Search results for 'Generalization' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Carlo Cellucci (2009). The Universal Generalization Problem. Logique and Analyse 52 (205):3-20.score: 18.0
    Locke, Berkeley, Gentzen gave di erent justi cations of universal generalization. In particular, Gentzen's justi cation is the one currently used in most logic textbooks. In this paper I argue that all such justi cations are problematic, and propose an alternative justi cation which is related to the approach to generality of Greek mathematics.
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  2. Jurgen Schroder (2002). The Supervenience Argument and the Generalization Problem. Erkenntnis 56 (3):319-28.score: 18.0
    This paper tries to show that Kims strategy of preventing the problem of generalization of mental causation is not successful and that his original supervenience argument can be applied to cases of nonmental macrolevel causation, with the effect that nonmental macroproperties which only supervene on, but are not identical with, configurations of microproperties turn out to be epiphenomenal after all.
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  3. Zenon Kulpa (2009). Main Problems of Diagrammatic Reasoning. Part I: The Generalization Problem. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 14 (1-2):75-96.score: 18.0
    The paper attempts to analyze in some detail the main problems encountered in reasoning using diagrams, which may cause errors in reasoning, produce doubts concerning the reliability of diagrams, and impressions that diagrammatic reasoning lacks the rigour necessary for mathematical reasoning. The paper first argues that such impressions come from long neglect which led to a lack of well-developed, properly tested and reliable reasoning methods, as contrasted with the amount of work generations of mathematicians expended on refining the methods of (...)
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  4. Eric Hauser (2011). Generalization: A Practice of Situated Categorization in Talk. [REVIEW] Human Studies 34 (2):183-198.score: 18.0
    This paper analyzes four instances in talk of generalization about people, that is, of using statements about one or more people as the basis of stating something about a category. Generalization can be seen as a categorization practice which involves a reflexive relationship between the generalized-from person or people and the generalized-to category. One thing that is accomplished through generalization is instruction in how to understand the identity of the generalized-from person or people, so in addition to (...)
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  5. Joseph J. Williams & Tania Lombrozo (2010). The Role of Explanation in Discovery and Generalization: Evidence From Category Learning. Cognitive Science 34 (5):776-806.score: 18.0
    Research in education and cognitive development suggests that explaining plays a key role in learning and generalization: When learners provide explanations—even to themselves—they learn more effectively and generalize more readily to novel situations. This paper proposes and tests a subsumptive constraints account of this effect. Motivated by philosophical theories of explanation, this account predicts that explaining guides learners to interpret what they are learning in terms of unifying patterns or regularities, which promotes the discovery of broad generalizations. Three experiments (...)
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  6. Charles Sayward (2002). Geach on Generalization. Dialogue 41 (02):221-.score: 18.0
    There are plausible objections to substitutional construals of generalization. But these objections do not apply to a substitutional construal of generalization proposed by Peter Geach several years ago. This paper examines Geach’s conception.
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  7. Daniel J. Navarro, Matthew J. Dry & Michael D. Lee (2012). Sampling Assumptions in Inductive Generalization. Cognitive Science 36 (2):187-223.score: 18.0
    Inductive generalization, where people go beyond the data provided, is a basic cognitive capability, and it underpins theoretical accounts of learning, categorization, and decision making. To complete the inductive leap needed for generalization, people must make a key ‘‘sampling’’ assumption about how the available data were generated. Previous models have considered two extreme possibilities, known as strong and weak sampling. In strong sampling, data are assumed to have been deliberately generated as positive examples of a concept, whereas in (...)
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  8. Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Thomas L. Griffiths (2001). Generalization, Similarity, and Bayesian Inference. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (4):629-640.score: 18.0
    Shepard has argued that a universal law should govern generalization across different domains of perception and cognition, as well as across organisms from different species or even different planets. Starting with some basic assumptions about natural kinds, he derived an exponential decay function as the form of the universal generalization gradient, which accords strikingly well with a wide range of empirical data. However, his original formulation applied only to the ideal case of generalization from a single encountered (...)
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  9. Diderik Batens (2011). Logics for Qualitative Inductive Generalization. Studia Logica 97 (1):61 - 80.score: 18.0
    The paper contains a survey of (mainly unpublished) adaptive logics of inductive generalization. These defeasible logics are precise formulations of certain methods. Some attention is also paid to ways of handling background knowledge, introducing mere conjectures, and the research guiding capabilities of the logics.
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  10. Dan López de Sa (2008). The Over-Generalization Problem: Predicates Rigidly Signifying the “Unnatural”. [REVIEW] Synthese 163 (2):263-272.score: 18.0
    According to the simple proposal, a predicate is rigid iff it signifies the same property across the different possible worlds. The simple proposal has been claimed to suffer from an over-generalization problem. Assume that one can make sense of predicates signifying properties, and assume that trivialization concerns, to the effect that the notion would cover any predicate whatsoever, can be overcome. Still, the proposal would over-generalize, the worry has it, by covering predicates for artifactual, social, or evaluative properties, such (...)
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  11. Richard B. Ivry Jordan A. Taylor (2013). Context-Dependent Generalization. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    The pattern of generalization following motor learning can provide a probe on the neural mechanisms underlying learning. For example, the breadth of generalization to untrained regions of space after visuomotor adaptation to targets in a restricted region of space has been attributed to the directional tuning properties of neurons in the motor system. Building on this idea, the effect of different types of perturbations on generalization (e.g., rotation versus visual translation) have been attributed to the selection of (...)
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  12. Dharshan Kumaran (2012). What Representations and Computations Underpin the Contribution of the Hippocampus to Generalization and Inference? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 18.0
    Empirical research and theoretical accounts have traditionally emphasized the function of the hippocampus in episodic memory. Here we draw attention to the importance of the hippocampus to generalization, and focus on the neural representations and computations that might underpin its role in tasks such as the paired associate inference paradigm. We make a principal distinction between two different mechanisms by which the hippocampus may support generalization: an encoding-based mechanism that creates overlapping representations that capture higher-order relationships between different (...)
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  13. Ann Meulders, Nele Vandebroek, Bram Vervliet & Johan Ws Vlaeyen (2013). Generalization Gradients in Cued and Contextual Pain-Related Fear: An Experimental Study in Healthy Participants. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 1.score: 18.0
    Increasing evidence supports the notion that pain-related fear plays a key role in the transition from acute to chronic pain. Recent experimental data show that associative learning processes are involved in the acquisition of pain-related fear. An intriguing yet underinvestigated question entails how spreading of pain-related fear in chronic pain occurs. In a voluntary movement paradigm in which one arm movement (CS+) was followed by a painful stimulus and another was not (CS-) in the predictable group and painful stimuli were (...)
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  14. Na-Yung Yu, Takashi Yamauchi, Huei-Fang Yang, Yen-Lin Chen & Ricardo Gutierrez-Osuna (2010). Feature Selection for Inductive Generalization. Cognitive Science 34 (8):1574-1593.score: 16.0
    Judging similarities among objects, events, and experiences is one of the most basic cognitive abilities, allowing us to make predictions and generalizations. The main assumption in similarity judgment is that people selectively attend to salient features of stimuli and judge their similarities on the basis of the common and distinct features of the stimuli. However, it is unclear how people select features from stimuli and how they weigh features. Here, we present a computational method that helps address these questions. Our (...)
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  15. Kari Vepsäläinen & John R. Spence (2000). Generalization in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology: From Hypothesis to Paradigm. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 15 (2):211-238.score: 16.0
    We argue that broad, simplegeneralizations, not specifically linked tocontingencies, will rarely approach truth in ecologyand evolutionary biology. This is because mostinteresting phenomena have multiple, interactingcauses. Instead of looking for single universaltheories to explain the great diversity of naturalsystems, we suggest that it would be profitable todevelop general explanatory frameworks. A frameworkshould clearly specify focal levels. The process orpattern that we wish to study defines our level offocus. The set of potential and actual states at thefocal level interacts with conditions at (...)
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  16. Dmitry Zaitsev & Oleg Grigoriev (2010). Relevant Generalization Starts Here (and Here = 2). Logic and Logical Philosophy 19 (4):329-340.score: 16.0
    There is a productive and suggestive approach in philosophical logic based on the idea of generalized truth values. This idea, which stems essentially from the pioneering works by J.M. Dunn, N. Belnap, and which has recently been developed further by Y. Shramko and H. Wansing, is closely connected to the power-setting formation on the base of some initial truth values. Having a set of generalized truth values, one can introduce fundamental logical notions, more specifically, the ones of logical operations and (...)
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  17. Cailin O'Connor, Learning Generalization: Trading Speed for Precision.score: 15.0
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  18. Roger L. Mellgren, Dennis G. Dyck, Jeffrey A. Seybert & Dan M. Wrather (1973). Within-Subject Partial Reinforcement Effects: Reward-Nonreward Transitions and Generalization. Journal of Experimental Psychology 99 (3):389-394.score: 15.0
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  19. Gary Hansen, Arthur Tomie, David R. Thomas & Doris H. Thomas (1974). Effect of Test Stimulus Range on Stimulus Generalization in Human Subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (4):634.score: 15.0
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  20. Joseph Lyons & David R. Thomas (1967). Effects of Interdimensional Training on Stimulus Generalization: II. Within-Subjects Design. Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (4):572.score: 15.0
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  21. David R. Thomas & Richard H. Hiss (1963). A Test of the "Units Hypothesis" Employing Wave-Length Generalization in Human Subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (1):59.score: 15.0
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  22. Kenneth R. Burstein, Seymour Epstein & Barry Smith (1967). Primary Stimulus Generalization of the Gsr as a Function of Objective and Subjective Definition of the Stimulus Dimension. Journal of Experimental Psychology 74 (1):124-131.score: 15.0
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  23. Theodore J. Doll & David R. Thomas (1967). Effects of Discrimination Training on Stimulus Generalization for Human Subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (4):508.score: 15.0
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  24. Jeffrey S. Landau (1968). Postdiscrimination Generalization in Human Subjects of Two Different Ages. Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (4p1):656.score: 15.0
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  25. Shepard Siegel, Eliot Hearst & Nancy George (1968). Generalization Gradients Obtained From Individual Subjects Following Classical Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (1):171.score: 15.0
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  26. Douglas Heath (1959). Stimulus Similarity and Task Familiarity as Determinants of Expectancy Generalization. Journal of Experimental Psychology 58 (4):289.score: 15.0
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  27. Roger N. Shepard (1958). Stimulus and Response Generalization: Tests of a Model Relating Generalization to Distance in Psychological Space. Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (6):509.score: 15.0
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  28. Delos D. Wickens (1948). Stimulus Identity as Related to Response Specificity and Response Generalization. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (4):389.score: 15.0
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  29. David W. Abbott (1966). Effects of Meaningfulness of Structurally Similar CVSs on Stimulus Generalization of Eyelid Closure. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (4):511.score: 15.0
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  30. David W. Abbott & Louis E. Price (1964). Stimulus Generalization of the Conditioned Eyelid Response to Structurally Similar Nonsense Syllables. Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (4):368.score: 15.0
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  31. Woo‐Young Ahn, Jerome R. Busemeyer, Eric‐Jan Wagenmakers & Julie C. Stout (2008). Comparison of Decision Learning Models Using the Generalization Criterion Method. Cognitive Science 32 (8):1376-1402.score: 15.0
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  32. Abram Amsel, Michael E. Rashotte & Karen Galbraith (1969). Can Generalization of the Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect Be Reduced by Distinctiveness Pretraining? Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (2):401.score: 15.0
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  33. Abram Amsel & Keith F. Cole (1953). Generalization of Fear-Motivated Interference with Water Intake. Journal of Experimental Psychology 46 (4):243.score: 15.0
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  34. Burton G. Andreas (1954). Empirical Gradients of Generalization in a Perceptual-Motor Task. Journal of Experimental Psychology 48 (2):119.score: 15.0
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  35. Eric Aronson & Albert Erlebacher (1968). Stimulus Categorizing in the Generalization of a Voluntary Response. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (4p1):585.score: 15.0
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  36. Harry P. Bahrick, Sandra Clark & Phyllis Bahrick (1967). Generalization Gradients as Indicants of Learning and Retention of a Recognition Task. Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (4):464.score: 15.0
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  37. Bettina Bass (1958). Gradients in Response Percentages as Indices of Nonspatial Generalization. Journal of Experimental Psychology 56 (3):278.score: 15.0
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  38. Marian Hooper Baum (1954). Simple Concept Learning as a Function of Intralist Generalization. Journal of Experimental Psychology 47 (2):89.score: 15.0
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  39. Y. Baumstimler & J. Parrot (1971). Stimulus Generalization and Spontaneous Blinking in Man Involved in a Voluntary Activity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 88 (1):95.score: 15.0
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  40. Bruce O. Bergum (1960). Gradients of Generalization in Secondary Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 59 (1):47.score: 15.0
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  41. Irv Bialer (1961). Primary and Secondary Stimulus Generalization as Related to Intelligence Level. Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (4):395.score: 15.0
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  42. H. R. Blackwell & H. Schlosberg (1943). Octave Generalization, Pitch Discrimination, and Loudness Thresholds in the White Rat. Journal of Experimental Psychology 33 (5):407.score: 15.0
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  43. C. Alan Boneau & Werner K. Honig (1964). Opposed Generalization Gradients Based Upon Conditional Discrimination Training. Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (1):89.score: 15.0
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  44. Judson S. Brown, Frank R. Clarke & Larry Stein (1958). A New Technique for Studying Spatial Generalization with Voluntary Responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (4):359.score: 15.0
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  45. S. Joyce Brotsky & William H. Keller (1971). Semantic Conditioning and Generalization of the Galvanic Skin Response: Locus of Mediation in Classical Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 89 (2):383.score: 15.0
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  46. S. Joyce Brotsky & Linda M. Litwin (1972). Semantic Generalization: Replication of Cramer's Associative Gradient. Journal of Experimental Psychology 93 (2):430-432.score: 15.0
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  47. Arnold H. Buss (1950). A Study of Concept Formation as a Function of Reinforcement and Stimulus Generalization. Journal of Experimental Psychology 40 (4):494.score: 15.0
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  48. Arnold H. Buss, Morton Weiner & Edith Buss (1954). Stimulus Generalization as a Function of Verbal Reinforcement Combination. Journal of Experimental Psychology 48 (6):433.score: 15.0
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  49. Arnold H. Buss (1961). Stimulus Generalization and Aggressive Verbal Stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology 61 (6):469.score: 15.0
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  50. Charles M. Butter (1963). Stimulus Generalization Along One and Two Dimensions in Pigeons. Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (4):339.score: 15.0
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