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  1. Gary E. Varner (2012). Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two Level Utilitarianism. Oup Usa.
    Drawing heavily on recent empirical research to update R.M. Hare's two-level utilitarianism and expand Hare's treatment of "intuitive level rules," Gary Varner considers in detail the theory's application to animals while arguing that Hare should have recognized a hierarchy of persons, near-persons, & the merely sentient.
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  2. Gary E. Varner (1998). A Wolf in the Garden: The Land Rights Movement and the New Environmental Debate. Environmental Ethics 20 (4):441-443.
  3. Gary E. Varner (1998). In Nature's Interests?: Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    This book offers a powerful response to what Varner calls the "two dogmas of environmental ethics"--the assumptions that animal rights philosophies and anthropocentric views are each antithetical to sound environmental policy. Allowing that every living organism has interests which ought, other things being equal, to be protected, Varner contends that some interests take priority over others. He defends both a sentientist principle giving priority to the lives of organisms with conscious desires and an anthropocentric principle giving priority to certain (...)
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  4. Gary E. Varner (1994). In Defense of the Vegan Ideal: Rhetoric and Bias in the Nutrition Literature. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7 (1):29-40.
    Much of the scientific literature on vegetarian nutrition leaves one with the impression that vegan diets are significantly more risky than omnivorous ones, especially for individuals with high metabolic demands (such as pregnant or lactating women and children). But nutrition researchers have tended to skew their study populations toward new vegetarians, members of religious sects with especially restrictive diets and tendencies to eschew fortified foods and medical care, and these are arguably the last people we would expect to thrive on (...)
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  5. Gary E. Varner (1994). Rejoinder to Kathryn Paxton George. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7 (1):83-86.
    In Use and Abuse Revisited: Response to Pluhar and Varner, Kathryn Paxton George misunderstands the point of my essay, In Defense of the Vegan Ideal: Rhetoric and Bias in the Nutrition Literature. I did not claim that the nutrition literature unambiguously confirms that vegans are not at significantly greater risk of deficiencies than omnivores. Rather than settling any empirical controversy, my aim was to show how the literature can give the casual reader a skewed impression of what is known about (...)
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  6. Gary E. Varner (1994). The Prospects for Consensus and Convergence in the Animal Rights Debate. Hastings Center Report 24 (1):24-28.
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  7. Gary E. Varner (1994). What's Wrong with Animalby-Products? Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7 (1):7-17.
    Without looking beyond the conditions under which laying hens typically live in the contemporary U.S. egg industry, we can understand why the production and consumption of factory farmed eggs could be judged immoral. However, the question, What (if anything) is wrong with animal by-products? cannot always be adequately answered by looking at the conditions under which animals live out their productive lives. For the dairy industry looks benign in those terms, but if we look beyond the conditions under which milk (...)
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  8. Gary E. Varner (1993). The Animal Rights/Environmental Ethics Debate: The Environmental Perspective. Environmental Ethics 15 (3):279-282.
  9. Gary E. Varner (1992). Overtapped Oasis. Environmental Ethics 14 (1):93-94.
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  10. Gary E. Varner (1992). Overtapped Oasis: Reform or Revolution for Western Water. Environmental Ethics 14 (1):93-94.
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  11. Gary E. Varner (1991). No Holism Without Pluralism. Environmental Ethics 13 (2):175-179.
    In his recent essay on moral pluralism in environmental ethics, J. Baird Callicott exaggerates the advantages of monism, ignoring the environmentally unsound implications of Leopold’s holism. In addition, he fails to see that Leopold’s view requires the same kind of intellectual schitzophrenia for which he criticizes the version of moral pluralism advocated by Christopher D. Stone in Earth and Other Ethics. If itis plausible to say that holistic entities like ecosystems are directly morally considerable-and that is a very big if-it (...)
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  12. John Lemons, Donald A. Brown & Gary E. Varner (1990). Congress, Consistency, and Environmental Law. Environmental Ethics 12 (4):311-327.
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  13. Gary E. Varner (1990). Biological Functions and Biological Interests. Southern Journal of Philosophy 28 (2):251-270.
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  14. Gary E. Varner (1990). Species, Individuals, and Domestication: A Commentary on Jane Duran's" Domesticated and Then Some". Between the Species 6 (4):9.
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