Search results for 'Gary E. Varner' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Gary Varner, Varner, Gary E. "Do Species Have Standing?" Environmental Ethics 9 (1987): Pp. 57-72.
    In his recent article Should Trees Have Standing? Revisited" Christopher D. Stone has effectively withdrawn his proposal that natural objects be granted legal rights, in response to criticism from the Feinberg/McCloskey camp. Stone now favors a weaker proposal that natural objects be granted what he calls legal "considerateness". I argue that Stone's retreat is both unnecessary and undesirable. I develop the notion of a "de facto" legal right and argue that species already have de facto legal rights as statutory beneficiaries (...)
     
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  2. Kathryn Hood, Halpern E., Greenberg Carolyn Tucker, Lerner Gary & M. Richard (eds.) (2010). Handbook of Developmental Science, Behavior and Genetics. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  3.  2
    Gary E. Varner (2012). Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two Level Utilitarianism. OUP Usa.
    Drawing heavily on recent empirical research to update R.M. Hare's two-level utilitarianism and expand Hare's treatment of "intuitive level rules," Gary Varner considers in detail the theory's application to animals while arguing that Hare should have recognized a hierarchy of persons, near-persons, & the merely sentient.
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  4. Gary E. Varner (1998). In Nature's Interests?: Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    This book offers a powerful response to what Varner calls the "two dogmas of environmental ethics"--the assumptions that animal rights philosophies and anthropocentric views are each antithetical to sound environmental policy. Allowing that every living organism has interests which ought, other things being equal, to be protected, Varner contends that some interests take priority over others. He defends both a sentientist principle giving priority to the lives of organisms with conscious desires and an anthropocentric principle giving priority to (...)
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  5. Gary E. Varner (1994). Rejoinder to Kathryn Paxton George. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7 (1):83-86.
    In Use and Abuse Revisited: Response to Pluhar and Varner, Kathryn Paxton George misunderstands the point of my essay, In Defense of the Vegan Ideal: Rhetoric and Bias in the Nutrition Literature. I did not claim that the nutrition literature unambiguously confirms that vegans are not at significantly greater risk of deficiencies than omnivores. Rather than settling any empirical controversy, my aim was to show how the literature can give the casual reader a skewed impression of what is known (...)
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  6. Gary E. Varner (2002). In Nature's Interests?: Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental Ethics. OUP Usa.
    Varner challenges the assumption that animal rights theory and anthropocentric views are at odds with each other. He attempts to reconcile them by arguing that every living organism has interests which ought to be protected, but that some interests--particularly those belonging to sentient animals with conscious desires--are more important than others. The author is not unduly influenced by radical or conservative environmental positions and effectively establishes an individualistic and accessible framework that will be given credence by both camps. In (...)
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  7.  51
    Gary E. Varner (1994). In Defense of the Vegan Ideal: Rhetoric and Bias in the Nutrition Literature. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7 (1):29-40.
    Much of the scientific literature on vegetarian nutrition leaves one with the impression that vegan diets are significantly more risky than omnivorous ones, especially for individuals with high metabolic demands (such as pregnant or lactating women and children). But nutrition researchers have tended to skew their study populations toward new vegetarians, members of religious sects with especially restrictive diets and tendencies to eschew fortified foods and medical care, and these are arguably the last people we would expect to thrive on (...)
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  8. Gary E. Varner (1994). What's Wrong with Animalby-Products? Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7 (1):7-17.
    Without looking beyond the conditions under which laying hens typically live in the contemporary U.S. egg industry, we can understand why the production and consumption of factory farmed eggs could be judged immoral. However, the question, What (if anything) is wrong with animal by-products? cannot always be adequately answered by looking at the conditions under which animals live out their productive lives. For the dairy industry looks benign in those terms, but if we look beyond the conditions under which milk (...)
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  9.  20
    Gary E. Varner (1991). No Holism Without Pluralism. Environmental Ethics 13 (2):175-179.
    In his recent essay on moral pluralism in environmental ethics, J. Baird Callicott exaggerates the advantages of monism, ignoring the environmentally unsound implications of Leopold’s holism. In addition, he fails to see that Leopold’s view requires the same kind of intellectual schitzophrenia for which he criticizes the version of moral pluralism advocated by Christopher D. Stone in Earth and Other Ethics. If itis plausible to say that holistic entities like ecosystems are directly morally considerable-and that is a very big if-it (...)
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  10.  38
    Gary E. Varner (1990). Biological Functions and Biological Interests. Southern Journal of Philosophy 28 (2):251-270.
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  11.  22
    Gary E. Varner (1990). Biological Functions and Biological Interests. Southern Journal of Philosophy 28 (2):251-270.
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  12.  5
    Gary E. Varner (1994). The Prospects for Consensus and Convergence in the Animal Rights Debate. Hastings Center Report 24 (1):24-28.
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  13.  9
    Gary E. Varner (1992). Overtapped Oasis. Environmental Ethics 14 (1):93-94.
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  14.  18
    Gary E. Varner (1993). The Animal Rights/Environmental Ethics Debate: The Environmental Perspective. Environmental Ethics 15 (3):279-282.
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  15.  17
    Gary E. Varner (1998). A Wolf in the Garden: The Land Rights Movement and the New Environmental Debate. Environmental Ethics 20 (4):441-443.
  16.  8
    John Lemons, Donald A. Brown & and Gary E. Varner (1990). Congress, Consistency, and Environmental Law. Environmental Ethics 12 (4):311-327.
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  17.  7
    John Lemons, Donald A. Brown & Gary E. Varner (1990). Congress, Consistency, and Environmental Law. Environmental Ethics 12 (4):311-327.
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  18.  5
    Gary E. Varner (1992). Overtapped Oasis: Reform or Revolution for Western Water. Environmental Ethics 14 (1):93-94.
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  19.  1
    Gary E. Varner (1990). "Species, Individuals, and Domestication: A Commentary on Jane Duran's" Domesticated and Then Some". Between the Species 6 (4):9.
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  20. Mark Rowlands & Gary E. Varner (2000). In Nature's Interests: Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental Ethics. Philosophical Review 109 (4):598.
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  21. Colin Allen & Gary Varner, Prolegomena to Any Future Arti® Cial Moral Agent.
    As arti® cial intelligence moves ever closer to the goal of producing fully autonomous agents, the question of how to design and implement an arti® cial moral agent (AMA) becomes increasingly pressing. Robots possessing autonomous capacities to do things that are useful to humans will also have the capacity to do things that are harmful to humans and other sentient beings. Theoretical challenges to developing arti® cial moral agents result both from controversies among ethicists about moral theory itself, and from (...)
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  22.  27
    Amitrajeet A. Batabyal (2000). In Nature's Interest? Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental Ethics by Gary E. Varner. Agriculture and Human Values 17 (4):399-400.
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  23.  14
    K. Andrews (2014). Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two-Level Utilitarianism, by Gary E. Varner * The Philosophy of Animal Minds, Edited by Robert W. Lurz. Mind 123 (491):959-966.
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  24.  15
    Brian Berkey (2012). Review of Gary E. Varner, Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two-Level Utilitarianism. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
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  25.  21
    Edward Johnson (2001). Gary E. Varner, In Nature's Interests? Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental Ethics:In Nature's Interests? Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental Ethics. Ethics 111 (4):832-836.
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  26.  3
    Adam Kadlac (2015). Book Review: Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two-Level Utilitarianism, Written by Gary E. Varner. [REVIEW] Journal of Moral Philosophy 12 (2):247-250.
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  27.  2
    J. Jensen (1999). In Nature's Interests? Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental Ethics. Gary E. Varner New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. Pp. 154. $35.00 ISBN 0-19-510865 (Hardback). [REVIEW] Ethics and the Environment 4 (2):235-239.
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  28. Tal Scriven (2012). Review of Gary E. Varner's< Em> Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two-Level Utilitarianism. [REVIEW] Between the Species 16 (1):13.
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  29.  32
    E. Marchant Gary, J. Sylvester Douglas & W. Abbott Kenneth (2008). Risk Management Principles for Nanotechnology. NanoEthics 2 (1).
    Risk management of nanotechnology is challenged by the enormous uncertainties about the risks, benefits, properties, and future direction of nanotechnology applications. Because of these uncertainties, traditional risk management principles such as acceptable risk, cost–benefit analysis, and feasibility are unworkable, as is the newest risk management principle, the precautionary principle. Yet, simply waiting for these uncertainties to be resolved before undertaking risk management efforts would not be prudent, in part because of the growing public concerns about nanotechnology driven by risk perception (...)
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  30.  27
    Gary Varner (2008). Utilitarianism and the Evolution of Ecological Ethics. Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (4):551-573.
    R.M. Hare’s two-level utilitarianism provides a useful framework for understanding the evolution of codes of professional ethics. From a Harean perspective, the codes reflect both the fact that members of various professions face special kinds of ethically charged situations in the normal course of their work, and the need for people in special roles to acquire various habits of thought and action. This highlights the role of virtue in professional ethics and provides guidance to professional societies when considering modifications to (...)
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  31.  15
    G. E. Varner (1988). Christopher Stone: Earth and Other Ethics. Environmental Ethics 10 (3):259-265.
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  32.  9
    Gary Varner (2007). Sustainability: A Philosophy of Adaptive Ecosystem Management. Environmental Ethics 29 (3):307-312.
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  33.  52
    Gary Varner (2011). Do Fish Feel Pain? Environmental Ethics 33 (2):219-222.
  34.  7
    G. E. Varner (1987). Do Species Have Standing? Environmental Ethics 9 (1):57-72.
    In arecent article Christopher D. Stone has effectively withdrawn his proposal that natural objects be granted legal rights, in response to criticism from the Feinberg/McCloskey camp. Stone now favors a weaker proposal that natural objects be granted what he calls legal considerateness. I argue that Stone’s retreat is both unnecessary and undesirable. I develop the notion of a de facto legal right and argue that species already have legal rights as statutory beneflciaries of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. I (...)
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  35. Gary Varner (2008). Personhood, Memory, and Elephant Management. In Christen M. Wemmer & Catherine A. Christen (eds.), Elephants and Ethics: Toward a Morality of Coexistence. Johns Hopkins University Press
  36.  41
    Gary Varner (2011). Speciesism and Reverse Speciesism. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (2):171 - 173.
    Ethics, Policy & Environment, Volume 14, Issue 2, Page 171-173, June 2011.
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  37.  8
    G. E. Varner (1987). Do Species Have Standing? Environmental Ethics 9 (1):57-72.
    In arecent article Christopher D. Stone has effectively withdrawn his proposal that natural objects be granted legal rights, in response to criticism from the Feinberg/McCloskey camp. Stone now favors a weaker proposal that natural objects be granted what he calls legal considerateness. I argue that Stone’s retreat is both unnecessary and undesirable. I develop the notion of a de facto legal right and argue that species already have legal rights as statutory beneflciaries of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. I (...)
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  38.  28
    G. E. Varner (1985). The Schopenhauerian Challenge in Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics 7 (3):209-229.
    Environmental holism and environmental individualism are based on incompatible notions of moral considerability, and yield incompatible results. For Schopenhauer, every intelligible character--every irreducible instance of formative nature---defines a distinct moral patient, and for hirn both holistic entities and the individual members of higher species have distinguishable intelligible characters. Schopenhauer’s neglected metaethics thus can be used to generate an environmental ethics which is complete in the sense of synthesizing holism and individualism while simultaneously meeting TomRegan’s (implicit) demand that an environmental ethics (...)
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  39.  32
    Gary Varner, Persons, Near-Persons, and the Merely Sentient: An Empirically Grounded Approach to Animal Welfare Ethics.
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  40.  19
    Gary Varner (2003). Life's Intrinsic Value. Environmental Ethics 25 (4):413-416.
  41.  22
    Gary Varner (2010). A Harean Perspective on Humane Sustainability. Ethics and the Environment 15 (2):31-49.
    Everyone agrees that a social system is sustainable only if it is structured in such a way that it can be used into the indefinite future. This is the descriptive aspect of sustainability. As Paul Thompson has emphasized (1995, chapter seven), even here there are variations by context: what counts as “the system,” and how long is “the indefinite future”? But, as Thompson also notes, sustainability always includes—at least implicitly— another, normative component. This consists of a value commitment that allows (...)
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  42.  8
    Gary Varner (2008). Sustainability. Environmental Ethics 29 (3):307-312.
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  43.  8
    G. E. Varner (1999). The Editor has Review Copies of the Following Books. Potential Reviewers Should Contact the Editor to Obtain a Review Copy.(Rhaynes@ Phil. Ufl. Edu). Books Not Previously Listed Are in Bold Faced Type. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 16 (233).
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  44.  8
    G. E. Varner (1985). The Schopenhauerian Challenge in Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics 7 (3):209-229.
    Environmental holism and environmental individualism are based on incompatible notions of moral considerability, and yield incompatible results. For Schopenhauer, every intelligible character--every irreducible instance of formative nature---defines a distinct moral patient, and for hirn both holistic entities and the individual members of higher species have distinguishable intelligible characters. Schopenhauer’s neglected metaethics thus can be used to generate an environmental ethics which is complete in the sense of synthesizing holism and individualism while simultaneously meeting TomRegan’s (implicit) demand that an environmental ethics (...)
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  45.  9
    G. E. Varner (1988). Christopher Stone: Earth and Other Ethics. Environmental Ethics 10 (3):259-265.
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  46. Gary Varner (1995). John O'Neill, Ecology, Policy and Politics: Human Well-Being and the Natural World Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 15 (4):271-273.
     
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  47.  4
    Gary Varner (2010). Review of Jean Kazez, Animalkind: What We Owe to Animals. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (10).
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  48. Gary Varner & Jonathan Newman, Environmental Ethics for Environmentalists.
     
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  49. D. Mellen Jill, C. E. Barber Joseph & W. Miller Gary (2008). Can We Assess the Needs of Elephants in Zoos? Can We Meet the Needs of Elephants in Zoos? In Christen M. Wemmer & Catherine A. Christen (eds.), Elephants and Ethics: Toward a Morality of Coexistence. Johns Hopkins University Press
     
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  50. P. Maliga, D. F. Klessig, A. R. Cashmore, W. Gruissem, J. E. Varner & Jola Maluszynska (1996). Methods in Plant Molecular Biology. A Laboratory Course Manual. Bioessays 18 (6):520-520.
     
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