Search results for 'Geographical myths' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Dmitry Sergeyevich Merezhkovsky (1971). Atlantis/Europe: The Secret of the West. Blauvelt, N.Y.,R. Steiner Publications.
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  2.  28
    Paul J. Cloke & R. J. Johnston (eds.) (2005). Spaces of Geographical Thought: Deconstructing Human Geography's Binaries. Sage Publications.
    Spaces of Geographical Thought examines key ideas – like space and place - which inform the geographic imagination. The text: discusses the core conceptual vocabulary of human geography: agency: structure; state: society; culture: economy; space: place; black: white; man: woman; nature: culture; local: global; and time: space; explains the significance of these binaries in the constitution of geographic thought; and shows how many of these binaries have been interrogated and re-imagined in more recent geographical thinking. A consideration of (...)
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  3.  18
    Derek Sayer (2012). Crossed Wires on the Prague-Paris Surrealist Telephone. Common Knowledge 18 (2):193-207.
    An exercise in humour noir, this essay explores relations between the Paris and Prague surrealist groups from André Breton and Paul Éluard's visit to “the magic capital of old Europe” in 1935 to the aborted “Prague Spring” of 1968. It focuses on the famous “starry castle” of Breton's Mad Love — which Czechs know better as Letohrádek Hvězda at Bílá hora, the White Mountain — as a signifier whose wanderings, over the period, encapsulate the mutual myths and misunderstandings that (...)
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  4.  2
    Ritesh G. Menezes, Magdy A. Kharoshah, Mohammed Madadin, Vijaya Marakala, Savita Lasrado & Dalal M. Al Tamimi (forthcoming). Authorship: Few Myths and Misconceptions. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-5.
    This article seeks to address and dispel some of the popular myths and misconceptions surrounding authorship of a scientific publication as this is often misconstrued by beginners in academia especially those in the developing world. While ethical issues in publishing related to authorship have been increasingly discussed, not much has been written about the myths and misconceptions of who might be an author. Dispelling these myths and misconceptions would go a long way in shaping the thoughts and (...)
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  5.  5
    Christopher Vecsey (2015). Navajo Morals and Myths, Ethics and Ethicists. Journal of Religious Ethics 43 (1):78-121.
    Over a century ago a Western observer recognized an effective morality among Navajo Indians in the American Southwest, yet could not locate its expression, except in mythology recounting contradictory behaviors. Through the 1900s scholars delineated contours of Navajo moral values, myths, and taxonomies upon which moral traditions were based, and situations in which Navajos have engaged in ethical decision-making. Recently individual Navajos have manifested their role as ethical agents, not merely as recipients of moral lore. A contemporary Navajo storyteller, (...)
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  6. Margaret A. Boden (2004). The Creative Mind: Myths and Mechanisms. Routledge.
    How is it possible to think new thoughts? What is creativity and can science explain it? And just how did Coleridge dream up the creatures of The Ancient Mariner? When The Creative Mind: Myths and Mechanisms was first published, Margaret A. Boden's bold and provocative exploration of creativity broke new ground. Boden uses examples such as jazz improvisation, chess, story writing, physics, and the music of Mozart, together with computing models from the field of artificial intelligence to uncover the (...)
     
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  7.  67
    Casey Helgeson, Pattern as Observation: Darwin's 'Great Facts' of Geographical Distribution.
    Among philosophical analyses of Darwin’s Origin, a standard view says the theory presented there had no concrete observational consequences against which it might be checked. I challenge this idea with a new analysis of Darwin’s principal geographical distribution observations and how they connect to his common ancestry hypothesis.
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  8.  9
    Max M. Louwerse & Rolf A. Zwaan (2009). Language Encodes Geographical Information. Cognitive Science 33 (1):51-73.
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  9.  3
    Javier Martínez-del-Río & José Céspedes-Lorente (2014). Competitiveness and Legitimation: The Logic of Companies Going Green in Geographical Clusters. Journal of Business Ethics 120 (1):131-146.
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  10.  35
    Barry Smith & David M. Mark (2001). Geographical Categories: An Ontological Investigation. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 15 (7):591–612.
    This paper reports the results of a series of experiments designed to establish how non-expert subjects conceptualize geospatial phenomena. Subjects were asked to give examples of geographical categories in response to a series of differently phrased elicitations. The results yield an ontology of geographical categories—a catalogue of the prime geospatial concepts and categories shared in common by human subjects independently of their exposure to scientific geography. When combined with nouns such as feature and object, the adjective geographic elicited (...)
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  11.  2
    James J. Gibson & Janet Cornsweet (1952). The Perceived Slant of Visual Surfaces—Optical and Geographical. Journal of Experimental Psychology 44 (1):11.
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  12. Joan M. Schwartz & James Ryan (2003). Picturing Place Photography and the Geographical Imagination. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  13. Sven Ove Hansson, Seven Myths of Risk.
    The purpose of this presentation is to introduce both the concept of risk and the precautionary principle, that is a major policy principle in present-day risk management. Since risk has been the subject of many misconceptions I will do this in large part by criticizing seven views on risk that I believe to have caused considerable confusion both among scientists and policy-makers. But before looking at the seven myths of risk, let us begin with the basic issue of defining (...)
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  14.  21
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2013). Ten Myths About Character, Virtue and Virtue Education – Plus Three Well-Founded Misgivings. British Journal of Educational Studies 61 (3):269-287.
    ABSTRACT Initiatives to cultivate character and virtue in moral education at school continue to provoke sceptical responses. Most of those echo familiar misgivings about the notions of character, virtue and education in virtue ? as unclear, redundant, old-fashioned, religious, paternalistic, anti-democratic, conservative, individualistic, relative and situation dependent. I expose those misgivings as ?myths?, while at the same time acknowledging three better-founded historical, methodological and practical concerns about the notions in question.
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  15.  51
    Mary Midgley (2003/2011). The Myths We Live By. Routledge.
    Mary Midgley argues in her powerful new book that far from being the opposite of science, myth is a central part of it. In brilliant prose, she claims that myths are neither lies nor mere stories but a network of powerful symbols that suggest particular ways of interpreting the world.
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  16. Stefan Linquist & Jordan Bartol (2013). Two Myths About Somatic Markers. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (3):455-484.
    Research on patients with damage to ventromedial frontal cortices suggests a key role for emotions in practical decision making. This field of investigation is often associated with Antonio Damasio’s Somatic Marker Hypothesis—a putative account of the mechanism through which autonomic tags guide decision making in typical individuals. Here we discuss two questionable assumptions—or ‘myths’—surrounding the direction and interpretation of this research. First, it is often assumed that there is a single somatic marker hypothesis. As others have noted, however, Damasio’s (...)
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  17.  42
    Inder P. Khera (2001). Business Ethics East Vs. West: Myths and Realities. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 30 (1):29 - 39.
    The West has a stereotypical image of businesses, officials, and politicians, etc., in the East (Third World) countries being pervasively corrupt while it views itself as being almost completely uncorrupt. One closer look, however, realities turn out to be quite different. Business corruption is much more universal that Westerners are generally willing to accept. The major differences are that corruption in the East is practiced so blatantly that it makes major news. Western businesses, on the other hand, have, over time, (...)
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  18.  12
    Stephen Brammer, Stephen Pavelin & Lynda Porter (2005). Corporate Social Performance and Geographical Diversification. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 16:81-86.
    This paper investigates an under-researched relationship, that between corporate social performance (CSP) and geographical diversification. Drawingupon the institutional and stakeholder perspectives and utilising data on a sample of large UK firms, we develop a set of empirical models of CSP, and findevidence of a significant contemporaneous positive relationship between the two for some types of social performance and in some regions of the world. Overall,we provide evidence that firms shape their social performance strategies to their geographical profile.
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  19.  5
    Sarah Besky (2014). The Labor of Terroir and the Terroir of Labor: Geographical Indication and Darjeeling Tea Plantations. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 31 (1):83-96.
    In 1999, Darjeeling tea became India’s first Geographical Indication. GI has proliferated worldwide as a legal protection for foods with terroir, or “taste of place,” a concept most often associated with artisan foods produced by small farmers in specific regions of the Global North. GI gives market protection to terroir in an increasingly homogenous food system. This article asks how Darjeeling tea, grown in an industrial plantation system rooted in British colonialism, has become convincingly associated with artisan GIs such (...)
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  20.  57
    Helen Reece (2013). Rape Myths: Is Elite Opinion Right and Popular Opinion Wrong? Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 33 (3):445-473.
    England and Wales have recently experienced wide-ranging rape law reform and a galloping rape reporting rate but no comparable increase in rape convictions, leading many erstwhile law reformers to turn attention to attitudes. In essence, their argument is that reform has proved relatively ineffective because a range of agents hold ‘rape myths’. Despite the broad consensus that this approach has attracted, I argue that the regressiveness of current public attitudes towards rape has been overstated. The claim that rape (...) are widespread may be challenged on three grounds: first, some of the attitudes are not myths; secondly, not all the myths are about rape; thirdly, there is little evidence that the rape myths are widespread. To a troubling extent, we are in the process of creating myths about myths. This process functions to close down, not open up, the possibilities of a productive public conversation about important and at times vexed questions. (shrink)
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  21. Stephen Mulhall (2007). Philosophical Myths of the Fall. Princeton University Press.
    Did post-Enlightenment philosophers reject the idea of original sin and hence the view that life is a quest for redemption from it? In Philosophical Myths of the Fall, Stephen Mulhall identifies and evaluates a surprising ethical-religious dimension in the work of three highly influential philosophers--Nietzsche, Heidegger, and Wittgenstein. He asks: Is the Christian idea of humanity as structurally flawed something that these three thinkers aim simply to criticize? Or do they, rather, end up by reproducing secular variants of the (...)
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  22.  10
    Lisa L. Stenmark (2015). Storytelling and Wicked Problems: Myths of the Absolute and Climate Change. Zygon 50 (4):922-936.
    This article examines the emphasis on facts and data in public discourse, and the belief that they provide a certainty necessary for public judgment and collective action. The heart of this belief is what I call the “myth of the Absolute,” which is the belief that by basing our judgment and actions on an Absolute we can avoid errors and mistakes. Myths of the Absolute can help us deal with wicked problems such as climate change, but they also have (...)
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  23.  75
    Arash Abizadeh (2004). Historical Truth, National Myths and Liberal Democracy: On the Coherence of Liberal Nationalism. Journal of Political Philosophy 12 (3):291–313.
    The claim that liberal democratic normative commitments are compatible with nationalism is challenged by the widely acknowledged fact that national identities invariably depend on historical myths: the nationalist defence of such publicly shared myths is in tension with liberal democratic theory’s commitment to norms of publicity, public justification, and freedom of expression. Recent liberal nationalist efforts to meet this challenge by justifying national myths on liberal democratic grounds fail to distinguish adequately between different senses of myth. Once (...)
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  24.  7
    Judith W. Spain, Peggy Brewer, Virgil Brewer & S. J. Garner (2002). Ethics and Geography –Impact of Geographical Cultural Differences on Students Ethical Decisions. Journal of Business Ethics 41 (1-2):187 - 194.
    An exploratory survey was conducted to determine if there are differences in ethical decisions by business students based upon cultural backgrounds. Students' responses to a vignette concerning advertising of cigar products in a variety of different media provided evidence of significant cultural differences between three groups of students from different geographical locations within the United States. This article suggests that the presumption that an individuals ethical beliefs and behaviors do not change after childhood may be in error.
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  25.  23
    Uskali Mäki & Caterina Marchionni (2009). On the Structure of Explanatory Unification: The Case of Geographical Economics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (2):185-195.
    A newly emerged field within economics, known as geographical economics claims to have provided a unified approach to the study of spatial agglomerations at different spatial scales by showing how these can be traced back to the same basic economic mechanisms. We analyze this contemporary episode of explanatory unification in relation to major philosophical accounts of unification. In particular, we examine the role of argument patterns in unifying derivations, the role of ontological convictions and mathematical structures in shaping unification, (...)
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  26.  23
    Uskali Mäki & Caterina Marchionni (2009). On the Structure of Explanatory Unification: The Case of Geographical Economics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (2):185-195.
    A newly emerged field within economics, known as geographical economics, claims to have provided a unified approach to the study of spatial agglomerations at different spatial scales by showing how these can be traced back to the same basic economic mechanisms. We analyse this contemporary episode of explanatory unification in relation to major philosophical accounts of unification. In particular, we examine the role of argument patterns in unifying derivations, the role of ontological convictions and mathematical structures in shaping unification, (...)
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  27.  34
    Helge S. Kragh (2006). Conceptions of Cosmos: From Myths to the Accelerating Universe: A History of Cosmology. OUP Oxford.
    This book presents the history of how the universe at large became the object of scientific understanding. Starting with the ancient creation myths, it offers an integrated and comprehensive account of cosmology that covers all major events from Aristotle's Earth-centred cosmos to the recent discovery of the accelearting universe.
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  28. Jon Stewart (1996). Hegel Myths and Legends. Northwestern University Press.
    The essays collected in 'The Hegel Myths and Legends' serve the function of disabusing students and nonspecialists of these misconceptions by exposing these myths for what they are.
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  29.  49
    Gyula Klima (2013). Three Myths of Intentionality Versus Some Medieval Philosophers. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 21 (3):359-376.
    This paper argues that three characteristic modern positions concerning intentionality – namely, (1) that intentionality is ‘the mark of the mental’; (2) that intentionality concerns a specific type of objects having intentional inexistence; and (3) that intentionality somehow defies logic – are just three ‘modern myths’ that medieval philosophers, from whom the modern notion supposedly originated, would definitely reject.
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  30.  12
    Kirsten Walsh & Adrian Currie (2015). Caricatures, Myths, and White Lies. Metaphilosophy 46 (3):414-435.
    Pedagogical situations require white lies: in teaching philosophy we make decisions about what to omit, what to emphasise, and what to distort. This article considers when it is permissible to distort the historical record, arguing for a tempered respect for the historical facts. It focuses on the rationalist/empiricist distinction, which still frames most undergraduate early modern courses despite failing to capture the intellectual history of that period. It draws an analogy with Michael Strevens's view on idealisation in causal explanation to (...)
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  31.  6
    Adrian C. Brock (2011). Psychology's Path Towards a Mature Science: An Examination of the Myths. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 31 (4):250-257.
    This article is an invited comment on the article by George Mandler in the same issue. It is suggested that the latter contains a series of myths that are popular among psychologists. These are that psychology was fragmented into “schools” in the 1920s and 30s and that this led several writers to declare that it was in a state of crisis. It is said to have overcome this crisis by becoming more eclectic and incorporating the best aspects of the (...)
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  32.  5
    Joseph Rouse (forthcoming). Intentionality and the Myths of the Given. Intentionality and the Myths of the Given:1-5.
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  33.  2
    Michael Paul Kinch (1980). Geographical Distribution and the Origin of Life: The Development of Early Nineteenth-Century British Explanations. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 13 (1):91 - 119.
    By the 1840s and 1850s biogeographical theory had polarized into two opposing views — both of which had their origins in the sixteenth or seventeenth centuries. At issue in this polarization was the question of God's involvement with His creation. At one end of the spectrum were Sclater, Agassiz, Kirby, and others who saw a neatly designed world in which geographical distributions were planned and executed by the hand of God at creation. For most of these naturalists, organisms were (...)
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  34.  2
    Katharine Jenkins (2016). Rape Myths and Domestic Abuse Myths as Hermeneutical Injustices. Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (2):n/a-n/a.
    This article argues that rape myths and domestic abuse myths constitute hermeneutical injustices. Drawing on empirical research, I show that the prevalence of these myths makes victims of rape and of domestic abuse less likely to apply those terms to their experiences. Using Sally Haslanger's distinction between manifest and operative concepts, I argue that in these cases, myths mean that victims hold a problematic operative concept, or working understanding, which prevents them from identifying their experience as (...)
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  35.  56
    E. Wicks (2012). Challenging Some Myths About the Right to Life at the End of Life. 2: Reinstating the Ethically Excluded. Clinical Ethics 7 (1):24-27.
    This article continues the rejection of certain myths about the right to life at the end of life commenced in an article in the previous issue of the journal Clinical Ethics. It focuses upon ethical arguments that seek to exclude two categories of human beings from the usual protection of human life: those described as ‘non-persons’ and those ‘designated for death’. The article argues that, while the protection offered to life by means of the right to life is far (...)
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  36. Uskali Mäki & Caterina Marchionni (2011). Is Geographical Economics Imperializing Economic Geography? Journal of Economic Geography 11 (4):645-665.
    Geographical economics (also known as the ‘new economic geography’) is an approach developed within economics dealing with space and geography, issues previously neglected by the mainstream of the discipline. Some practitioners in neighbouring fields traditionally concerned with spatial issues (descriptively) characterized it as—and (normatively) blamed it for—intellectual imperialism. We provide a nuanced analysis of the alleged imperialism of geographical economics and investigate whether the form of imperialism it allegedly instantiates is to be resisted and on what grounds. From (...)
     
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  37.  17
    James Demeo (1991). The Origins and Diffusion of Patrism in Saharasia, C.4000 BCE: Evidence for a Worldwide, Climate-Linked Geographical Pattern in Human Behavior. World Futures 30 (4):247-271.
    (1991). The origins and diffusion of patrism in Saharasia, c.4000 BCE: Evidence for a worldwide, climate‐linked geographical pattern in human behavior. World Futures: Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 247-271.
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  38.  9
    Alison Niemi (2003). Film as Religious Experience: Myths and Models in Mass Entertainment. Critical Review 15 (3-4):435-446.
    Abstract Popular film has become a significant venue for meaning?making in modern society. Like religion, film provides models for understanding and behaving within the social world. Like religion, film reinforces this content through emotional resonance. Myths slip under a viewer's intellectual defenses in the non?threatening guise of entertainment. In a mainstream culture skeptical of religion, film presents an alternative mechanism for the transmission and processing of ?religious? ideas and ideals.
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  39.  76
    Gyula Klima (2013). Three Myths of Intentionality Versus Some Medieval Philosophers. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 21 (3):359-376.
    After Brentano, intentionality is often characterized as “the mark of the mental”. In Brentano‟s view, intentionality “is characteristic exclusively of mental phenomena. No physical phenomenon manifests anything like it”. 2 After Meinong, it is also generally believed that intentionality, as this characteristic mental phenomenon, concerns a specific type of objects, namely, intentional objects, having intentional inexistence, as opposed to ordinary physical objects, having real existence. Thus, intentional objects are supposed to constitute a mysterious ontological realm, the dwelling place of the (...)
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  40.  6
    Tim Allen (2006). Aids and Evidence: Interogating Some Ugandan Myths. Journal of Biosocial Science 38 (1):7-28.
    Uganda is invoked as a metaphor for a host of arguments and insights about HIV/AIDS. However, much of what has been asserted about the country is not based on the available evidence. This paper reviews findings by epidemiologists and anthropologists, and draws on the author’s experiences of researching in the country since the early 1980s. It comments on various myths about HIV/AIDS in Uganda, including myths about the origin and dissemination of the disease, about the links between HIV/AIDS (...)
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  41. Mary Midgley (2004). The Myths We Live By. Routledge.
    Mary Midgley argues in her powerful new book that far from being the opposite of science, myth is a central part of it. In brilliant prose, she claims that myths are neither lies nor mere stories but a network of powerful symbols that suggest particular ways of interpreting the world.
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  42.  23
    Hrvoje Nikolić (2007). Quantum Mechanics: Myths and Facts. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 37 (11):1563-1611.
    A common understanding of quantum mechanics (QM) among students and practical users is often plagued by a number of “myths”, that is, widely accepted claims on which there is not really a general consensus among experts in foundations of QM. These myths include wave-particle duality, time-energy uncertainty relation, fundamental randomness, the absence of measurement-independent reality, locality of QM, nonlocality of QM, the existence of well-defined relativistic QM, the claims that quantum field theory (QFT) solves the problems of relativistic (...)
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  43.  65
    Daniel C. Dennett, Memes: Myths, Misunderstandings and Misgivings.
    When one says that cultures evolve, this can be taken as a truism, or as asserting one or another controversial, speculative, unconfirmed theory. Consider a cultural inventory at time t: it includes all the languages, practices, ceremonies, edifices, methods, tools, myths, music, art, and so forth, that compose a culture. Over time, the inventory changes. Some items disappear, some multiply, some merge, some change. (When I say some change, I mean to be neutral at this point about whether this (...)
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  44.  11
    Gordon Storholm & Hershey Friedman (1989). Perceived Common Myths and Unethical Practices Among Direct Marketing Professionals. Journal of Business Ethics 8 (12):975 - 979.
    Two arcas of continuing interest to direct marketing professionals are the perceived myths and unethical practices in the field. Documentation of specific cases and more abstract discussion of these two points of interest frequently appear in the direct marketing literature (e.g. Gitlitz and Barton, 1983; Lewis, 1982; Pierce, 1985). Indeed, the Direct Marketing Association (DMA) has promulgated specific guidelines (DMA, 1985) for ethical business practices within the industry. Up to this point, however, there has been no attempt at a (...)
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  45.  25
    David Michael Levin (1976). II. The Concept of Mental Illness: Working Through the Myths. Inquiry 19 (1-4):360-365.
    In ?Some Myths about ?Mental Illness'? (Inquiry, Vol. 18 [1975], No. 3), Michael Moore attempts to clarify and refute what he takes to be the radical (existential) position concerning the nature and diagnosis of mental illness. Moore's dissatisfaction with certain formulations and conceptualizations of the radical position is endorsed; as also the need to introduce greater rigor and precision into the discussion of mental illness. But Moore's clarifications are really misunderstandings and, in consequence, his refutations do not succeed. Moore's (...)
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  46.  41
    Walter Block & Matthew Block (2000). Toward a Universal Libertarian Theory of Gun (Weapon) Control: A Spatial and Geographical Analysis. Ethics, Place and Environment 3 (3):289 – 298.
    The debate over gun control has taken place in complete isolation from geographical considerations. It focuses on, for the most part, whether legalization would bring about more or fewer accidental deaths, and murders of innocents, than prohibition, and in the USA on the precise meaning of the second amendment to the Constitution. However, these deliberations, argue the authors of the present paper, can be enriched by incorporating into them a spatial context. When this is done, and they are combined (...)
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  47.  9
    Christoph Deutschmann (1998). Marx, Schumpeter and the Myths of Economic Rationality. Thesis Eleven 53 (1):45-64.
    This article explores parallels between Marx's and Schumpeter's theories of capitalist development, and discusses the relationship of these classical approaches to later constructivist theories of technological and organizational changes. It is suggested that Marxian and Schumpeterian ideas could be combined in a way which remedies the weaknesses of both sides, and provides a better understanding of the innovative dynamics of capitalism; such a synthesis could then be linked to a constructivist model of the rise and fall of economic `myths'.
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  48.  3
    Gustaf Östberg (1988). Visions, Illusions and Myths About Materials Data Systems. AI and Society 2 (3):185-195.
    This paper deals with various aspects of the development of data systems for engineering materials. The problem considered here is the difference between the end-users' mental model of materials, which focuses on performance, and the concepts of properties of materials held by materials specialists. Previous treatises on this problem have elaborated on systems aspects in general, emphasising incompatibilities in the relationship mentioned and the means of overcoming these incompatibilities by service management. Another perspective applied has been the historical one, combined (...)
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  49.  15
    E. Wicks (2011). Challenging Some Myths About the Right to Life at the End of Life. 1: Not an Absolute Right. Clinical Ethics 6 (4):167-171.
    This article, and a related one in the next issue, investigates some myths surrounding the application of the right to life at the end of life. The present article focuses upon the myth that the right to life is an absolute right, always requiring the preservation of life. It identifies three distinct situations in which state authorities may be justified in declining to take intervening action in order to save a life. It argues that the right to life encompasses (...)
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  50.  17
    Juan C. González (2010). On Pink Elephants, Floating Daggers, and Other Philosophical Myths. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 9 (2):193-211.
    Many philosophers and scientists rightly take hallucinations to be phenomena that challenge in a most pressing way our theories of perception and cognition, and epistemology in general. However, very few challenge the received views on the hallucinatory experience and even fewer critically delve into the subject with both breadth and depth. There are all kinds of problems concerning hallucinations—including conceptual, methodological, and empirical issues—that call for a multilevel analysis and an interdisciplinary approach which in turn provide the detail and scope (...)
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