberation. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 20 (1):1-19.
    In moral case deliberation (MCD), healthcare professionals meet to reflect upon their moral questions supported by a structured conversation method and non-directive conversation facilitator. An increasing number of Dutch healthcare institutions work with MCD to (1) deal with moral questions, (2) improve reflection skills, interdisciplinary cooperation and decision-making, and (3) develop policy. Despite positive evaluations of MCD, organization and implementation of MCD appears difficult, depending on individuals or external experts. Studies on MCD implementation processes have not yet been published. The (...)
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  27. Guy Am Widdershoven (2012). Autonomy, Dialogue, and Practical Rationality. In Lubomira Radoilska (ed.), Autonomy and Mental Disorder. Oxford University Press.
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  28. L. Dauwerse, T. Abma, B. Molewijk & G. Widdershoven (2011). Need for Ethics Support in Healthcare Institutions: Views of Dutch Board Members and Ethics Support Staff. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (8):456-460.
    Next SectionObjective The purpose of this article is to investigate the need for ethics support in Dutch healthcare institutions in order to understand why ethics support is often not used in practice and which factors are relevant in this context. Methods This study had a mixed methods design integrating quantitative and qualitative research methods. Two survey questionnaires, two focus groups and 17 interviews were conducted among board members and ethics support staff in Dutch healthcare institutions. Findings Most respondents see a (...)
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  29. Elleke Gm Landeweer, Tineke A. Abma & Guy Am Widdershoven (2011). Moral Margins Concerning the Use of Coercion in Psychiatry. Nursing Ethics 18 (3):304-316.
    In the closed wards of mental health institutions, moral decisions are made concerning the use of forced seclusion. In this article we focus on how these moral decisions are made and can be improved. We present a case study concerning moral deliberations on the use of seclusion and its prevention among nurses of a closed mental health ward. Moral psychology provides an explanation of how moral judgments are developed through processes of interaction. We will make use of the Social Intuitionist (...)
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  30. Elleke Landeweer, Tineke A. Abma, Linda Dauwerse & Guy A. M. Widdershoven (2011). Triad Collaboration in Psychiatry: Privacy and Confidentiality Revisited. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 4 (1):121-139.
    Recently, there has been increased interest in the involvement of family members in treating psychiatric patients who are involuntarily admitted into mental hospitals (Goodwin and Happel 2006; Wilkinson and McAndrew 2008). Family is, for instance, expected to be of use in preventing escalations and aggression on the wards by giving information about patient needs and providing support to the patient. Yet, in practice, family is not routinely involved in the treatment process, and is not even regularly informed about situations (Marshall (...)
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  31. Bert Molewijk, Dick Kleinlugtenbelt, Scott Pugh & Guy Widdershoven (2011). Emotions and Clinical Ethics Support. A Moral Inquiry Into Emotions in Moral Case Deliberation. HEC Forum 23 (4):257-268.
    Emotions play an important part in moral life. Within clinical ethics support (CES), one should take into account the crucial role of emotions in moral cases in clinical practice. In this paper, we present an Aristotelian approach to emotions. We argue that CES can help participants deal with emotions by fostering a joint process of investigation of the role of emotions in a case. This investigation goes beyond empathy with and moral judgment of the emotions of the case presenter. In (...)
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  32. Bert Molewijk, Dick Kleinlugtenbelt & Guy Widdershoven (2011). The Role of Emotions in Moral Case Deliberation: Theory, Practice, and Methodology. Bioethics 25 (7):383-393.
    In clinical moral decision making, emotions often play an important role. However, many clinical ethicists are ignorant, suspicious or even critical of the role of emotions in making moral decisions and in reflecting on them. This raises practical and theoretical questions about the understanding and use of emotions in clinical ethics support services. This paper presents an Aristotelian view on emotions and describes its application in the practice of moral case deliberation.According to Aristotle, emotions are an original and integral part (...)
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  33. Kathrin Ohnsorge & Guy Widdershoven (2011). Monological Versus Dialogical Consciousness – Two Epistemological Views on the Use of Theory in Clinical Ethical Practice. Bioethics 25 (7):361-369.
    In this article, we argue that a critical examination of epistemological and anthropological presuppositions might lead to a more fruitful use of theory in clinical-ethical practice. We differentiate between two views of conceptualizing ethics, referring to Charles Taylors' two epistemological models: ‘monological’ versus ‘dialogical consciousness’. We show that the conception of ethics in the model of ‘dialogical consciousness’ is radically different from the classical understanding of ethics in the model of ‘monological consciousness’. To reach accountable moral judgments, ethics cannot be (...)
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  34. Rouven Porz, Elleke Landeweer & Guy Widdershoven (2011). Theory and Practice of Clinical Ethics Support Services: Narrative and Hermeneutical Perspectives. Bioethics 25 (7):354-360.
    In this paper we introduce narrative and hermeneutical perspectives to clinical ethics support services (CESS). We propose a threefold consideration of ‘theory’ and show how it is interwoven with ‘practice’ as we go along. First, we look at theory in its foundational role: in our case ‘narrative ethics’ and ‘philosophical hermeneutics’ provide a theoretical base for clinical ethics by focusing on human identities entangled in stories and on moral understanding as a dialogical process. Second, we consider the role of theoretical (...)
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  35. Rouven Porz & Guy Widdershoven (2011). Predictive Testing and Existential Absurdity: Resonances Between Experiences Around Genetic Diagnosis and the Philosophy of Albert Camus. Bioethics 25 (6):342-350.
    Predictive genetic testing may confront those affected with difficult life situations that they have not experienced before. These life situations may be interpreted as ‘absurd’. In this paper we present a case study of a predictive test situation, showing the perspective of a woman going through the process of deciding for or against taking the test, and struggling with feelings of alienation. To interpret her experiences, we refer to the concept of absurdity, developed by the French Philosopher Albert Camus. Camus' (...)
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  36. K. Schipper, G. A. M. Widdershoven & T. A. Abma (2011). Citizenship and Autonomy in Acquired Brain Injury. Nursing Ethics 18 (4):526-536.
    In ethical theory, different concepts of autonomy can be distinguished. In this article we explore how these concepts of autonomy are combined in theory in the citizenship paradigm, and how this turns out in the practice of care for people with acquired brain injury. The stories of a professional caregiver and a client with acquired brain injury show that the combination of various concepts of autonomy in practice leads to tensions between caregivers and clients. These dynamics are discussed from a (...)
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  37. J. Sitvast, G. Widdershoven & T. Abma (2011). Moral Learning in Psychiatric Rehabilitation. Nursing Ethics 18 (4):583-595.
    The purpose of this article is to illustrate moral learning in persons with a psychiatric disability who participated in a nursing intervention, called the photo-instrument. This intervention is a form of hermeneutic photography. The findings are based on a multiple case study of 42 patients and additional interviews with eight of them. Photo groups were organized within three settings of psychiatric services: ambulatory as well as clinical, all situated in the Netherlands. Data were analysed according to hermeneutic and semiotic principles. (...)
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  38. S. van der Dam, T. A. Abma, A. C. Molewijk, M. J. M. Kardol, Jmga Schols & G. A. M. Widdershoven (2011). Organizing Moral Case Deliberation Experiences in Two Dutch Nursing Homes. Nursing Ethics 18 (3):327-340.
    Moral case deliberation (MCD) is a specific form of clinical ethics, aiming to stimulate ethical reflection in daily practice in order to improve the quality of care. This article focuses on the implementation of MCD in nursing homes and the questions how and where to organize MCD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate one way of organizing MCD in two Dutch nursing homes. In both of these nursing homes the MCD groups had a heterogeneous composition and were organized (...)
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  39. F. C. Weidema, T. A. Abma, G. A. M. Widdershoven & A. C. Molewijk (2011). Client Participation in Moral Case Deliberation: A Precarious Relational Balance. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 23 (3):207-224.
    Moral case deliberation (MCD) is a form of clinical ethics support in which the ethicist as facilitator aims at supporting professionals with a structured moral inquiry into their moral issues from practice. Cases often affect clients, however, their inclusion in MCD is not common. Client participation often raises questions concerning conditions for equal collaboration and good dialogue. Despite these questions, there is little empirical research regarding client participation in clinical ethics support in general and in MCD in particular. This article (...)
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  40. Tineke A. Abma, Vivianne E. Baur, Bert Molewijk & Guy A. M. Widdershoven (2010). Inter-Ethics: Towards an Interactive and Interdependent Bioethics. Bioethics 24 (5):242-255.
    Since its origin bioethics has been a specialized, academic discipline, focussing on moral issues, using a vast set of globalized principles and rational techniques to evaluate and guide healthcare practices. With the emergence of a plural society, the loss of faith in experts and authorities and the decline of overarching grand narratives and shared moralities, a new approach to bioethics is needed. This approach implies a shift from an external critique of practices towards embedded ethics and interactive practice improvement, and (...)
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  41. Albine Moser, Rob Houtepen, Cor Spreeuwenberg & Guy Widdershoven (2010). Realizing Autonomy in Responsive Relationships. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (3):215-223.
    The goal of this article is to augment the ethical discussion among nurses with the findings from empirical research on autonomy of older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. There are many factors influencing autonomy. These include: health conditions, treatment, knowledge, experience and skills, personal approach as well as familial patterns, type of relationship, life history and social context. Fifteen older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus were interviewed in a nurse-led diabetes clinic. These participants perceive three processes which support (...)
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  42. Jenny Slatman, Annemie Halsema & Guy Widdershoven (2010). Sex and Enhancement: A Phenomenological-Existential View. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):20-22.
  43. Merel A. Visse, Truus Teunissen, Albert Peters, Guy A. M. Widdershoven & Tineke A. Abma (2010). Dialogue for Air, Air for Dialogue: Towards Shared Responsibilities in COPD Practice. Health Care Analysis 18 (4):358-373.
    For the past several years patients have been expected to play a key role in their recovery. Self management and disease management have reached a hype status. Considering these recent trends what does this mean for the division of responsibilities between doctors and patients? What kind of role should healthcare providers play? With findings based on a qualitative research project of an innovative practice for people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) we reflect on these questions. In-depth interviews conducted with (...)
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  44. Guy Widdershoven, Annemie Halsema & Jenny Slatman (2010). Sex and Enhancement: A Phenomenological-Existential View. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):20-22.
  45. Tineke A. Abma, Bert Molewijk & Guy A. M. Widdershoven (2009). Good Care in Ongoing Dialogue. Improving the Quality of Care Through Moral Deliberation and Responsive Evaluation. Health Care Analysis 17 (3):217-235.
    Recently, moral deliberation within care institutions is gaining more attention in medical ethics. Ongoing dialogues about ethical issues are considered as a vehicle for quality improvement of health care practices. The rise of ethical conversation methods can be understood against the broader development within medical ethics in which interaction and dialogue are seen as alternatives for both theoretical or individual reflection on ethical questions. In other disciplines, intersubjectivity is also seen as a way to handle practical problems, and methodologies have (...)
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  46. Halime Celik, Toine Lagro‐Janssen, Ineke Klinge, Trudy Van Der Weijden & Guy Widdershoven (2009). Maintaining Gender Sensitivity in the Family Practice: Facilitators and Barriers. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):1220-1225.
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  47. Albine Moser, Rob Houtepen, Harry van der Bruggen, Cor Spreeuwenberg & Guy Widdershoven (2009). Autonomous Decision Making and Moral Capacities. Nursing Ethics 16 (2):203-218.
    This article examines how people with type 2 diabetes perceive autonomous decision making and which moral capacities they consider important in diabetes nurses' support of autonomous decision making. Fifteen older adults with type 2 diabetes were interviewed in a nurse-led unit. First, the data were analysed using the grounded theory method. The participants described a variety of decision-making processes in the nurse and family care-giver context. Later, descriptions of the decision-making processes were analysed using hermeneutic text interpretation. We suggest first- (...)
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  48. Jenny Slatman & Guy Widdershoven (2009). Being Whole After Amputation. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (1):48 – 49.
  49. Guy Widdershoven, Tineke Abma & Bert Molewijk (2009). Empirical Ethics as Dialogical Practice. Bioethics 23 (4):236-248.
    In this article, we present a dialogical approach to empirical ethics, based upon hermeneutic ethics and responsive evaluation. Hermeneutic ethics regards experience as the concrete source of moral wisdom. In order to gain a good understanding of moral issues, concrete detailed experiences and perspectives need to be exchanged. Within hermeneutic ethics dialogue is seen as a vehicle for moral learning and developing normative conclusions. Dialogue stands for a specific view on moral epistemology and methodological criteria for moral inquiry. Responsive evaluation (...)
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  50. Guy Widdershoven, Bert Molewijk & Tineke Abma (2009). Improving Care and Ethics: A Plea for Interactive Empirical Ethics. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (6):99-101.
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