A generator program for a computable function (by definition) generates an infinite sequence of programs all but finitely many of which compute that function. Machine learning of generator programs for computable functions is studied. To motivate these studies partially, it is shown that, in some cases, interesting global properties for computable functions can be proved from suitable generator programs which cannot be proved from any ordinary programs for them. The power (for variants of various learning criteria from the literature) of (...) learning generator programs is compared with the power of learning ordinary programs. The learning power in these cases is also compared to that of learning limiting programs, i.e., programs allowed finitely many mind changes about their correct outputs. (shrink)
The United States is at a crossroad in its treatment of Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code, which deals with reorganization of bankrupt organizations. It is vital that the issues surrounding the debate be properly framed. This paper attempts to do just that by reviewing the evolution of bankruptcy law, assessing the impact of Chapter 11 leniency on societal stakeholders, considering bankruptcy as a strategic option, and addressing the ethical and societal issues that arise from the use of Chapter 11 (...) to avoid massive litigation or to abrogate labor contracts. Serious threats to the underlying fibers of the American system of enterprise are exposed and an assessment of these threats is offered. (shrink)
Two-dimensional carbon nanosheets have been fabricated using inductively coupled radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition. The structural properties of the nanosheets have been characterised using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometer. The magnetisation of the samples was studied using vibrating sample magnetometer. The magnetisation of the nanosheets was found to be diamagnetic for fast synthesis processes (30 and 60 min). On the other hand, the nanosheets exhibited a weak ferromagnetic response for the slow (120 min) synthesis process. (...) Energy dispersive spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy confirmed that the magnetisation exhibited by the carbon nanosheets was an intrinsic property and that it was not due to contamination from the substrate. Raman spectroscopy studies revealed that the ferromagnetic carbon nanosheets have a higher ratio (1.20) of graphite peak (I G) to disordered peak (I D) than normally expected (0.75?0.90). Available data indicated that the magnetisation was due to the presence of structural disorders. (shrink)
This book presents the historical account of its teachers. To make the reading easy and intelligible its technical terms are explained. The book also explains how PRATYABHIJNA system was formulated and developed by the great teachers.