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Profile: George Mashour (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor)
  1. Petr Bob & George A. Mashour (2011). Schizophrenia, Dissociation, and Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1042-1049.
    Current thinking suggests that dissociation could be a significant comorbid diagnosis in a proportion of schizophrenic patients with a history of trauma. This potentially may explain the term “schizophrenia” in its original definition by Bleuler, as influenced by his clinical experience and personal view. Additionally, recent findings suggest a partial overlap between dissociative symptoms and the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, which could be explained by inhibitory deficits. In this context, the process of dissociation could serve as an important conceptual framework (...)
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  2. Walter Schoen, Jae Seung Chang, UnCheol Lee, Petr Bob & George A. Mashour (2011). The Temporal Organization of Functional Brain Connectivity is Abnormal in Schizophrenia but Does Not Correlate with Symptomatology. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1050-1054.
    Previous work employing graph theory and nonlinear analysis has found increased spatial and temporal disorder, respectively, of functional brain connectivity in schizophrenia. We present a new method combining graph theory and nonlinear techniques that measures the temporal disorder of functional brain connections. Multichannel electroencephalographic data were windowed and functional networks were reconstructed using the minimum spanning trees of correlation matrices. Using a method based on Shannon entropy, we found elevated connection entropy in gamma activity of patients with schizophrenia; however, gamma (...)
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  3. UnCheol Lee, Seunghwan Kim, Gyu-Jeong Noh, Byung-Moon Choi, Eunjin Hwang & George A. Mashour (2009). The Directionality and Functional Organization of Frontoparietal Connectivity During Consciousness and Anesthesia in Humans. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (4):1069-1078.
    Frontoparietal connectivity has been suggested to be important in conscious processing and its interruption is thought to be one mechanism of general anesthesia. Data in animals demonstrate that feedforward processing of information may persist during the anesthetized state, while feedback processing is inhibited. We investigated the directionality and functional organization of frontoparietal connectivity in 10 human subjects anesthetized with propofol on two separate occasions. Multichannel electroencephalography and a computational method of assessing directed functional connectivity were employed. We demonstrate that directed (...)
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  4. UnCheol Lee, George A. Mashour, Seunghwan Kim, Gyu-Jeong Noh & Byung-Moon Choi (2009). Propofol Induction Reduces the Capacity for Neural Information Integration: Implications for the Mechanism of Consciousness and General Anesthesia. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (1):56-64.
    The cognitive unbinding paradigm suggests that the synthesis of neural information is attenuated by general anesthesia. Here, we analyzed the functional organization of brain activities in the conscious and anesthetized states, based on functional segregation and integration. Electroencephalography recordings were obtained from 14 subjects undergoing induction of general anesthesia with propofol. We quantified changes in mean information integration capacity in each band of the EEG. After induction with propofol, mean information integration capacity was reduced most prominently in the γ band (...)
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  5. George A. Mashour & Eric LaRock (2008). Inverse Zombies, Anesthesia Awareness, and the Hard Problem of Unconsciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1163-1168.
    Philosophical (p-) zombies are constructs that possess all of the behavioral features and responses of a sentient human being, yet are not conscious. P-zombies are intimately linked to the hard problem of consciousness and have been invoked as arguments against physicalist approaches. But what if we were to invert the characteristics of p-zombies? Such an inverse (i-) zombie would possess all of the behavioral features and responses of an insensate being yet would nonetheless be conscious. While p-zombies are logically possible (...)
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  6. Roland R. Brusseau & George A. Mashour (2007). Subcortical Consciousness: Implications for Fetal Anesthesia and Analgesia. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):86-87.
    In this commentary we discuss the possibility of subcortical consciousness and its implications for fetal anesthesia and analgesia. We review the neural development of structural and functional elements that may participate in conscious representation, with a particular focus on the experience of pain. (Published Online May 1 2007).
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