Search results for 'Genetics Philosophy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Keekok Lee (2003). Philosophy and Revolutions in Genetics: Deep Science and Deep Technology. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 204.0
    The last century saw two great revolutions in genetics the development of classic Mendelian theory and the discovery and investigation of DNA. Each fundamental scientific discovery in turn generated its own distinctive technology. These two case studies, examined in this text, enable the author to conduct a philosophical exploration of the relationship between fundamental scientific discoveries on the one hand, and the technologies that spring from them on the other. As such it is also an exercise in the (...) of technology. (shrink)
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  2. Paul Griffiths & Karola Stotz, Genetics and Philosophy : An Introduction.score: 144.0
    In the past century, nearly all of the biological sciences have been directly affected by discoveries and developments in genetics, a fast-evolving subject with important theoretical dimensions. In this rich and accessible book, Paul Griffiths and Karola Stotz show how the concept of the gene has evolved and diversified across the many fields that make up modern biology. By examining the molecular biology of the 'environment', they situate genetics in the developmental biology of whole organisms, and reveal how (...)
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  3. David L. Hull (1972). Reduction in Genetics--Biology or Philosophy? Philosophy of Science 39 (4):491-499.score: 132.0
    A belief common among philosophers and biologists alike is that Mendelian genetics has been or is in the process of being reduced to molecular genetics, in the sense of formal theory reduction current in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to show that there are numerous empirical and conceptual difficulties which stand in the way of establishing a systematic inferential relation between Mendelian and molecular genetics. These difficulties, however, have little to do with the traditional (...)
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  4. M. R., C. R. & J. W. (1996). Against Generality: Meaning in Genetics and Philosophy. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 27 (1):1-29.score: 126.0
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  5. Richard M. Burian, Robert C. Richardson & Wim J. Van der Steen (1996). Against Generality: Meaning in Genetics and Philosophy. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 27 (1):1-29.score: 126.0
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  6. Mario Graziano (forthcoming). Genetics and Philosophy by Paul Griffiths and Karola Stotz. Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-1.score: 126.0
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  7. Garland E. Allen (2014). Origins of the Classical Gene Concept, 1900–1950: Genetics, Mechanistic, Philosophy, and the Capitalization of Agriculture. [REVIEW] Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 57 (1):8-39.score: 126.0
    As many of the papers in this Special Symposium Issue discuss, by the 21st century we have moved well beyond the notion of a gene as a single particulate unit coding for a given protein, or especially a single phenotypic trait. Yet notions of genes as some kind of single, particulate entity still persist, especially in textbooks and writings about genetics for the general public. To understand this disjunct between the professional geneticist’s view of genes and their complex interactions, (...)
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  8. Nikolai Krementsov (2011). From 'Beastly Philosophy'to Medical Genetics: Eugenics in Russia and the Soviet Union. Annals of Science 68 (1):61-92.score: 126.0
    Summary This essay offers an overview of the three distinct periods in the development of Russian eugenics: Imperial (1900?1917), Bolshevik (1917?1929), and Stalinist (1930?1939). Began during the Imperial era as a particular discourse on the issues of human heredity, diversity, and evolution, in the early years of the Bolshevik rule eugenics was quickly institutionalized as a scientific discipline?complete with societies, research establishments, and periodicals?that aspired an extensive grassroots following, generated lively public debates, and exerted considerable influence on a range of (...)
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  9. C. Newell (2000). Biomedicine, Genetics and Disability: Reflections on Nursing and a Philosophy of Holism. Nursing Ethics 7 (3):227-231.score: 126.0
    This article critically explores the notion of those sociopolitical spaces that are 'disability', 'holism' and 'genetics', arguing from the perspectives of someone who identifies as having a disability. Medical genetics is seen to reflect the ideology and dominant biomedical reductionist thought. In contrast with this, it is proposed that disability and health are inherently social. A nursing approach is seen to recognize the social and holistic nature of the human person and to present a critical reflection on the (...)
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  10. Monika Piotrowska (2014). Genetics and Philosophy: An Introduction. 28 (2):223-226.score: 126.0
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  11. Raphael Falk (2014). Review of Genetics and Philosophy: An Introduction. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 81 (3):470-475,.score: 126.0
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  12. David M. Steffes (2007). Panpsychic Organicism: Sewall Wright's Philosophy for Understanding Complex Genetic Systems. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 40 (2):327 - 361.score: 120.0
    Sewall Wright first encountered the complex systems characteristic of gene combinations while a graduate student at Harvard's Bussey Institute from 1912 to 1915. In Mendelian breeding experiments, Wright observed a hierarchical dependence of the organism's phenotype on dynamic networks of genetic interaction and organization. An animal's physical traits, and thus its autonomy from surrounding environmental constraints, depended greatly on how genes behaved in certain combinations. Wright recognized that while genes are the material determinants of the animal phenotype, operating with great (...)
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  13. Edward Manier & Harvey Bender (1965). Genetics and the Philosophy of Biology. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 39:124-133.score: 120.0
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  14. Robin Holliday (1999). The Incompatibility of Popper's Philosophy of Science with Genetics and Molecular Biology. Bioessays 21 (10):890-891.score: 120.0
  15. Sahotra Sarkar & Anya Plutynski (eds.) (2008). A Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Blackwell Pub..score: 108.0
    Comprised of essays by top scholars in the field, this volume offers concise overviews of philosophical issues raised by biology. Brings together a team of eminent scholars to explore the philosophical issues raised by biology Addresses traditional and emerging topics, spanning molecular biology and genetics, evolution, developmental biology, immunology, ecology, mind and behaviour, neuroscience, and experimentation Begins with a thorough introduction to the field Goes beyond previous treatments that focused only on evolution to give equal attention to other areas, (...)
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  16. Walter Glannon (2001). Genes and Future People: Philosophical Issues in Human Genetics. Westview Press.score: 96.0
    Advances in genetic technology in general and medical genetics in particular will enable us to intervene in the process of human biological development which extends from zygotes and embryos to people. This will allow us to control to a great extent the identities and the length and quality of the lives of people who already exist, as well as those we bring into existence in the near and distant future. Genes and Future People explores two general philosophical questions, one (...)
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  17. Richard M. Burian (2005). The Epistemology of Development, Evolution, and Genetics: Selected Essays. Cambridge University Press.score: 96.0
    The essays in this collection examine developments in three fundamental biological disciplines--embryology, evolutionary biology, and genetics--in conflict with each other for much of the twentieth century. They consider key methodological problems and the difficulty of overcoming them. Richard Burian interweaves historical appreciation of the settings within which scientists work, substantial knowledge of the biological problems at stake and the methodological and philosophical issues faced in integrating biological knowledge drawn from disparate sources.
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  18. Claudio Marcello Tamburrini & Torbjörn Tännsjö (eds.) (2005). Genetic Technology and Sport: Ethical Questions. Routledge.score: 88.0
    For elite athletes seeking a winning advantage, manipulation of their own genetic code has become a realistic possibility. In Genetic Technology and Sport, experts from sports science, genetics, philosophy, ethics, and international sports administration describe the potential applications of the new technology and debate the questions surrounding its use.
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  19. Peter J. Beurton, Raphael Falk & Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (eds.) (2000). The Concept of the Gene in Development and Evolution: Historical and Epistemological Perspectives. Cambridge University Press.score: 84.0
    Advances in molecular biological research in the last forty years have made the story of the gene vastly complicated: the more we learn about genes, the less sure we are of what a gene really is. Knowledge about the structure and functioning of genes abounds, but the gene has also become curiously intangible. This collection of essays renews the question: what are genes? Philosophers, historians, and working scientists re-evaluate the question in this volume, treating the gene as a focal point (...)
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  20. Robert A. Wilson (2005). Genes and the Agents of Life: The Individual in the Fragile Sciences, Biology. Cambridge University Press.score: 84.0
    What are the agents of life? Central to our conception of the biological world is the idea that it contains various kinds of individuals, including genes, organisms, and species. How we conceive of these agents of life is central to our understanding of the relationship between life and mind, the place of hierarchical thinking in the biological sciences, and pluralistic views of biological agency. Genes and the Agents of Life rethinks the place of the individual in the biological sciences, drawing (...)
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  21. Paul Atkinson (2006). New Genetics, New Indentities. Routledge.score: 84.0
    New genetic technologies and their applications in biomedicine have important implications for social identities in contemporary societies. In medicine, new genetics is increasingly important for the identification of health and disease, the imputation of personal and familial risk, and the moral status of those identified as having genetic susceptibility for inherited conditions. There are also consequent transformations in national and ethnic collective identity, and the body and its investigation is potentially transformed by the possibilities of genetic investigations and modifications (...)
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  22. Neven Sesardic (2010). Race: A Social Destruction of a Biological Concept. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 25 (2):143-162.score: 78.0
    It is nowadays a dominant opinion in a number of disciplines (anthropology, genetics, psychology, philosophy of science) that the taxonomy of human races does not make much biological sense. My aim is to challenge the arguments that are usually thought to invalidate the biological concept of race. I will try to show that the way “race” was defined by biologists several decades ago (by Dobzhansky and others) is in no way discredited by conceptual criticisms that are now fashionable (...)
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  23. Lindley Darden (1991). Theory Change in Science: Strategies From Mendelian Genetics. Oxford University Press.score: 78.0
    This innovative book focuses on the development of the gene theory as a case study in scientific creativity.
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  24. Constantinos Deltas, Helenē Kalokairinou & Sabine Rogge (eds.) (2006). Progress in Science and the Danger of Hubris: Genetics, Transplantation, Stem Cell Research: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Medical Ethics, Nicosia, 24-26 September 2004. [REVIEW] Waxmann.score: 78.0
    Introduction The present volume contains the proceedings of the First International Conference on Medical Ethics which took place in Nicosia, from the 24th ...
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  25. Glenn McGee (2000). The Perfect Baby: Parenthood in the New World of Cloning and Genetics. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.score: 78.0
     
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  26. Wolfgang Balzer & Pablo Lorenzano (2000). The Logical Structure of Classical Genetics. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 31 (2):243-266.score: 72.0
    We present a reconstruction of so-called classical, formal or Mendelian genetics using a notation which we believe is more legible than that of earlier accounts, and lends itself easily to computer implementation, for instance in PROLOG. By drawing from, and emending, earlier work of Balzer and Dawe (1986,1997), the present account presents the three most important lines of development of classical genetics: the so-called Mendel's laws, linkage genetics and gene mapping, in the form of a theory-net. This (...)
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  27. Sahotra Sarkar (1992). Science, Philosophy, and Politics in the Work of J. B. S. Haldane, 1922–1937. Biology and Philosophy 7 (4):385-409.score: 72.0
    This paper analyzes the interaction between science, philosophy and politics (including ideology) in the early work of J. B. S. Haldane (from 1922 to 1937). This period is particularly important, not only because it is the period of Haldane's most significant biological work (both in biochemistry and genetics), but also because it is during this period that his philosophical and political views underwent their most significant transformation. His philosophical stance first changed from a radical organicism to a position (...)
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  28. Adam M. Hedgecoe (2001). Ethical Boundary Work: Geneticization, Philosophy and the Social Sciences. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (3):305-309.score: 72.0
    This paper is a response to Henk ten Have's Genetics and Culture: The Geneticization thesis . In it, I refute Ten Have's suggestion that geneticization is not the sort of process that can be measured and commented on in terms of empirical evidence,even if he is correct in suggesting that it should be seen as part of ‘philosophical discourse’. At the end, I relate this discussion to broader debates within bioethics between the social science and philosophy, and suggest (...)
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  29. Marie Gaille & Géraldine Viot (2013). Prenatal Diagnosis as a Tool and Support for Eugenics: Myth or Reality in Contemporary French Society? [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (1):83-91.score: 68.0
    Today, French public debate and bioethics research reflect an ongoing controversy about eugenics. The field of reproductive medicine is often targeted as pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), prenatal diagnosis, and prenatal detection are accused of drifting towards eugenics or being driven by eugenics considerations. This article aims at understanding why the charge against eugenics came at the forefront of the ethical debate. Above all, it aims at showing that the charge against prenatal diagnosis is groundless. The point of view presented in (...)
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  30. Michael Ruse (ed.) (2008). The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Biology. Oxford University Press.score: 66.0
    The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Biology is an exciting collection of new essays written especially to give the reader an introduction to one of the most vibrant areas of scholarship today, and at the same time to move the subject forward dramatically. Written in a clear and rigorous style it will give the more experienced scholar much to think about and will also be of great value to the new student of the subject. The handbook covers the history (...)
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  31. Philip Goodchild (ed.) (2002). Rethinking Philosophy of Religion: Approaches From Continental Philosophy. Fordham University Press.score: 66.0
    These original essays reconceive the place of religion for critical thought following the recent ‘turn to religion’ in Continental philosophy, framing new issues for exploration, including questions of justice, anxiety, and evil; the sublime, and of the soul haunting genetics; how reason may be reshaped by new religious movements and by ritual and experience. Contributors: Pamela Sue Anderson, Gary Banham, Bettina Bergo, John Caputo, Clayton Crockett, Jonathan Ellsworth, Philip Goodchild, Matthew Halteman, Wayne Hudson, Grace Jantzen, Donna Jowett, (...)
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  32. Robin Barrow (2006/1982). An Introduction to Philosophy of Education. Routledge.score: 66.0
    In the 4th edition of this best-selling textbook, the authors introduce students to the business of philosophizing, thereby inducting them into the art of reasoning and analyzing key concepts in education. This introductory text, continuously in print for more than thirty years, is a classic in its field. It shows, first and foremost, the importance of philosophy in educational debate and as a background to any practical activity such as teaching. What is involved in the idea of educating a (...)
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  33. Antoinette Rouvroy (2008). Human Genes and Neoliberal Governance: A Foucauldian Critique. Routledge-Cavendish.score: 66.0
    The production of genetic knowledge -- Scientific and economic strength of genetic reductionism -- Policy implications : discourses of genetic enlightenment as new disciplinary devices -- Genetic conceptualizations of normality and the idea of genetic justice -- Beyond genetic universality and authenticity, the lure of the genetic underclass -- Previews of the future as background -- Economic and actuarial perspective on genetics and insurance -- Practical and normative arguments against genetic exceptionalist legislation -- The changing social role of private (...)
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  34. John J. Sung (2008). Embodied Anomaly Resolution in Molecular Genetics: A Case Study of RNAi. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 13 (2):177-193.score: 66.0
    Scientific anomalies are observations and facts that contradict current scientific theories and they are instrumental in scientific theory change. Philosophers of science have approached scientific theory change from different perspectives as Darden (Theory change in science: Strategies from Mendelian genetics, 1991) observes: Lakatos (In: Lakatos, Musgrave (eds) Criticism and the growth of knowledge, 1970) approaches it as a progressive “research programmes” consisting of incremental improvements (“monster barring” in Lakatos, Proofs and refutations: The logic of mathematical discovery, 1976), Kuhn (The (...)
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  35. Henrik Walter (2013). The Third Wave of Biological Psychiatry. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 66.0
    In this article I will argue that we are witnessing at this moment the third wave of biological psychiatry. This framework conceptualizes mental disorders as brain disorders of a special kind that requires a multilevel approach ranging from genes to psychosocial mechanisms. In contrast to earlier biological psychiatry approaches the mental plays a more prominent role in the third wave. This will become apparent by discussing the recent controversy evolving around the recently published DSM-5 and the competing transdiagnostic Research Domain (...)
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  36. Denis Alexander & Ronald L. Numbers (eds.) (2010). Biology and Ideology From Descartes to Dawkins. The University of Chicago Press.score: 60.0
  37. Anya Plutynski (2004). Explanation in Classical Population Genetics. Philosophy of Science 71 (5):1201-1214.score: 60.0
    The recent literature in philosophy of biology has drawn attention to the different sorts of explanations proffered in the biological sciences—we have molecular, biomedical, and evolutionary explanations. Do these explanations all have a common structure or relation that they seek to capture? This paper will answer in the negative. I defend a pluralistic and pragmatic approach to explanation. Using examples from classical population genetics, I argue that formal demonstrations, and even strictly “mathematical truths,” may serve as explanatory in (...)
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  38. Paul Griffiths, Philosophy of Biology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 60.0
    The philosophy of biology has existed as a distinct sub-discipline within the philosophy of science for about thirty years. The rapid growth of the field has mirrored that of the biological sciences in the same period. Today the discipline is well represented in the leading journals in philosophy of science, as well as in several specialist journals. There have been two generations of textbooks (see conclusion) and the subject is regularly taught at undergraduate as well as graduate (...)
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  39. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1992). Molecular Genetics, Reductionism, and Disease Concepts in Psychiatry. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (2):127-153.score: 60.0
    The study of mental illness by the methods of molecular genetics is still in its infancy, but the use of genetic markers in psychiatry may potentially lead to a Virchowian revolution in the conception of mental illness. Genetic markers may define novel clusters of patients having diverse clinical presentations but sharing a common genetic and mechanistic basis. Such clusters may differ radically from the conventional classification schemes of psychiatric illness. However, the reduction of even relatively simple Mendelian phenomena to (...)
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  40. Bruce Glymour (2006). Wayward Modeling: Population Genetics and Natural Selection. Philosophy of Science 73 (4):369-389.score: 60.0
    Since the introduction of mathematical population genetics, its machinery has shaped our fundamental understanding of natural selection. Selection is taken to occur when differential fitnesses produce differential rates of reproductive success, where fitnesses are understood as parameters in a population genetics model. To understand selection is to understand what these parameter values measure and how differences in them lead to frequency changes. I argue that this traditional view is mistaken. The descriptions of natural selection rendered by population (...) models are in general neither predictive nor explanatory and introduce avoidable conceptual confusions. I conclude that a correct understanding of natural selection requires explicitly causal models of reproductive success. *Received May 2006; revised December 2006. †To contact the author, please write to: Department of Philosophy, Kansas State University, 201 Dickens Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506; e‐mail: glymour@ksu.edu . (shrink)
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  41. Arthur Zucker (1981). Holism and Reductionism: A View From Genetics. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 6 (2):145-164.score: 60.0
    are often used loosely – especially in medical contexts. In an attempt to remedy this, these terms are explored from the standpoints of: philosophy of science, medicine, genetics, history of genetics and clinical genetics. A sense for ‘reductionism’ is developed in part by focusing on the related histories of classical genetics and clinical genetics. This done, the dichotomy between holism and reductionism, whether in basic genetics or the genetic counseling situation, loses much of (...)
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  42. Piotr Lenartowicz (1975). Phenotype-Genotype Dichotomy: An Essay in Theoretical Biology. Typis Pontificiae Universitatis Gregorianae.score: 60.0
  43. Carol Gigliotti (2006). Genetic Technologies and Animals. AI and Society 20 (1):3-5.score: 58.0
  44. Massimo Pigliucci (2006). Genetic Variance–Covariance Matrices: A Critique of the Evolutionary Quantitative Genetics Research Program. Biology and Philosophy 21 (1):1-23.score: 54.0
    This paper outlines a critique of the use of the genetic variance–covariance matrix (G), one of the central concepts in the modern study of natural selection and evolution. Specifically, I argue that for both conceptual and empirical reasons, studies of G cannot be used to elucidate so-called constraints on natural selection, nor can they be employed to detect or to measure past selection in natural populations – contrary to what assumed by most practicing biologists. I suggest that the search for (...)
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  45. Giuseppe Bianco (2011). Experience Vs. Concept? The Role of Bergson in Twentieth-Century French Philosophy. The European Legacy 16 (7):855 - 872.score: 54.0
    In one of his last writings, Life: Experience and Science, Michel Foucault argued that twentieth-century French philosophy could be read as dividing itself into two divergent lines: on the one hand, we have a philosophical stream which takes individual experience as its point of departure, conceiving it as irreducible to science. On the other hand, we have an analysis of knowledge which takes into account the concrete productions of the mind, as are found in science and human practices. In (...)
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  46. Ingo Brigandt, Reductionism in the Philosophy of Science.score: 54.0
    Reductionism in the Philosophy of Science develops a novel account of reduction in science and applies it to the relationship between classical and molecular genetics. However, rather than addressing the epistemological issues that have been essential to the reductionism debate in philosophy of biology, the discussion primarily pursues ontological questions, as they are known, about reducing the mental to the physical. For Sachse construes reductionism as a purely philosophical endeavor and defends the possibility of reduction in principle, (...)
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  47. Ingo Brigandt (2007). Review of Reductionism in the Philosophy of Science by Christian Sachse, Ontos Verlag, 2007. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 200709.score: 54.0
    Reductionism in the Philosophy of Science develops a novel account of reduction in science and applies it to the relationship between classical and molecular genetics. However, rather than addressing the epistemological issues that have been essential to the reductionism debate in philosophy of biology, the discussion primarily pursues ontological questions, as they are known, about reducing the mental to the physical. For Sachse construes reductionism as a purely philosophical endeavor and defends the possibility of reduction in principle, (...)
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  48. Paul Edmund Griffiths, The Philosophy of Molecular and Developmental Biology.score: 54.0
    Philosophical discussion of molecular and developmental biology began in the late 1960s with the use of genetics as a test case for models of theory reduction. With this exception, the theory of natural selection remained the main focus of philosophy of biology until the late 1970s. It was controversies in evolutionary theory over punctuated equilibrium and adaptationism that first led philosophers to examine the concept of developmental constraint. Developmental biology also gained in prominence in the 1980s as part (...)
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  49. Peter Gildenhuys (2011). Righteous Modeling: The Competence of Classical Population Genetics. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 26 (6):813-835.score: 54.0
    In a recent article, “Wayward Modeling: Population Genetics and Natural Selection,” Bruce Glymour claims that population genetics is burdened by serious predictive and explanatory inadequacies and that the theory itself is to blame. Because Glymour overlooks a variety of formal modeling techniques in population genetics, his arguments do not quite undermine a major scientific theory. However, his arguments are extremely valuable as they provide definitive proof that those who would deploy classical population genetics over natural systems (...)
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  50. Willem de Winter (1997). The Beanbag Genetics Controversy: Towards a Synthesis of Opposing Views of Natural Selection. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 12 (2):149-184.score: 54.0
    The beanbag genetics controversy can be traced from the dispute between Fisher and Wright, through Mayr''s influential promotion of the issue, to the contemporary units of selection debate. It centers on the claim that genic models of natural selection break down in the face of epistatic interactions among genes during phenotypic development. This claim is explored from both a conceptual and a quantitative point of view, and is shown to be defective on both counts.Firstly, an analysis of the controversy''s (...)
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