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Profile: Gabriel Sandu (University of Helsinki)
  1. Gabriel Sandu, Compositional Ssemantics for If-Languages.
    In order to give a compositional semantics for IF -languages, we shall describe their syntax in a different way. We shall not any longer have quantifiers of the form (∃y/{Q1x1, ..., Qkxk}), (∀y/{Q1x1, ..., Qkxk}), (Qi ∈ {∃, ∀}) but instead (∃xn/{xi1, ..., xim}), (∀xn/{xi1, ..., xim}).
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  2. Gabriel Sandu, Deflationism and Truth.
    There is a line of argument which aims to show that certain ontological claims are harmless by making use of conservativity results. The argument goes back to Hilbert who set its general frame. Hilbert’s concern was with certain abstract (ideal) entities in mathematics but the argument has been applied without discrimination to avoid ontological commitment to abstract entities in physics (Field) or to avoid ontological commitment to semantical properties like truth (Shapiro).
     
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  3. Gabriel Sandu, Games of Imperfect Information and and Modal Logic.
    numbers as in the following example ♦1,1♦1,2 2,3 5,4p We denote the set of formulas of this modal language by M L(k). For each modality type i, there will be an accessibility relation Ri. That is, an k-ary modal structure for the modal propositional language L will have the form..
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  4. Gabriel Sandu, Informational Independent Connectives and Epistemic Logic.
    We fix a family of actions A which represents the set of possible choices of the players in a game. A sequence (a1, ..., an) of actions represents the consecutive choices of the players, ai ∈ A.
     
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  5. Gabriel Sandu, 1 Semantical Games Vs Classical Games.
    We can think of the connectives of propositional logic as having a game-theoretical content. For instance, in order to establish the truth of (ϕ ∨ ψ), one has to be able to choose one of the disjuncts and establish its truth. And the truth of (ϕ ∧ ψ) is established when one is able to establish the truth of any chosen χ ∈ {ϕ, ψ}. These considerations have already a game-theoretical flavour.
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  6. Gabriel Sandu, Truth, Deflationism and Correspondence.
    entities in mathematics There is a line of argument which keeps ontological commitments to the minimum by making use of conservativity results. The argument goes back to Hilbert who set its general frame. Hilbert’s concern was with certain abstract (ideal) entities in mathematics but the argument has been applied without discrimination to avoid ontological commitment to mathematical entities in physics (Field) or to avoid an ontological commitment to substantial properties in the case of truth (Horwich, Field, Williams).
     
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  7. Gabriel Sandu & Merlijn Sevenster (forthcoming). Equilibrium Semantics. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic.
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  8. Ilie Parvu, Gabriel Sandu & Iulian D. Toader (eds.) (2015). Romanian Studies in Philosophy of Science. Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science, Springer.
    This book presents a collection of studies by Romanian philosophers, addressing foundational issues currently debated in contemporary philosophy of science. It offers a historical survey of the tradition of scientific philosophy in Romania. It examines some problems in the foundations of logic, mathematics, linguistics, the natural and social sciences. Among the more specific topics, it discusses scientific explanation, models, and mechanisms, as well as memory, artifacts, and rules of research. The book is useful to those interested in the philosophy of (...)
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  9. Gabriel Sandu (2015). On a Combination of Truth and Probability: Probabilistic Independence-Friendly Logic. In Romanian Studies in Philosophy of Science. Springer International Publishing.
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  10. Gabriel Sandu (2013). Games and Logic. Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 8 (1).
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  11. Gabriel Sandu (2013). Probabilistic IF Logic. In Kamal Lodaya (ed.), Logic and its Applications. Springer. 69--79.
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  12. Julien Boyer & Gabriel Sandu (2012). Between Proof and Truth. Synthese 187 (3):821-832.
    We consider two versions of truth as grounded in verification procedures: Dummett's notion of proof as an effective way to establish the truth of a statement and Hintikka's GTS notion of truth as given by the existence of a winning strategy for the game associated with a statement. Hintikka has argued that the two notions should be effective and that one should thus restrict one's attention to recursive winning strategies. In the context of arithmetic, we show that the two notions (...)
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  13. Julien Boyer & Gabriel Sandu (2012). Erratum To: Between Proof and Truth. Synthese 187 (3):973-974.
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  14. Allen L. Mann, Gabriel Sandu & Merlijn Sevenster (2012). Independence-Friendly Logic: A Game-Theoretic Approach. LMS Lecture Notes, Vol. 386. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 18 (2):272-273.
     
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  15. Gabriel Sandu (2012). Independendly-Friendly Logic: Dependence and Independence of Quantifiers in Logic. Philosophy Compass 7 (10):691-711.
    Independence‐Friendly logic introduced by Hintikka and Sandu studies patterns of dependence and independence of quantifiers which exceed those found in ordinary first‐order logic. The present survey focuses on the game‐theoretical interpretation of IF‐logic, including connections to solution concepts in classical game theory, but we shall also present its compositional interpretation together with its connections to notions of dependence and dependence between terms.
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  16. Gabriel Sandu (2011). Read on the Liar. Discusiones Filosóficas 12 (19):277 - 290.
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  17. Carlo Proietti & Gabriel Sandu (2010). Fitch's Paradox and Ceteris Paribus Modalities. Synthese 173 (1):75 - 87.
    The paper attempts to give a solution to the Fitch’s paradox though the strategy of the reformulation of the paradox in temporal logic, and a notion of knowledge which is a kind of ceteris paribus modality. An analogous solution has been offered in a different context to solve the problem of metaphysical determinism.
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  18. Merlijn Sevenster & Gabriel Sandu (2010). Equilibrium Semantics of Languages of Imperfect Information. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 161 (5):618-631.
    In this paper, we introduce a new approach to independent quantifiers, as originally introduced in Informational independence as a semantic phenomenon by Hintikka and Sandu [9] under the header of independence-friendly languages. Unlike other approaches, which rely heavily on compositional methods, we shall analyze independent quantifiers via equilibriums in strategic games. In this approach, coined equilibrium semantics, the value of an IF sentence on a particular structure is determined by the expected utility of the existential player in any of the (...)
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  19. François Rivenc & Gabriel Sandu (2009). Entre Logique Et Langage. Vrin.
    Linguistique et philosophie logique du langage : deux traditions de pensée que bien des choses opposent. La première est plutôt mentaliste, et orientée vers l’étude de la syntaxe; la seconde, plus préoccupée de sémantique, cherche volontiers le sens dans les conditions de vérité des phrases. Ce portrait n’est pas faux, mais il est incomplet : entre logique et linguistique, les relations n’ont pas été, ne sont pas que d’opposition.Dans cet ouvrage, les auteurs proposent une sorte d’histoire conceptuelle des interactions fécondes (...)
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  20. Gabriel Sandu (2009). Dependence Logic: A New Approach to Independence Friendly Logic – by Jouko Väänänen. Theoria 75 (1):52-64.
  21. Gabriel Sandu (2009). Logic and Semantics in the Twentieth Century. In Leila Haaparanta (ed.), The Development of Modern Logic. Oxford University Press. 562.
    A crucial aspect of the revolution that affected logic at the beginning of the twentieth century concerns the severance of its traditional dependence on the form and structure of natural language. Such a breakdown has had enormous consequences not only for the development of formal logic, but also for the opening of new perspectives in the study of language. This peculiar relationship between mathematical logic and language inquiry is best illustrated by Willard V. O. Quine (1961: 1): Mathematicians expedite their (...)
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  22. Gabriel Sandu (2009). Review. [REVIEW] Theoria 75 (1):52-64.
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  23. Alessandro Lenci & Gabriel Sandu (2008). Logic and Linguistics in the Twentieth Century. In Leila Haaparanta (ed.), The Development of Modern Logic. Oxford University Press.
     
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  24. Gabriel Sandu & Tuomo Aho (2008). Logic and Semantics in the Twentieth Century. In Leila Haaparanta (ed.), The Development of Modern Logic. Oxford University Press. 562.
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  25. Hintikka Jaakko & Gabriel Sandu (2006). What is Logic? In Dale Jacquette (ed.), Philosophy of Logic. North Holland. 13--39.
  26. Gabriel Sandu (2006). Compositional Semantics. Protosociology 23.
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  27. Tapani Hyttinen & Gabriel Sandu (2004). Deflationism and Arithmetical Truth. Dialectica 58 (3):413–426.
  28. Tapani Hyttinen & Gabriel Sandu (2004). Truth and Definite Truth. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 126 (1-3):49-55.
    In this paper we consider truth as a vague predicate and inquire into the relation between truth and definite truth. We use some tools from modal logic to clarify this distinction, as done in McGee . Finally, we consider the question whether some of the results given by McGee can be transferred to the case in which the underlying logic is stronger than first-order logic. The result will be seen to be negative.
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  29. Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen & Gabriel Sandu (2004). If Logic, Game-Theoretical Semantics, and the Philosophy of Science. In S. Rahman J. Symons (ed.), Logic, Epistemology, and the Unity of Science. Kluwer Academic Publisher. 105--138.
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  30. Juliette Kennedy & Gabriel Sandu (2003). History of Logic. Synthese 137:459-460.
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  31. Juliette Kennedy & Gabriel Sandu (2003). Introduction. Synthese 137 (1-2):1-1.
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  32. Gabriel Sandu (2001). Signalling in Languages with Imperfect Information. Synthese 127 (1-2):21 - 34.
    This paper is a short survey of different languageswith imperfect information introduced in (Hintikka and Sandu 1989).The imperfect information concerns both quantifiers and connectives.At the end, I will sketch a connection between these languages and linearlogic.
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  33. Gabriel Sandu & Jaakko Hintikka (2001). Aspects of Compositionality. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10 (1):49-61.
    We introduce several senses of the principle ofcompositionality. We illustrate the difference between them with thehelp of some recent results obtained by Cameron and Hodges oncompositional semantics for languages of imperfect information.
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  34. Gabriel Sandu & Tapani Hyttinen (2001). IF Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics. Synthese 126 (1-2):37 - 47.
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  35. Tapani Hyttinen & Gabriel Sandu (2000). Henkin Quantifiers and the Definability of Truth. Journal of Philosophical Logic 29 (5):507-527.
    Henkin quantifiers have been introduced in Henkin (1961). Walkoe (1970) studied basic model-theoretical properties of an extension $L_{*}^{1}$ (H) of ordinary first-order languages in which every sentence is a first-order sentence prefixed with a Henkin quantifier. In this paper we consider a generalization of Walkoe's languages: we close $L_{*}^{1}$ (H) with respect to Boolean operations, and obtain the language L¹(H). At the next level, we consider an extension $L_{*}^{2}$ (H) of L¹(H) in which every sentence is an L¹(H)-sentence prefixed with (...)
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  36. Gabriel Sandu (2000). Minimalism and the Definability of Truth. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2000:143-153.
    In this paper I am going to inquire to what extent the main requirements of a minimalist theory of truth and falsity (as formulated, for example, by Horwich and Field) can be consistently implemented in a formal theory. I will discuss several of the existing logical theories of truth, including Tarski-type (un)definability results, Kripke’s partial interpretation of truth and falsity, Barwise and Moss’ theory based upon non-well-founded sets, McGee’s treatment of truth as a vague predicate, and Hintikka’s languages of imperfect (...)
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  37. Jaakko Hintikka & Gabriel Sandu (1999). Tarski’s Guilty Secret: Compositionality. Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 6:217-230.
    Tarski has exerted enormous influence not only on the development of mathematical logic, but on twentieth-century philosophy and philosophical analysis. This influence has been twofold, with the two components pulling in a sense in opposite directions. A comparison with the influence of the Vienna Circle provides an instructive vantage point in viewing Tarski’s influence. On the one hand, Tarski has provided powerful tools for logical analysis in philosophy. His first and most important contribution was to show that — and how (...)
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  38. Ahti Pietarinen & Gabriel Sandu (1999). Games in Philosophical Logic. Nordic Journal of Philosophical Logic 4:143-174.
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  39. Gabriel Sandu (1998). If-Logic and Truth-Definition. Journal of Philosophical Logic 27 (2):143-164.
    In this paper we show that first-order languages extended with partially ordered connectives and partially ordered quantifiers define, under a certain interpretation, their own truth-predicate. The interpretation in question is in terms of games of imperfect information. This result is compared with those of Kripke and Feferman.
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  40. Gabriel Sandu (1998). Partially Interpreted Relations and Partially Interpreted Quantifiers. Journal of Philosophical Logic 27 (6):587-601.
    Logics in which a relation R is semantically incomplete in a particular universe E, i.e. the union of the extension of R with its anti-extension does not exhaust the whole universe E, have been studied quite extensively in the last years. (Cf. van Benthem (1985), Blamey (1986), and Langholm (1988), for partial predicate logic; Muskens (1996), for the applications of partial predicates to formal semantics, and Doherty (1996) for applications to modal logic.) This is not so with semantically incomplete generalized (...)
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  41. Gabriel Sandu (1997). IF First-Order Logic and Truth-Definitions. Journal of Philosophical Logic 26.
     
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  42. Gabriel Sandu (1997). On the Theory of Anaphora: Dynamic Predicate Logic Vs. Game-Theoretical Semantics. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 20 (2):147-174.
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  43. Jaakko Hintikka & Gabriel Sandu (1996). A Revolution In Logic? Nordic Journal of Philosophical Logic 1:169-183.
     
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  44. Lauri Hella & Gabriel Sandu (1995). Partially Ordered Connectives and Finite Graphs. In M. Krynicki, M. Mostowski & L. Szczerba (eds.), Quantifiers: Logics, Models and Computation. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 79--88.
  45. Jaakko Hintikka & Gabriel Sandu (1995). The Fallacies of the New Theory of Reference. Synthese 104 (2):245 - 283.
    The so-called New Theory of Reference (Marcus, Kripke etc.) is inspired by the insight that in modal and intensional contexts quantifiers presuppose nondescriptive unanalyzable identity criteria which do not reduce to any descriptive conditions. From this valid insight the New Theorists fallaciously move to the idea that free singular terms can exhibit a built-in direct reference and that there is even a special class of singular terms (proper names) necessarily exhibiting direct reference. This fallacious move has been encouraged by a (...)
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  46. Gabriel Sandu & Raimo Tuomela (1995). Joint Action and Group Action Made Precise. Synthese 105 (3):319 - 345.
    The paper argues that there are two main kinds of joint action, direct joint bringing about (or performing) something (expressed in terms of a DO-operator) and jointly seeing to it that something is the case (expressed in terms of a Stit-operator). The former kind of joint action contains conjunctive, disjunctive and sequential action and its central subkinds. While joint seeing to it that something is the case is argued to be necessarily intentional, direct joint performance can also be nonintentional. Actions (...)
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  47. Jaakko Hintikka & Gabriel Sandu (1994). What is a Quantifier? Synthese 98 (1):113 - 129.
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  48. Gabriel Sandu (1994). Some Aspects of Negation in English. Synthese 99 (3):345 - 360.
    I introduce a formal language called the language of informational independence (IL-language, for short) that extends an ordinary first-order language in a natural way. This language is interpreted in terms of semantical games of imperfect information. In this language, one can define two negations: (i) strong or dual negation, and (ii) weak or contradictory negation. The latter negation, unlike the former, can occur only sentence-initially. Then I argue that, to a certain extent, the two negations match the distinction existing in (...)
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  49. Gabriel Sandu (1994). Uses and Misuses of Frege's Ideas. The Monist 77 (3):278-293.
    Frege's achievement as the creator of contemporary logic should not blind us to the limitations of his approach to logic, language and mathematics. Frege accepted the universality of language and its corollaries, the ineffability of semantics, the one-world view of meaning, and the hypostatization of meanings into meaning entities (Sinne). He assumed compositionality and hence overlooked informationally independent quantifiers. His thesis of the ambiguity of words like "is" is unacceptable in the semantics of natural languages. In higher-order logic, he assumed (...)
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  50. Gabriel Sandu & Jan Woleński (1994). Review Essay. Synthese 101 (1):121-127.
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