Search results for 'General theory' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Almo Farina (2012). A Biosemiotic Perspective of the Resource Criterion: Toward a General Theory of Resources. Biosemiotics 5 (1):17-32.score: 240.0
    Describing resources and their relationships with organisms seems to be a useful approach to a ‘unified ecology’, contributing to fill the gap between natural and human oriented processes, and opening new perspectives in dealing with biological complexity. This Resource Criterion defines the main properties of resources, describes the mechanisms that link them to individual species, and gives a particular emphasis to the biosemiotic approach that allows resources to be identified inside a heterogeneous ecological medium adopting the eco-field model. In particular, (...)
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  2. Robert Oeckl (2013). A Positive Formalism for Quantum Theory in the General Boundary Formulation. Foundations of Physics 43 (10):1206-1232.score: 192.0
    We introduce a new “positive formalism” for encoding quantum theories in the general boundary formulation, somewhat analogous to the mixed state formalism of the standard formulation. This makes the probability interpretation more natural and elegant, eliminates operationally irrelevant structure and opens the general boundary formulation to quantum information theory.
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  3. Hans Rott (1993). Belief Contraction in the Context of the General Theory of Rational Choice. Journal of Symbolic Logic 58 (4):1426-1450.score: 192.0
    This paper reorganizes and further develops the theory of partial meet contraction which was introduced in a classic paper by Alchourrón, Gärdenfors, and Makinson. Our purpose is threefold. First, we put the theory in a broader perspective by decomposing it into two layers which can respectively be treated by the general theory of choice and preference and elementary model theory. Second, we reprove the two main representation theorems of AGM and present two more representation results (...)
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  4. Jean-Yves Béziau (ed.) (2005). Logica Universalis: Towards a General Theory of Logic. Birkhäuser.score: 192.0
    Universal Logic is not a new logic, but a general theory of logics, considered as mathematical structures. The name was introduced about ten years ago, but the subject is as old as the beginning of modern logic: Alfred Tarski and other Polish logicians such as Adolf Lindenbaum developed a general theory of logics at the end of the 1920s based on consequence operations and logical matrices. The subject was revived after the flowering of thousands of new (...)
     
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  5. Rae Lesser Blumberg (1984). A General Theory of Gender Stratification. Sociological Theory 2:23-101.score: 186.0
    This chapter sets forth a general theory of gender stratification. While both biological and ideological variables are taken into account, the emphasis is structural: It is proposed that the major independent variable affecting sexual inequality is each sex's economic power, understood as relative control over the means of production and allocation of surplus. For women, relative economic power is seen as varying-and not always in the same direction-at a variety of micro- and macrolevels, ranging from the household to (...)
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  6. Seth Abrutyn (2009). Toward a General Theory of Institutional Autonomy. Sociological Theory 27 (4):449 - 465.score: 186.0
    Institutional differentiation has been one of the central concerns of sociology since the days of Auguste Comte. However, the overarching tendency among institutionalists such as Durkheim or Spencer has been to treat the process of differentiation from a macro, "outside in" perspective. Missing from this analysis is how institutional differentiation occurs from the "inside out, "or through the efforts and struggles of individual and corporate actors. Despite the recent efforts of the "new institutionalism" to fill in this gap, a closer (...)
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  7. Neil Fligstein & Doug McAdam (2011). Toward a General Theory of Strategic Action Fields. Sociological Theory 29 (1):1 - 26.score: 186.0
    In recent years there has been an outpouring of work at the intersection of social movement studies and organizational theory. While we are generally in sympathy with this work, we think it implies a far more radical rethinking of structure and agency in modern society than has been realized to date. In this article, we offer a brief sketch of a general theory of strategic action fields (SAFs). We begin with a discussion of the main elements of (...)
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  8. John Earman (2002). Thoroughly Modern Mctaggart: Or, What Mctaggart Would Have Said If He Had Read the General Theory of Relativity. Philosophers' Imprint 2 (3):1-28.score: 180.0
    The philosophical literature on time and change is fixated on the issue of whether the B-series account of change is adequate or whether real change requires Becoming of either the property-based variety of McTaggart's A-series or the non-property-based form embodied in C. D. Broad's idea of the piling up of successive layers of existence. For present purposes it is assumed that the B-series suffices to ground real change. But then it is noted that modern science in the guise of Einstein's (...)
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  9. Francisco Calvo Garzón (2008). Towards a General Theory of Antirepresentationalism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (3):259 - 292.score: 180.0
    This work represents an attempt to stake out the landscape for dynamicism based on a radical dismissal of the information-processing paradigm that dominates the philosophy of cognitive science. In Section 2, after setting up the basic toolkit of a theory of minimal representationalism, I introduce the central tenets of dynamic systems theory (DST) by discussing recent research in the dynamics of embodiment (Thelen et al. [2001]) in the perseverative-reaching literature. A recent proposal on the dynamics of representation—the dynamic (...)
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  10. Franz Dietrich & Christian List (2010). The Aggregation of Propositional Attitudes: Towards a General Theory. Oxford Studies in Epistemology 3.score: 180.0
    How can the propositional attitudes of several individuals be aggregated into overall collective propositional attitudes? Although there are large bodies of work on the aggregation of various special kinds of propositional attitudes, such as preferences, judgments, probabilities and utilities, the aggregation of propositional attitudes is seldom studied in full generality. In this paper, we seek to contribute to filling this gap in the literature. We sketch the ingredients of a general theory of propositional attitude aggregation and prove two (...)
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  11. Joan Roughgarden (2009). Is There a General Theory of Community Ecology? Biology and Philosophy 24 (4):521-529.score: 180.0
    Community ecology entered the 1970s with the belief that niche theory would supply a general theory of community structure. The lack of wide-spread empirical support for niche theory led to a focus on models specific to classes of communities such as lakes, intertidal communities, and forests. Today, the needs of conservation biology for metrics of “ecological health” that can be applied across types of communities prompts a renewed interest in the possibility of general theory (...)
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  12. Brent Mundy (1986). On the General Theory of Meaningful Representation. Synthese 67 (3):391 - 437.score: 180.0
    The numerical representations of measurement, geometry and kinematics are here subsumed under a general theory of representation. The standard theories of meaningfulness of representational propositions in these three areas are shown to be special cases of two theories of meaningfulness for arbitrary representational propositions: the theories based on unstructured and on structured representation respectively. The foundations of the standard theories of meaningfulness are critically analyzed and two basic assumptions are isolated which do not seem to have received adequate (...)
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  13. Elliott Jaques (2002). The Life and Behavior of Living Organisms: A General Theory. Praeger.score: 180.0
    Jaques provides a general theory that gives a dynamic scientific foundation for the understanding of all living behavior.
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  14. William Lane Craig (2005). Divine Eternity and the General Theory of Relativity. Faith and Philosophy 22 (5):543-557.score: 180.0
    An examination of time as featured in the General Theory of Relativity, which supercedes Einstein’s Special Theory, serves to rekindle the issue of the existenceof absolute time. In application to cosmology, Einstein’s General Theory yields models of the universe featuring a worldwide time which is the same for all observers in the universe regardless of their relative motion. Such a cosmic time is a rough physical measure of Newton’s absolute time, which is based ontologically in (...)
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  15. Michael E. Brady (1987). J. M. Keynes' 'Theory of Evidential Weight': Its Relation to Information Processing Theory and Application in the General Theory. Synthese 71 (1):37 - 59.score: 180.0
    The conclusions derived by Keynes in his Treatise on Probability (1921) concerning induction, analogical reasoning, expectations formation and decision making, mirror and foreshadow the main conclusions of cognitive science and psychology.The problem of weight is studied within an economic context by examining the role it played in Keynes' applied philosophy work, The General Theory (1936). Keynes' approach is then reformulated as an optimal control approach to dealing with changes in information evaluation over time. Based on this analysis the (...)
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  16. L. Jánossy (1971). A New Approach to the Theory of Relativity. II. The General Theory of Relativity. Foundations of Physics 1 (3):251-267.score: 180.0
    The considerations of Part I are extended and the experimental data and hypotheses that led to the establishment of the general theory of relativity are analyzed. It is found that one of the fundamental assumptions is that light is propagated homogeneously; i.e., by using arbitrary systems of coordinates, propagation of light can be represented by a homogeneous quadratic form. This is shown to be an assumption that can be verified by experiment, at least in principle. As a result (...)
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  17. Neil Tennant (2004). A General Theory of Abstraction Operators. Philosophical Quarterly 54 (214):105-133.score: 180.0
    I present a general theory of abstraction operators which treats them as variable-binding term- forming operators, and provides a reasonably uniform treatment for definite descriptions, set abstracts, natural number abstraction, and real number abstraction. This minimizing, extensional and relational theory reveals a striking similarity between definite descriptions and set abstracts, and provides a clear rationale for the claim that there is a logic of sets (which is ontologically non- committal). The theory also treats both natural and (...)
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  18. Franz Dietrich Christian List, The Aggregation of Propositional Attitudes: Towards a General Theory.score: 180.0
    How can the propositional attitudes of several individuals be aggregated into overall collective propositional attitudes? Although there are large bodies of work on the aggregation of various special kinds of propositional attitudes, such as preferences, judgments, probabilities and utilities, the aggregation of propositional attitudes is seldom studied in full generality. In this paper, we seek to contribute to …lling this gap in the literature. We sketch the ingredients of a general theory of propositional attitude aggregation and prove two (...)
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  19. Janusz Czelakowski (2006). General Theory of the Commutator for Deductive Systems. Part I. Basic Facts. Studia Logica 83 (1-3):183 - 214.score: 180.0
    The purpose of this paper is to present in a uniform way the commutator theory for k-deductive system of arbitrary positive dimension k. We are interested in the logical perspective of the research — an emphasis is put on an analysis of the interconnections holding between the commutator and logic. This research thus qualifies as belonging to abstract algebraic logic, an area of universal algebra that explores to a large extent the methods provided by the general theory (...)
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  20. José A. Díez (1998). Hacia Una Teoría General de la Representación Científica (Tovvards a General Theory of Scientific Represcntation). Theoria 13 (1):113-139.score: 180.0
    En la actividad científica se pueden distinguir tres tipos principales de representación científica: proyectiva, subsuntiva y reductiva. Tras unas breves considcraciones introductorias, se presentan las características más destacadas de cada uno de estos tres tipos principales de representación científica y se abstrae a partir de ellas el esquema al que toda Teoría General de la Representación Científica (TGRC) se debe adecuar. A continuación se exponen las lineas generales de la principal propuesta presente en la literatura para desarrollar TGRC y (...)
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  21. K. Tahir Shah (1979). A General Theory of Conservation Laws, Their Violation, and Spontaneous Phenomena. Foundations of Physics 9 (3-4):271-282.score: 180.0
    We formulate a general theory of conservation laws and other invariants for a physical system through equivalence relations. The conservation laws are classified according to the type of equivalence relation, with group equivalence, homotopical equivalence, and other types of equivalence relations giving respective kinds of conservation laws. The stability properties in the topological (and differentiable) sense are discussed using continuous deformations with respect to control parameters. The conservation laws due to the Abelian symmetries are shown to be stable (...)
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  22. Hans Kelsen (1990). General Theory of Norms. Oxford University Press.score: 180.0
    Hans Kelsen is considered by many to be the foremost legal thinker of the twentieth century. During the last decade of his life he was working on what he called a general theory of norms. Published posthumously in 1979 as Allgemeine Theorie der Normen, the book is here translated for the first time into English. Kelsen develops his "pure theory of law" into a "general theory of norms", and analyzes the applicability of logic to norms (...)
     
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  23. Duane Windsor (2012). Toward a General Theory of Responsibility and Irresponsibility. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 23:48-59.score: 180.0
    This paper seeks to make a contribution toward a general theory of responsibility and irresponsibility. Such a theory, or framework or model, addresses therelationship between responsibility and irresponsibility. The motive for the effort is that the literature on business ethics, corporate citizenship, and corporate social responsibility combines negative prohibitions with positive requirements and at both individual and organizational levels of action. A prohibition takes the form “do not” expressed in laws and ethics. A requirement takes the form (...)
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  24. Albert Einstein (2002). Relativity: The Special and General Theory. Routledge.score: 176.0
    Relativity is the most important scientific idea of the twentieth century. Albert Einstein is the unquestioned founder of modern physics. His Special and General theories of Relativity introduced the idea to the world. In this classic short book he explains clearly, using the minimum amount of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of his theory of Relativity. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on Relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human (...)
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  25. Claes Andersson (2008). Sophisticated Selectionism as a General Theory of Knowledge. Biology and Philosophy 23 (2):229-242.score: 174.0
    Human knowledge is a phenomenon whose roots extend from the cultural, through the neural and the biological and finally all the way down into the Precambrian “primordial soup.” The present paper reports an attempt at understanding this Greater System of Knowledge (GSK) as a hierarchical nested set of selection processes acting concurrently on several different scales of time and space. To this end, a general selection theory extending mainly from the work of Hull and Campbell is introduced. The (...)
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  26. Hiroki Nomoto (forthcoming). A General Theory of Bare “Singular” Kind Terms. In Proceedings of the Poster Session of the 29th Annual West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (WCCFL 29).score: 174.0
    Dayal’s (2004) theory of kind terms accounts for the definiteness and number marking patterns in kind terms in many languages. Brazilian Portuguese has been claimed to be a counter-example to her theory as it seems to allow bare “singular” kind terms, which are predicted to be impossible according to her theory. However, the empirical status of the relevant data has not been clear so far. This paper presents a new data point from Singlish and confirms the existence (...)
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  27. Frank Lovett (2010). A General Theory of Domination and Justice. OUP Oxford.score: 174.0
    In all societies, past and present, many persons and groups have been subject to domination. Properly understood, domination is a great evil, the suffering of which ought to be minimized so far as possible. Surprisingly, however, political and social theorists have failed to provide a detailed analysis of the concept of domination in general. This study aims to redress this lacuna. It argues first, that domination should be understood as a condition experienced by persons or groups to the extent (...)
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  28. Craig Freedman (1995). Animal Spirits in His Soup: A Look at the Methodology and Rhetoric of The General Theory. Journal of Economic Methodology 2 (1):79-104.score: 174.0
    Part of Keynes? 'struggle of escape from habitual modes of thought and expression' (Keynes 1960: viii) involves an implicit attempt to break with the methodology as well as the theory of the past. Unfortunately the rhetorical strategy Keynes adopted in The General Theoryblurred this attempt. As a result, it is only by examining both the methodology and rhetoric embedded in this work that it becomes possible to understand the book as a coherent whole. This paper demonstrates the validity (...)
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  29. N. M. Korkunov (1922/1968). General Theory of Law. New York, A. M. Kelley.score: 174.0
    THEORY OF LAW INTRODUCTION NEED FOR GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SCHELLING. Vorlesungen iiber die akad. Studium,. COMTE, AUG. Cours de philosophic positive. Tome. ...
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  30. Carol E. Cleland (2013). Is a General Theory of Life Possible? Seeking the Nature of Life in the Context of a Single Example. Biological Theory 7 (4):368-379.score: 168.0
    Is one of the roles of theory in biology answering the question “What is life?” This is true of theory in many other fields of science. So why should not it be the case for biology? Yet efforts to identify unifying concepts and principles of life have been disappointing, leading some (pluralists) to conclude that life is not a natural kind. In this essay I argue that such judgments are premature. Life as we know it on Earth today (...)
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  31. Kenneth B. Little, Yvonne Brackbill, Robert B. Isaacs & Norman Smelkinson (1963). A Further Test of a General Utility Theory Model for Probability Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 66 (1):107.score: 168.0
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  32. Dietmar Pfordten (2012). Five Elements of Normative Ethics - A General Theory of Normative Individualism. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (4):449-471.score: 164.0
    The article tries to inquire a third way in normative ethics between consequentialism or utilitarianism and deontology or Kantianism. To find such a third way in normative ethics, one has to analyze the elements of these classical theories and to look if they are justified. In this article it is argued that an adequate normative ethics has to contain the following five elements: (1) normative individualism, i. e., the view that in the last instance moral norms and values can only (...)
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  33. Dietmar von der Pfordten (2012). Five Elements of Normative Ethics - A General Theory of Normative Individualism. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (4):449 - 471.score: 164.0
    The article tries to inquire a third way in normative ethics between consequentialism or utilitarianism and deontology or Kantianism. To find such a third way in normative ethics, one has to analyze the elements of these classical theories and to look if they are justified. In this article it is argued that an adequate normative ethics has to contain the following five elements: (1) normative individualism, i. e., the view that in the last instance moral norms and values can only (...)
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  34. Thomas Mormann (2010). Structural Universals as Structural Parts: Toward a General Theory of Parthood and Composition. Axiomathes 20 (2 -3):229 - 253.score: 162.0
    David Lewis famously argued against structural universals since they allegedly required what he called a composition “sui generis” that differed from standard mereological com¬position. In this paper it is shown that, although traditional Boolean mereology does not describe parthood and composition in its full generality, a better and more comprehensive theory is provided by the foundational theory of categories. In this category-theoretical framework a theory of structural universals can be formulated that overcomes the conceptual difficulties that Lewis (...)
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  35. James Elkins (2012). Whitney Davis's General Theory of Visual Culture. [REVIEW] College Art Association Books Reviews.score: 162.0
    This is a brief essay on Whitney Davis's book. A shorter version, edited down by the College Art Association, is on their online book reviews site (protected by a paywall).
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  36. Yury P. Shimansky (2004). The Concept of a Universal Learning System as a Basis for Creating a General Mathematical Theory of Learning. Minds and Machines 14 (4):453-484.score: 162.0
    The number of studies related to natural and artificial mechanisms of learning rapidly increases. However, there is no general theory of learning that could provide a unifying basis for exploring different directions in this growing field. For a long time the development of such a theory has been hindered by nativists' belief that the development of a biological organism during ontogeny should be viewed as parameterization of an innate, encoded in the genome structure by an innate algorithm, (...)
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  37. D. W. Rajecki, Michael E. Lamb & Pauline Obmascher (1978). Toward a General Theory of Infantile Attachment: A Comparative Review of Aspects of the Social Bond. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (3):417.score: 162.0
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  38. A. K. Saran (2003). Meaning and Truth: Lectures on the Theory of Language: A Prolegomena to the General Theory of Society and Culture. Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies.score: 162.0
     
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  39. J. L. Synge (1960). Relativity: The General Theory. New York, Interscience Publishers.score: 162.0
     
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  40. Steven Weinberg (1972). Gravitation and Cosmology: Principles and Applications of the General Theory of Relativity. New York,Wiley.score: 162.0
  41. Jeremy Horder (1993). Criminal Culpability: The Possibility of a General Theory. [REVIEW] Law and Philosophy 12 (2):193 - 215.score: 156.0
    In this article, I try to do two things. First I analyse critically the suggestion that the principles of criminal culpability can be explained by reference to a single, all-encompassing concept, such as “defiance of the law”. I then go on to explain the foundations of criminal culpability by reference to three interlocking theories — the capacity theory, the character theory, and the agency theory. I conclude that even these three theories may not be sufficient to explain (...)
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  42. Kristoffer Ahlstrom-Vij (2012). Review of Frank Lovett, A General Theory of Domination and Justice (Oxford UP, 2010). [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 62 (246):190-192.score: 156.0
    The review argues that Lovett’s theory of domination suffers from a problem. Lovett is aware of the problem and bites a fairly large bullet in response to it. What he does not seem aware of is that the problem can be avoided by opting for an account of welfare that he unfortunately ignores, despite the fact that it would serve his purposes well.
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  43. Richard Sharvy (1980). A More General Theory of Definite Descriptions. Philosophical Review 89 (4):607-624.score: 156.0
    A unified theory is offered to account for three types of definite descriptions: with singular, plural, & mass predicates, & to provide an account for the word the in descriptions. It is noted that B. Russell's analysis ("On Denoting," Mind, 1905, 14, 479-493) failed to account for plural & mass descriptions. The proposed theory differs from Russell's only by the substitution of the notation (less than or equal to) for Russell's =. It is suggested that for every predicate (...)
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  44. James L. Park & William Band (1971). A General Theory of Empirical State Determination in Quantum Physics: Part I. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 1 (3):211-226.score: 156.0
    This paper develops a method for extracting from data the quantum theoretical state representation belonging to any reproducible empirical scheme for preparing a physical system, provided only that at least one observable has its possible values limited to a finite set. In Part I, we formulate a general systematic procedure, based on the concept of irreducible tensor operators, for the selection of sets of observables sufficiently large to permit the unambiguous determination of an unknown quantum state.
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  45. Theodore Bach (2014). A Unified Account of General Learning Mechanisms and Theory‐of‐Mind Development. Mind and Language 29 (3):351-381.score: 156.0
    Modularity theorists have challenged that there are, or could be, general learning mechanisms that explain theory-of-mind development. In response, supporters of the ‘scientific theory-theory’ account of theory-of-mind development have appealed to children's use of auxiliary hypotheses and probabilistic causal modeling. This article argues that these general learning mechanisms are not sufficient to meet the modularist's challenge. The article then explores an alternative domain-general learning mechanism by proposing that children grasp the concept belief through (...)
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  46. B. J. Hiley (2010). On the Relationship Between the Wigner-Moyal and Bohm Approaches to Quantum Mechanics: A Step to a More General Theory? [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 40 (4):356-367.score: 156.0
    In this paper we show that the three main equations used by Bohm in his approach to quantum mechanics are already contained in the earlier paper by Moyal which forms the basis for what is known as the Wigner-Moyal approach. This shows, contrary to the usual perception, that there is a deep relation between the two approaches. We suggest the relevance of this result to the more general problem of constructing a quantum geometry.
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  47. Peter Kakol (2002). A General Theory of Worldviews Based on Madhyamika and Process Philosophies. Philosophy East and West 52 (2):207-223.score: 156.0
    From the contention that no worldview can be both consistent and complete is derived the insight that a worldview is contextually dependent on past worldviews that it both transcends and includes. Mādhyamika Buddhism illustrates the deconstructive aspect of this thesis--namely, that worldviews claiming completeness or independence are inconsistent. Process philosophy, on the other hand, is a theory that describes reality as the ongoing process of asymmetrical transcendence and inclusion of worldviews as perspectival events. It is argued that both Mādhyamika (...)
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  48. Sing-Nan Fen (1968). How Is Philosophy a General Theory of Education? Educational Theory 18 (2):178-183.score: 156.0
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  49. Dov M. Gabbay (1995). A General Theory of Structured Consequence Relations. Theoria 10 (2):49-78.score: 156.0
    There are several areas in logic where the monotonicity of the consequence relation fails to hold. Roughly these are the traditional non-monotonic systems arising in Artificial Intelligence (such as defeasible logics, circumscription, defaults, ete), numerical non-monotonic systems (probabilistic systems, fuzzy logics, belief functions), resource logics (also called substructural logics such as relevance logic, linear logic, Lambek calculus), and the logic of theory change (also called belief revision, see Alchourron, Gärdenfors, Makinson [2224]). We are seeking a common axiomatic and semantical (...)
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  50. F. C. Garzon (2008). Towards a General Theory of Antirepresentationalism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (3):259-292.score: 156.0
    This work represents an attempt to stake out the landscape for dynamicism based on a radical dismissal of the information-processing paradigm that dominates the philosophy of cognitive science. In Section 2, after setting up the basic toolkit of a theory of minimal representationalism, I introduce the central tenets of dynamic systems theory (DST) by discussing recent research in the dynamics of embodiment (Thelen et al. [2001]) in the perseverative-reaching literature. A recent proposal on the dynamics of representation--the dynamic (...)
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