Search results for 'Gene Johnson' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  1
    Phillip Johnson (1994). To 'Gene Talk' (1992). Social Epistemology 8 (2):215 – 217.
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  2.  27
    Alfredo Pereira & Gene Johnson (2003). Toward an Explanation of the Genesis of Ketamine-Induced Perceptual Distortions and Hallucinatory States. Brain and Mind 4 (3):307-326.
    The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) channel has been proposed to function as a coincidence-detection mechanism for afferent and reentrant signals, supporting conscious perception, learning, and memory formation. In this paper we discuss the genesis of distorted perceptual states induced by subanesthetic doses of ketamine, a well-known NMDA antagonist. NMDAR blockage has been suggested to perturb perceptual processing in sensory cortex, and also to decrease GABAergic inhibition in limbic areas (leading to an increase in dopamine excitability). We propose that perceptual distortions and (...)
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  3. Gene Johnson (2004). Pathways to Consciousness: The Thalamus as the Brains's Switching Centre. Science and Consciousness Review 2004.
     
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  4. Phillip E. Johnson, Denis Oswald Lamoureux & Michael J. Behe (1999). Darwinism Defeated? The Johnson-Lamoureux Debate on Biological Origins.
     
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  5.  7
    Deborah G. Johnson (1993). Book Excerpt: Computer Ethics, Second Edition by Deborah G. Johnson. Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 23 (3-4):10-14.
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  6.  5
    Summer Johnson (2007). A Rebuttal to Dzur and Levin: Johnson on the Legitimacy and Authority of Bioethics Commissions. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 17 (2):143.
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  7.  19
    Paul Johnson (2009). Paul Johnson Wonders Whether Darwin Would Have Put Atheist Slogans on Buses. The Chesterton Review 35 (1-2):284-288.
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  8.  7
    Samuel Johnson (2003). Samuel Johnson on Ireland. The Chesterton Review 29 (1/2):254-256.
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  9.  4
    David K. Johnson (1991). Endnotes for Johnson, From Page 8. Inquiry 8 (4):27-27.
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  10.  3
    Deborah G. Johnson (1993). Book Excerpt: Computer Ethics, by Deborah G. Johnson (Prentice Hall, 1994). Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 23 (3-4):10-14.
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  11.  6
    James Turner Johnson (2000). Comment by James Turner Johnson. Journal of Religious Ethics 28 (2):331-335.
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  12.  1
    David M. Johnson (2013). M. Johnson, H. Tarrant Alcibiades and the Socratic Lover-Educator. Pp. X + 254, Figs. London: Bristol Classical Press, 2012. Cased, £50. ISBN: 978-0-7156-4086-9. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 63 (1):58-60.
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  13. Rhona Brown, Leslie A. Chilton, Timothy Erwin, Evan Gottlieb, Christopher D. Johnson, Heather King, James Noggle, Adam Rounce & Adrianne Wadewitz (2014). Beyond Sense and Sensibility: Moral Formation and the Literary Imagination From Johnson to Wordsworth. Bucknell University Press.
    Drawing on philosophical thought from the eighteenth century as well as conceptual frameworks developed in the twenty-first century, the essays in Beyond Sense and Sensibility examine moral formation as represented in or implicitly produced by literary works of late eighteenth-century British authors.
     
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  14. Alexander Bryan Johnson (1947). Alexander Bryan Johnson's a Treatise on Language, Ed. Berkeley, Univ. Of California Press.
  15. A. B. Johnson (1959). Alexander Bryan Johnson a Treatise on Language. Univ. Of California Press.
     
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  16. A. B. Johnson & Stillman Drake (1940). A.B. Johnson's a Treatise on Language or, the Relation Which Words Bear to Things. [S.N.].
     
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  17. Galen A. Johnson (1977). Hartshorne's Arguments Against Empirical Evidence for Necessary Existence: An Evaluation: GALEN A. JOHNSON. Religious Studies 13 (2):175-187.
    Is experiential evidence irrelevant to acceptance or rejection of belief in the existence of a Divine Being? Charles Hartshorne answers that it is indeed irrelevant, and this answer has an initial and, for me, continuing surprising ring to it. Specifically, Hartshorne makes two distinguishable claims: the traditional allegedly a posteriori arguments, the teleological and cosmological, are in fact incompatible with empiricist methodology and are disguised ontological arguments; the conception of God as necessary being demands that belief in such a being's (...)
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  18. Paul F. Johnson, Response to Laidlaw-Johnson.
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  19. Jonathan Birch (2014). Gene Mobility and the Concept of Relatedness. Biology and Philosophy 29 (4):445-476.
    Cooperation is rife in the microbial world, yet our best current theories of the evolution of cooperation were developed with multicellular animals in mind. Hamilton’s theory of inclusive fitness is an important case in point: applying the theory in a microbial setting is far from straightforward, as social evolution in microbes has a number of distinctive features that the theory was never intended to capture. In this article, I focus on the conceptual challenges posed by the project of extending Hamilton’s (...)
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  20. Matthew J. Barker & Robert A. Wilson (2010). Cohesion, Gene Flow, and the Nature of Species. Journal of Philosophy 107 (2):59-77.
    A far-reaching and influential view in evolutionary biology claims that species are cohesive units held together by gene flow. Biologists have recognized empirical problems facing this view; after sharpening the expression of the view, we present novel conceptual problems for it. At the heart of these problems is a distinction between two importantly different concepts of cohesion, what we call integrative and response cohesion. Acknowledging the distinction problematizes both the explanandum of species cohesion and the explanans of (...) flow that are central to the view we discuss. We conclude by tracing four broader implications for the study and conceptualization of species. (shrink)
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  21.  88
    Timothy Perrine (2015). A Note on Johnson’s ‘A Refutation of Skeptical Theism’. Sophia 54 (1):35-43.
    In a recent article, David Kyle Johnson has claimed to have provided a ‘refutation’ of skeptical theism. Johnson’s refutation raises several interesting issues. But in this note, I focus on only one—an implicit principle Johnson uses in his refutation to update probabilities after receiving new evidence. I argue that this principle is false. Consequently, Johnson’s refutation, as it currently stands, is undermined.
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  22.  10
    Andrew F. G. Bourke (2014). The Gene’s-Eye View, Major Transitions and the Formal Darwinism Project. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):241-248.
    I argue that Grafen’s formal darwinism project could profitably incorporate a gene’s-eye view, as informed by the major transitions framework. In this, instead of the individual being assumed to maximise its inclusive fitness, genes are assumed to maximise their inclusive fitness. Maximisation of fitness at the individual level is not a straightforward concept because the major transitions framework shows that there are several kinds of biological individual. In addition, individuals have a definable fitness, exhibit individual-level adaptations and arise in (...)
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  23.  11
    Marianne Sommer (2008). History in the Gene: Negotiations Between Molecular and Organismal Anthropology. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 41 (3):473 - 528.
    In the advertising discourse of human genetic database projects, of genetic ancestry tracing companies, and in popular books on anthropological genetics, what I refer to as the anthropological gene and genome appear as documents of human history, by far surpassing the written record and oral history in scope and accuracy as archives of our past. How did macromolecules become "documents of human evolutionary history"? Historically, molecular anthropology, a term introduced by Emile Zuckerkandl in 1962 to characterize the study (...)
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  24. David Ambuel (2013). Difference in Kind: Observations on the Distinction of the Megista Gene. In Beatriz Bossi & Thomas M. Robinson (eds.), Plato's Sophist Revisited. De Gruyter 247-268.
    It is argued that the analysis by which the gene are differentiated in the dialogue is an exercise in studied ambiguities informed by an Eleatic logic of strict dichotomy that was the underpinning of the Sophist's method of division. By this dialectical drill, Plato shows that the metaphysics underlying the Visitor's method fails to adequately distinguish what it means to have a character from what it means to be a character, and therefore remains inadequate to track down the sophist (...)
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  25. Robert T. Pennock (1996). Naturalism, Evidence and Creationism: The Case of Phillip Johnson. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 11 (4):543-559.
    Phillip Johnson claims that Creationism is a better explanation of the existence and characteristics of biological species than is evolutionary theory. He argues that the only reason biologists do not recognize that Creationist's negative arguments against Darwinism have proven this is that they are wedded to a biased ideological philosophy —Naturalism — which dogmatically denies the possibility of an intervening creative god. However,Johnson fails to distinguish Ontological Naturalism from Methodological Naturalism. Science makes use of the latter and I (...)
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  26.  95
    Jordan Bartol (2013). Re-Examining the Gene in Personalized Genomics. Science and Education 22 (10):2529-2546.
    Personalized genomics companies (PG; also called ‘direct-to-consumer genetics’) are businesses marketing genetic testing to consumers over the Internet. While much has been written about these new businesses, little attention has been given to their roles in science communication. This paper provides an analysis of the gene concept presented to customers and the relation between the information given and the science behind PG. Two quite different gene concepts are present in company rhetoric, but only one features in the science. (...)
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  27.  11
    Michael S. C. Thomas, Neil A. Forrester & Angelica Ronald (2016). Multiscale Modeling of Gene–Behavior Associations in an Artificial Neural Network Model of Cognitive Development. Cognitive Science 40 (1):51-99.
    In the multidisciplinary field of developmental cognitive neuroscience, statistical associations between levels of description play an increasingly important role. One example of such associations is the observation of correlations between relatively common gene variants and individual differences in behavior. It is perhaps surprising that such associations can be detected despite the remoteness of these levels of description, and the fact that behavior is the outcome of an extended developmental process involving interaction of the whole organism with a variable (...)
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  28.  51
    Péter Kakuk (2008). Gene Concepts and Genethics: Beyond Exceptionalism. Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (3):357-375.
    The discursive explosion that was provoked by the new genetics could support the impression that the ethical and social problems posed by the new genetics are somehow exceptional in their very nature. According to this view we are faced with special ethical and social problems that create a challenge so fundamental that the special label of genethics is needless to justify. The historical account regarding the evolution of the gene concepts could serve us to highlight the limits of (...)
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  29.  34
    S. M. Reindal (2000). Disability, Gene Therapy and Eugenics - a Challenge to John Harris. Journal of Medical Ethics 26 (2):89 - 94.
    This article challenges the view of disability presented by Harris in his article, “Is gene therapy a form of eugenics?”1 It is argued that his definition of disability rests on an individual model of disability, where disability is regarded as a product of biological determinism or “personal tragedy” in the individual. Within disability theory this view is often called “the medical model” and it has been criticised for not being able to deal with the term “disability”, but only (...)
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  30.  84
    Lenny Moss (2006). The Question of Questions: What is a Gene? Comments on Rolston and Griffths & Stotz. [REVIEW] Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (6):523-534.
    If the question ``What is a gene?'' proves to be worth asking it must be able to elicit an answer which both recognizes and address the reasons why the concept of the gene ever seemed to be something worth getting excited about in the first place as well analyzing and evaluating the latest develops in the molecular biology of DNA. Each of the preceding papers fails to do one of these and sufferrs the consequences. Where Rolston responds to (...)
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  31.  7
    Christopher W. Tindale (2002). A Concept Divided: Ralph Johnson's Definition of Argument. [REVIEW] Argumentation 16 (3):299-309.
    Ralph Johnson's Manifest Rationality (2000) is a major contribution to the field of informal logic, but the concept of argument that is central to its project suffers from a tension between the components that comprise it. This paper explores and addresses that tension by examining the implications of each of five aspects of the definition of ‘argument’.
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  32.  6
    Lucas Mix (forthcoming). Nested Explanation in Aristotle and Mayr. Synthese:1-16.
    Both Aristotle and Ernst Mayr present theories of dual explanation in biology, with proximal, clearly physical explanations and more distal, biology-specific explanations. Aristotle’s presentation of final cause explanations in Posterior Analytics relates final causes to the necessary material, formal, and efficient causes that mediate them. Johnson and Leunissen demonstrate the problematic nature of historical and recent interpretations and open the door for a new interpretation consistent with modern evolutionary theory. Mayr’s differentiation of proximate and ultimate/evolutionary causes provides a key (...)
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  33.  3
    Tone Kvernbekk (2008). Johnson, MacIntyre, and the Practice of Argumentation. Informal Logic 28 (3):262-278.
    This article is a discussion of Ralph Johnson’s concept of practice of argumentation. Such practice is characterized by three properties: (1) It is teleological, (2) it is dialectical, and (3) it is manifestly rational. I argue that Johnson’s preferred definition of practice—which is Alasdair MacIntyre’s concept of practice as a human activity with internal goods accessible through partcipation in that same activity—does not fit these properties or features. I also suggest that this failure should not require Johnson (...)
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  34.  23
    Veikko Launis (2002). Human Gene Therapy and the Slippery Slope Argument. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 5 (2):169-179.
    The article investigates the validity of two different versions of the slippery slope argument construed in relation to human gene therapy: the empirical and the conceptual argument. The empirical version holds that our accepting somatic cell therapy will eventually cause our accepting eugenic medical goals. The conceptual version holds that we are logically committed to accepting such goals once we have accepted somatic cell therapy. It is argued that neither the empirical nor the conceptual version of the argument can (...)
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  35.  17
    Alexis De Tiège, Koen Tanghe, Johan Braeckman & Yves Van de Peer (2014). From DNA- to NA-Centrism and the Conditions for Gene-Centrism Revisited. Biology and Philosophy 29 (1):55-69.
    First the ‘Weismann barrier’ and later on Francis Crick’s ‘central dogma’ of molecular biology nourished the gene-centric paradigm of life, i.e., the conception of the gene/genome as a ‘central source’ from which hereditary specificity unidirectionally flows or radiates into cellular biochemistry and development. Today, due to advances in molecular genetics and epigenetics, such as the discovery of complex post-genomic and epigenetic processes in which genes are causally integrated, many theorists argue that a gene-centric conception of the organism (...)
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  36.  30
    Isaac Rabino (2003). Gene Therapy: Ethical Issues. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (1):31-58.
    To discern the ethical issues involved incurrent gene therapy research, to explore theproblems inherent in possible future genetherapies, and to encourage debate within thescientific community about ethical questionsrelevant to both, we surveyed American Societyof Human Genetics scientists who engage inhuman genetics research. This study of theopinions of U.S. scientific experts about theethical issues discussed in the literature ongene therapy contributes systematic data on theattitudes of those working in the field as wellas elaborative comments. Our survey finds thatrespondents (...)
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  37.  10
    Grant Babcock (2012). Libertarianism, Feminism, and Nonviolent Action: A Synthesis. Libertarian Papers 4.
    There is a need to develop libertarian responses to writings on race, gender, and sexual orientation. Offering such responses not only demonstrates to potential opponents of libertarian reform that libertarianism can seriously address these issues: libertarian responses can also help us confront forms of “private” oppression that are not per se un-libertarian, but which support state oppression. Drawing on thinkers such as Murray Rothbard, Roderick Long, Charles Johnson, Gene Sharp, Wendy McElroy, and bell hooks, this paper establishes historical (...)
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  38.  6
    Mairi Levitt (1997). Natural Ways Are Better: Adolescents and the 'Anti-Obesity' Gene. Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (3):305-315.
    Empirical research with young people in Finland, Germany, Spain and Britain was carried out as part of the BIOCULT project funded by the European Union. The project focused on their attitudes to biotechnology and, in particular, the formation of arguments about risk and safety. This paper looks at the responses of 14–18 year olds to a story about the so called anti-obesity gene, in the form of advice to a friend who is taking it. The majority advised against taking (...)
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  39.  18
    Laurence Perbal (2013). The 'Warrior Gene' and the Mãori People: The Responsibility of the Geneticists. Bioethics 27 (7):382-387.
    The ‘gene of’ is a teleosemantic expression that conveys a simplistic and linear relationship between a gene and a phenotype. Throughout the 20th century, geneticists studied these genes of traits. The studies were often polemical when they concerned human traits: the ‘crime gene’, ‘poverty gene’, ‘IQ gene’, ‘gay gene’ or ‘gene of alcoholism’. Quite recently, a controversy occurred in 2006 in New Zealand that started with the claim that a ‘warrior gene’ exists (...)
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  40.  6
    Sun-Wei Guo (2013). China's “Gene War of the Century” and Its Aftermath: The Contest Goes On. Minerva 51 (4):485-512.
    Following the successful cloning of genes for mostly rare genetic diseases in the early 1990s, there was a nearly universal enthusiasm that similar approaches could be employed to hunt down genes predisposing people to complex diseases. Around 1996, several well-funded international gene-hunting teams, enticed by the low cost of collecting biological samples and China’s enormous population, and ushered in by some well-connected Chinese intermediaries, came to China to hunt down disease susceptibility genes. This alarmed and, in some cases, enraged (...)
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  41.  5
    Peter J. Taylor (2012). A Gene-Free Formulation of Classical Quantitative Genetics Used to Examine Results and Interpretations Under Three Standard Assumptions. Acta Biotheoretica 60 (4):357-378.
    Quantitative genetics (QG) analyses variation in traits of humans, other animals, or plants in ways that take account of the genealogical relatedness of the individuals whose traits are observed. “Classical” QG, where the analysis of variation does not involve data on measurable genetic or environmental entities or factors, is reformulated in this article using models that are free of hypothetical, idealized versions of such factors, while still allowing for defined degrees of relatedness among kinds of individuals or “varieties.” The (...) - free formulation encompasses situations encountered in human QG as well as in agricultural QG. This formulation is used to describe three standard assumptions involved in classical QG and provide plausible alternatives. Several concerns about the partitioning of trait variation into components and its interpretation, most of which have a long history of debate, are discussed in light of the gene-free formulation and alternative assumptions. That discussion is at a theoretical level, not dependent on empirical data in any particular situation. Additional lines of work to put the gene-free formulation and alternative assumptions into practice and to assess their empirical consequences are noted, but lie beyond the scope of this article. The three standard QG assumptions examined are: (1) partitioning of trait variation into components requires models of hypothetical, idealized genes with simple Mendelian inheritance and direct contributions to the trait; (2) all other things being equal, similarity in traits for relatives is proportional to the fraction shared by the relatives of all the genes that vary in the population (e.g., fraternal or dizygotic twins share half of the variable genes that identical or monozygotic twins share); (3) in analyses of human data, genotype-environment interaction variance (in the classical QG sense) can be discounted. The concerns about the partitioning of trait variation discussed include: the distinction between traits and underlying measurable factors; the possible heterogeneity in factors underlying the development of a trait; the kinds of data needed to estimate key empirical parameters; and interpretations based on contributions of hypothetical genes; as well as, in human studies, the labeling of residual variance as a non-shared environmental effect; and the importance of estimating interaction variance. (shrink)
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  42.  4
    Hajime Sato, Akira Akabayashi & Ichiro Kai (2006). Public, Experts, and Acceptance of Advanced Medical Technologies: The Case of Organ Transplant and Gene Therapy in Japan. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 14 (4):203-214.
    In 1997, after long social debates, the Japanese government enacted a law on organ transplantation from brain-dead bodies. Since 1993, on gene therapy, administrative agencies have issued a series of guidelines. This study seeks to elucidate when people became aware of the issues and when they formed their opinions on organ transplant and gene therapy. At the same time, it aims to examine at which point in time experts, those in university ethical committees and in academic (...)
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  43.  13
    Degeng Wang (2005). “Molecular Gene”: Interpretation in the Right Context. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 20 (2-3):453-464.
    How to interpret the “molecular gene” concept is discussed in this paper. I argue that the architecture of biological systems is hierarchical and multi-layered, exhibiting striking similarities to that of modern computers. Multiple layers exist between the genotype and system level property, the phenotype. This architectural complexity gives rise to the intrinsic complexity of the genotype-phenotype relationships. The notion of a gene being for a phenotypic trait or traits lacks adequate consideration of this complexity and has limitations in (...)
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  44.  8
    Leo Groarke (2002). Johnson on the Metaphysics of Argument. Argumentation 16 (3):277-286.
    This paper responds to two aspects of Ralph Johnson's Manifest Rationality (2000). The first is his critique of deductivism. The second is his failure to make room for some species of argument (e.g., visual and kisceral arguments) proposed by recent commentators. In the first case, Johnson holds that argumentation theorists have adopted a notion of argument which is too narrow. In the second, that they have adopted one which is too broad. I discuss the case Johnson makes (...)
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  45.  4
    David P. Hill, Barry Smith, Monica S. McAndrews-Hill & Judith A. Blake (2008). Gene Ontology Annotations: What They Mean and Where They Come From. BMC Bioinformatics( 9 (Suppl 5):S2.
    The computational genomics community has come increasingly to rely on the methodology of creating annotations of scientific literature using terms from controlled structured vocabularies such as the Gene Ontology (GO). We here address the question of what such annotations signify and of how they are created by working biologists. Our goal is to promote a better understanding of how the results of experiments are captured in annotations in the hope that this will lead to better representations of biological reality (...)
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  46.  2
    Shelly Benjaminy & Tania Bubela (2014). Ocular Gene Transfer in the Spotlight: Implications of Newspaper Content for Clinical Communications. BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):58.
    Ocular gene transfer clinical trials are raising hopes for blindness treatments and attracting media attention. News media provide an accessible health information source for patients and the public, but are often criticized for overemphasizing benefits and underplaying risks of novel biomedical interventions. Overly optimistic portrayals of unproven interventions may influence public and patient expectations; the latter may cause patients to downplay risks and over-emphasize benefits, with implications for informed consent for clinical trials. We analyze the news media communications landscape (...)
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  47.  4
    Yukio Wakamatsu (1999). A Citizens' Conference on Gene Therapy in Japan: A Feasibility Study of the Consensus Conference Method in Japan. [REVIEW] AI and Society 13 (1-2):22-43.
    An experimental consensus conference on the topic of gene therapy was held in order to discover whether the method, a means for participatory technology assessment born in Denmark in 1986, could be feasible in Japan. This article summarises the overall experience of this experiment and concludes that the method is indeed feasible in Japan. Enumerating some issues and problems we faced in this project, I will discuss their meaning and significance from the viewpoint of practitioner or initiator of (...)
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  48. Fred Parker (2003). Scepticism and Literature: An Essay on Pope, Hume, Sterne, and Johnson. OUP Oxford.
    In this first study of the role of scepticism in literature, Fred Parker offers a lively and stimulating introduction to key issues in eighteenth-century literature and philosophy. Parker traces the presence of sceptical thinking in works by Pope, Hume, Sterne, and Johnson, relates it more broadly to the social self-consciousness of eighteenth-century culture, and discusses its source in Locke and its inspiration in Montaigne.
     
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  49. Jacob Stegenga (2011). The Chemical Characterization of the Gene: Vicissitudes of Evidential Assessment. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 33 (1):105-127.
    The chemical characterization of the substance responsible for the phenomenon of “transformation” of pneumococci was presented in the now famous 1944 paper by Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty. Reception of this work was mixed. Although interpreting their results as evidence that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the molecule responsible for genetic changes was, at the time, controversial, this paper has been retrospectively celebrated as providing such evidence. The mixed and changing assessment of the evidence presented in the paper was due to the (...)
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  50.  22
    Rolf Ohlsson, Victor Lobanenkov & Elena Klenova (2010). Does CTCF Mediate Between Nuclear Organization and Gene Expression? Bioessays 32 (1):37-50.
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