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Profile: George Khushf (University of South Carolina)
  1. George Khushf (forthcoming). Reflections on the Dignity of Guan Zhong: A Comparison of Confucian and Western Liberal Notions of Suicide. Confucian Bioethics.
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  2. George Khushf (2013). A Framework for Understanding Medical Epistemologies. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (5):461-486.
    What clinicians, biomedical scientists, and other health care professionals know as individuals or as groups and how they come to know and use knowledge are central concerns of medical epistemology. Activities associated with knowledge production and use are called epistemic practices. Such practices are considered in biomedical and clinical literatures, social sciences of medicine, philosophy of science and philosophy of medicine, and also in other nonmedical literatures. A host of different kinds of knowledge claims have been identified, each with different (...)
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  3. George Khushf (2013). Beware of Mereologists Bearing Gifts: Prolegomena to a Medical Metaphysics. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 34 (5):385-408.
    This essay considers implications of formal mereologies and ontologies for medical metaphysics. Edward Fried’s extensional mereological account of the human body is taken as representative of a prominent strand in analytic metaphysics that has close affinities with medical positivism. I show why such accounts fail. First, I consider how Fried attempts to make sense of the medical case of Barney Clark, the first recipient of an artificial heart, and show that his analytic metaphysical categories do not have the right kind (...)
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  4. Leili Fatehi, Susan M. Wolf, Jeffrey McCullough, Ralph Hall, Frances Lawrenz, Jeffrey P. Kahn, Cortney Jones, Stephen A. Campbell, Rebecca S. Dresser, Arthur G. Erdman, Christy L. Haynes, Robert A. Hoerr, Linda F. Hogle, Moira A. Keane, George Khushf, Nancy M. P. King, Efrosini Kokkoli, Gary Marchant, Andrew D. Maynard, Martin Philbert, Gurumurthy Ramachandran, Ronald A. Siegel & Samuel Wickline (2012). Recommendations for Nanomedicine Human Subjects Research Oversight: An Evolutionary Approach for an Emerging Field. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):716-750.
    The nanomedicine field is fast evolving toward complex, “active,” and interactive formulations. Like many emerging technologies, nanomedicine raises questions of how human subjects research (HSR) should be conducted and the adequacy of current oversight, as well as how to integrate concerns over occupational, bystander, and environmental exposures. The history of oversight for HSR investigating emerging technologies is a patchwork quilt without systematic justification of when ordinary oversight for HSR is enough versus when added oversight is warranted. Nanomedicine HSR provides an (...)
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  5. George Khushf & Ronald A. Siegel (2012). What Is Unique About Nanomedicine? The Significance of the Mesoscale. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):780-794.
    Unlike drugs and medical devices, for which long standing and continuously improving quality assurance/quality control infrastructures exist, many nano-based products lack well-defined standards that are useful to manufacturers and regulators. Inherent variabilities in nanoparticle sizes and shapes, their large surface-to-volume ratios, and their mesoscale interactions with subcellular structures, suggest new complexities and challenges that must be met before widespread application of nanomedicines can be expected.
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  6. George Khushf (2011). The Ethics of Nano/Neuro Convergence. In Judy Illes & Barbara J. Sahakian (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics. Oxford University Press. 467--92.
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  7. George Khushf (2009). Theoretical Foundations for Organizational Ethics: Developing Norms for a New Kind of Healthcare. In Denis Gordon Arnold (ed.), Ethics and the Business of Biomedicine. Cambridge University Press. 220.
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  8. George Khushf (2008). Health as Intra-Systemic Integrity: Rethinking the Foundations of Systems Biology and Nanomedicine. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 51 (3):432-449.
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  9. George Khushf, James Raymond & Charles Beaman (2008). The Institute of Medicine's Reports on Quality and Safety: Paradoxes and Tensions. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 20 (1):1-14.
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  10. George Khushf (2007). An Agenda for Future Debate on Concepts of Health and Disease. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 10 (1):19-27.
    The traditional contrast between naturalist and normativist disease concepts fails to capture the most salient features of the health concepts debate. By using health concepts as a window on background notions of medical science and ethics, I show how Christopher Boorse (an influential naturalist) and Lennart Nordenfelt (an influential normativist) actually share deep assumptions about the character of medicine. Their disease concepts attempt, in different ways, to shore up the same medical model. For both, health concepts function like demarcation criteria (...)
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  11. George Khushf (2007). Open Questions in the Ethics of Convergence. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 32 (3):299 – 310.
    After historically situating NBIC Convergence in the context of earlier bioethical debate on genetics, ten questions are raised in areas related to the ethics of Convergence, indicating where future research is needed.
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  12. George Khushf (2007). The Ethics of NBIC Convergence. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 32 (3):185 – 196.
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  13. Robert Best & George Khushf (2006). The Social Conditions for Nanomedicine: Disruption, Systems, and Lock-In. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (4):733-740.
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  14. Robert Best, George Khushf & Robin Wilson (2006). A Sympathetic but Critical Assessment of Nanotechnology Initiatives. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (4):655-657.
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  15. George Khushf (2006). Owning Up to Our Agendas: On the Role and Limits of Science in Debates About Embryos and Brain Death. Journal of Law, Medicine Ethics 34 (1):58-76.
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  16. George Khushf (2004). A Hierarchical Architecture for Nano-Scale Science and Technology: Taking Stock of the Claims About Science Made by Advocates of NBIC Convergence. In Baird D. (ed.), Discovering the Nanoscale. Ios. 21--33.
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  17. George Khushf (ed.) (2004). Handbook of Bioethics: Taking Stock of the Field From a Philosophical Perspective. Kluwer Academic.
    This book is for those interested in an extensive review of the field of bioethics. It is for philosophers who wish to understand the core conceptual issues in health care ethics, and for bioethicists who wish to better understand classical problems in philosophy that have a bearing on health care ethics. The Handbook of Bioethics: Taking Stock of the Field from a Philosophical Perspective: -presents a comprehensive survey of bioethics in one volume; -has 27 of the most prominent scholars in (...)
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  18. George Khushf (2002). Engelhardt, the Ik, and the Foundation of Bioethics. HEC Forum 14 (4):325-334.
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  19. George Khushf (2002). The Domain of Parental Discretion in Treatment of Neonates: Beyond the Impasse Between a Sanctity-of-Life and Quality-of-Life Ethic. In Julia Lai Po-Wah Tao (ed.), Cross-Cultural Perspectives on the (Im) Possibility of Global Bioethics. Kluwer Academic Pub.. 277--298.
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  20. George Khushf & Robert G. Best (2002). Stem Cells and the Man on the Moon: Should We Go There From Here? American Journal of Bioethics 2 (1):37 – 39.
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  21. George Khushf & Rosemarie Tong (2002). Setting Organizational Ethics Within a Broader Social and Legal Context. HEC Forum 14 (2):77-85.
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  22. George Khushf (2001). The Value of Comparative Analysis in Framing the Problems of Organizational Ethics. HEC Forum 13 (2):125-131.
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  23. George Khushf (2000). The Two Sides of Inter-Ethics. HEC Forum 12 (3):185-190.
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  24. George Khushf (1999). The Aesthetics of Clinical Judgment: Exploring the Link Between Diagnostic Elegance and Effective Resource Utilization. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 2 (2):141-159.
    Many physicians assert that new cost-control mechanisms inappropriately interfere with clinical decision-making. They claim that high costs arise from poorly practiced medicine, and argue that effective utilization of resources is best promoted by advancing the scientific and ethical ideals of medicine. However, the claim is not warranted by empirical evidence. In this essay, I show how it rests upon aesthetic considerations associated with diagnostic elegance. I first consider scientific rationality generally. After a review of analytical empiricist and socio-historical approaches in (...)
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  25. George Khushf (1999). Robert L. Perkins (Ed.), International Kierkegaard Commentary: Either/or, Part I Robert L. Perkins (Ed.), International Kierkegaard Commentary: Either/or, Part II. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 46 (2):122-125.
  26. George Khushf (1999). Struggling to Understand and the Nature of Organizational Ethics. HEC Forum 11 (4):285-287.
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  27. George Khushf (1999). The Case for Managed Care: Reappraising Medical and Socio-Political Ideals. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 24 (5):415 – 433.
    The arguments against managed care can be divided into two general clusters. One cluster concerns the way managed care undermines the ethical ideals of medical professionalism. Since those ideals largely focus on the physician-patient relation, the first cluster comes under the rubric of micro-ethics; namely, the ethics of individual-individual relations. The second cluster of criticisms focuses on macro-ethical issues, primarily on issues of justice and policy. By reviewing these arguments, it becomes clear that managed care does not easily fit within (...)
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  28. Allan S. Brett, James I. Raymond, Donald E. Saunders & George Khushf (1998). An Ethics Discussion Series for Hospital Administrators. HEC Forum 10 (2):177-185.
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  29. George Khushf (1998). A Radical Rupture in the Paradigm of Modern Medicine: Conflicts of Interest, Fiduciary Obligations, and the Scientific Ideal. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 23 (1):98 – 122.
    Conflicts of interest serve as a cipher for a radical rupture in the Flexnerian paradigm of medicine, and they can only be addressed if we recognize that health care is now practiced by institutions, not just individual physicians. By showing how "appropriate utilization of services" or "that which is medically indicated" is a function of socioeconomic factors related to institutional responsibilities, I point toward an administrative and organizational ethic as a needed component for addressing conflicts of interest. The argument is (...)
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  30. George Khushf (1998). Bioethics in a Liberal Society. International Studies in Philosophy 30 (2):124-125.
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  31. George Khushf (1998). The Scope of Organizational Ethics. HEC Forum 10 (2):127-135.
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  32. George Khushf (1997). Announcing a New Section and a Call for Papers Administrative and Organizational Ethics. HEC Forum 9 (4):299-309.
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  33. George Khushf (1997). The Concept of Faith: A Philosophical Investigation. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 41 (2):126-128.
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  34. George Khushf (1997). Why Bioethics Needs the Philosophy of Medicine: Some Implications of Reflection on Concepts of Health and Disease. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 18 (1-2).
    Germund Hesslow has argued that concepts of health and disease serve no important scientific, clinical, or ethical function. However, this conclusion depends upon the particular concept of disease he espouses; namely, on Boorse's functional notion. The fact/value split embodied in the functional notion of disease leads to a sharp split between the science of medicine and bioethics, making the philosophy of medicine irrelevant for both. By placing this disease concept in the broader context of medical history, I shall show that (...)
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  35. George Khushf (1995). Expanding the Horizon of Reflection on Health and Disease. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 20 (5):461-473.
  36. George Khushf (1994). Ethics, Politics, and Health Care Reform. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (5):397-405.
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  37. George Khushf (1994). Hegel and the Spirit. The Owl of Minerva 26 (1):71-77.
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  38. George Khushf (1994). Intolerant Tolerance. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (2):161-181.
    The Hyde Amendment and Roman Catholic attempts to put restrictions on Title X funding have been criticized for being intolerant. However, such criticism fails to appreciate that there are two competing notions of tolerance, one focusing on the limits of state force and accepting pluralism as unavoidable, and the other focusing on the limits of knowledge and advancing pluralism as a good. These two types of tolerance, illustrated in the writings of John Locke and J.S. Mill, each involve an intolerance. (...)
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