Search results for 'Gerald McCarthy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Gerald McCarthy (2009). A Via Media Between Scepticism and Dogmatism? Newman Studies Journal 6 (2):57-81.score: 240.0
    Beginning with an overview of the knowledge claims proposed by John Locke and David Hume, this essay first explores the respective responses of Newman and W. G. Ward and then updates the discussion by bringing Newman into dialogue with the thoughtof Alasdair MacIntyre.
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  2. Gerald McCarthy (1987). A Matter of Hope. Idealistic Studies 17 (1):85-86.score: 240.0
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  3. Gerald D. McCarthy (2007). Newman On The Bible. Newman Studies Journal 4 (1):97-99.score: 240.0
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  4. María Herrera Lima & Thomas McCarthy (1993). Crítica de la Razón Impura: Entrevista Con Thomas McCarthy. Revista Internacional de Filosofía Política 2:147-155.score: 180.0
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  5. Lance McCarthy (2007). Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia Author's Email: Lance. McCarthy@ Flinders. Edu. Au. Apeiron 14 (4):481.score: 180.0
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  6. Timothy McCarthy (2002). Radical Interpretation and Indeterminacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.score: 60.0
    McCarthy develops a theory of radical interpretation--the project of characterizing from scratch the language and attitudes of an agent or population--and applies it to the problems of indeterminacy of interpretation first described by Quine. The major theme in McCarthy's study is that a relatively modest set of interpretive principles, properly applied, can serve to resolve the major indeterminacies of interpretation.
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  7. John McCarthy, Human-Level Ai Is Harder Than It Seemed.score: 60.0
    • alpha-beta pruning characterizes human play, but it ticed by early chess programmers—Turing, Shannon, Ulam, and Bernstein. We humans are not very good ing the heuristics we ourselves use. Approximations to used by Samuel, Newell and Simon, McCarthy. Proved lent to minimax by Hart and Levine, independently Knuth gives details.
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  8. John McCarthy, Human-Type Common Sense Needs Extensions to Logic.score: 60.0
    John McCarthy, Stanford University Logical AI (artificial intelligence) is based on programs that represent facts about the world in languages of mathematical logic and decide what actions will achieve goals by logical reasoning. A lot has been accomplished with logic as is.
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  9. John McCarthy, From Here to Human-Level Intelligence.score: 60.0
    This article is the basis of an invited talk at KR-96 in 1996 November. It has been modified from the version that appeared in the preprints of that meeting. There is an html version , a .dvi version , .pdf version and a .ps version. Up to: Main McCarthy page Up to: Send comments to mccarthy@stanford.edu. I sometimes make changes suggested in them. - John McCarthy..
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  10. Axel Honneth, Thomas McCarthy, Claus Offe & Albrecht Wellmer (eds.) (1992). Philosophical Interventions in the Unfinished Project of Enlightenment. The Mit Press.score: 60.0
    Together, the two volumes underscore the richness and variety of Habermas's project.Contributors: Karl-Otto Apel. Richard J. Bernstein. Peter Burger. Martin Jay. Thomas McCarthy. Herbert Schnadelbach. Charles Taylor. Michael Theunissen.
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  11. Thomas McCarthy (1993). Ideals and Illusions: On Reconstruction and Deconstruction in Contemporary Critical Theory. The Mit Press.score: 60.0
    These lucid studies of Derrida, Foucault, Habermas, and Rorty analyze majorcontributions to recent critical theory and forge a distinct position in the current philosophicaldebate.Thomas McCarthy is John Schaffer Professor in the Humanities ...
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  12. John McCarthy, John Searle's Chinese Room Argument.score: 30.0
    John Searle begins his (1990) ``Consciousness, Explanatory Inversion and Cognitive Science'' with
    ``Ten years ago in this journal I published an article (Searle, 1980a and 1980b) criticising what I call Strong
    AI, the view that for a system to have mental states it is sufficient for the system to implement the right sort of
    program with right inputs and outputs. Strong AI is rather easy to refute and the basic argument can be
    summarized in one sentence: {it a system, (...)
    The Chinese Room Argument can be refuted in one sentence. (shrink)
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  13. Thomas McCarthy (1994). Kantian Constructivism and Reconstructivism: Rawls and Habermas in Dialogue. Ethics 105 (1):44-63.score: 30.0
  14. David McCarthy (2006). Utilitarianism and Prioritarianism I. Economics and Philosophy 22 (3):335-363.score: 30.0
    Utilitarianism and prioritarianism make a strong assumption about the uniqueness of measures of how good things are for people, or for short, individual goodness measures. But it is far from obvious that the presupposition is correct. The usual response to this problem assumes that individual goodness measures are determined independently of our discourse about distributive theories. This article suggests reversing this response. What determines the set of individual goodness measures just is the body of platitudes we accept about distributive theories. (...)
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  15. Frank Arntzenius & David McCarthy (1997). The Two Envelope Paradox and Infinite Expectations. Analysis 57 (1):42–50.score: 30.0
    The two envelope paradox can be dissolved by looking closely at the connection between conditional and unconditional expectation and by being careful when summing an infinite series of positive and negative terms. The two envelope paradox is not another St. Petersburg paradox and that one does not need to ban talk of infinite expectation values in order to dissolve it. The article ends by posing a new puzzle to do with infinite expectations.
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  16. John McCarthy, What is Artificial Intelligence?score: 30.0
  17. Timothy McCarthy (1981). The Idea of a Logical Constant. Journal of Philosophy 78 (9):499-523.score: 30.0
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  18. Andrew McCarthy & Ian Phillips (2006). No New Argument Against the Existence Requirement. Analysis 66 (289):39–44.score: 30.0
    Yagisawa (2005) considers two old arguments against the existence requirement. Both arguments are significantly less appealing than Yagisawa suggests. In particular, the second argument, first given by Kaplan (1989: 498), simply assumes that existence is contingent (§1). Yagisawa’s ‘new’ argument shares this weakness. It also faces a dilemma. Yagisawa must either treat ‘at @’ as a sentential operator occupying the same grammatical position as ‘∼’ or as supplying an extra argument place. In the former case, Yagisawa’s argument faces precisely the (...)
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  19. John McCarthy, The Robot and the Baby.score: 30.0
    This is the first science fiction story I have put up for the public to look at. While it was written just as a story, it partly illustrates my opinions about what household robots should be like. In my article Making Robots Conscious of their Mental States , I argued that robots should not be programmed to have..
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  20. Kit Fine & Timothy McCarthy (1984). Truth Without Satisfaction. Journal of Philosophical Logic 13 (4):397 - 421.score: 30.0
  21. David McCarthy (2000). Harming and Allowing Harm. Ethics 110 (4):749-779.score: 30.0
    The article takes as its starting point the assumption that (a) competing accounts of moral rules should be judged by the distribution of benefits and burdens which would arise from everyone accepting these rules, and that (b) these benefits and burdens are understood in a way which has a substantial resource or freedom-based component. This starting point is compatible with contractualism and various forms of rule consequentialism, and will yield a morality in which people have significant freedoms. The main claim (...)
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  22. John McCarthy (1996). Making Robots Conscious of Their Mental States. In S. Muggleton (ed.), Machine Intelligence 15. Oxford University Press.score: 30.0
    In AI, consciousness of self consists in a program having certain kinds of facts about its own mental processes and state of mind. We discuss what consciousness of its own mental structures a robot will need in order to operate in the common sense world and accomplish the tasks humans will give it. It's quite a lot. Many features of human consciousness will be wanted, some will not, and some abilities not possessed by humans have already been found feasible and (...)
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  23. John McCarthy & Patrick Hayes (1969). Some Philosophical Problems From the Standpoint of Artificial Intelligence. In B. Meltzer & Donald Michie (eds.), Machine Intelligence 4. Edinburgh University Press. 463--502.score: 30.0
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  24. David McCarthy (2002). Intending Harm, Foreseeing Harm, and Failures of the Will. Noûs 36 (4):622–642.score: 30.0
    Theoretical defenses of the principle of double effect (pde) due to Quinn, Nagel and Foot are claimed to face severe difficulties. But this leaves those of us who see something in the case-based support for the pde without a way of accounting for our judgments. This article proposes a novel principle it calls the mismatch principle, and argues that the mismatch principle does better than the pde at accounting for our judgments about cases and is also theoretically defensible. However, where (...)
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  25. Dale Gottlieb & Timothy McCarthy (1979). Substitutional Quantification and Set Theory. Journal of Philosophical Logic 8 (1):315 - 331.score: 30.0
  26. John McCarthy, A Logical Approach to Context.score: 30.0
    Logical AI develops computer programs that represent what they know about the world primarily by logical formulas and decide what to do primarily by logical reasoning--including nonmonotonic logical reasoning. It is convenient to use logical sentences and terms whose meaning depends on context. The reasons for this are similar to what causes human language to use context dependent meanings. This note gives elements of some of the formalisms to which we have been led. Fuller treatments are in [McC93], [Guh91] and (...)
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  27. Harold E. McCarthy (1952). T. S. Eliot and Buddhism. Philosophy East and West 2 (1):31-55.score: 30.0
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  28. Thomas McCarthy (1980). Rationality and Relativism in Habermas' Critical Theory. Noûs 14 (1):75-76.score: 30.0
  29. Thomas McCarthy (2004). Coming to Terms with Our Past, Part II: On the Morality and Politics of Reparations for Slavery. Political Theory 32 (6):750-772.score: 30.0
    There has recently been a surge of interest, theoretical and political, in reparations for slavery. This essay takes up several moral-political issues from that intensifying debate: how to conceptualize and justify collective compensation and collective responsibility, and how to establish a plausible connection between past racial injustices and present racial inequalities. It concludes with some brief remarks on one aspect of the very complicated politics of reparations: the possible effects of hearings and trials on the public memory and political culture (...)
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  30. Frank Arntzenius & David McCarthy (1997). Self Torture and Group Beneficence. Erkenntnis 47 (1):129-144.score: 30.0
    Moral puzzles about actions which bring about very small or what are said to be imperceptible harms or benefits for each of a large number of people are well known. Less well known is an argument by Warren Quinn that standard theories of rationality can lead an agent to end up torturing himself or herself in a completely foreseeable way, and that this shows that standard theories of rationality need to be revised. We show where Quinn's argument goes wrong, and (...)
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  31. John McCarthy (1995). Todd Moody's Zombies. Journal of Consciousness Studies 2 (4):345-347.score: 30.0
    From the AI point of view, consciousness must be regarded as a collection of interacting processes rather than the unitary object of much philosophical speculation. We ask what kinds of propositions and other entities need to be designed for consciousness to be useful to an animal or a machine. We thereby assert that human consciousness is useful to human functioning and not just and epiphenomenon. Zombies in the sense of Todd Moody's article are merely the victims of Moody's prejudices. To (...)
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  32. Jeffrey McCarthy (2002). A Theory of Place in North American Mountaineering. Philosophy and Geography 5 (2):179 – 194.score: 30.0
    This essay examines mountaineering narratives in the light of recent eco-critical scholarship to assert that their tales of intense awareness and connection reveal a more fundamental integration between human subject and natural object than our culture has imagined. North American climbing narratives show three primary modes of imagining nature: first, as an object to conquer; second, as a picturesque setting to admire; third, as the extension of a self whose identity is shaped by the interpenetration of the human and the (...)
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  33. E. Doyle McCarthy (1996). Knowledge as Culture: The New Sociology of Knowledge. Routledge.score: 30.0
    Drawing upon Marxist, French structuralist and American pragmatist traditions, this lively and accessible introduction to the sociology of knowledge gives to its classic texts a fresh reading, arguing that various bodies of knowledge operate within culture to create powerful cultural dispositions, meanings, and categories. It looks at the cultural impact of the forms and images of mass media, the authority of science, medicine, and law as bodies of contemporary knowledge and practice. Finally, it considers the concept of "engendered knowledge" through (...)
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  34. John Mccarthy (1997). Modality, Si! Modal Logic, No! Studia Logica 59 (1):29-32.score: 30.0
    This article is oriented toward the use of modality in artificial intelligence (AI). An agent must reason about what it or other agents know, believe, want, intend or owe. Referentially opaque modalities are needed and must be formalized correctly. Unfortunately, modal logics seem too limited for many important purposes. This article contains examples of uses of modality for which modal logic seems inadequate.I have no proof that modal logic is inadequate, so I hope modal logicians will take the examples as (...)
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  35. David McCarthy (1998). Actions, Beliefs, and Consequences. Philosophical Studies 90 (1):57-77.score: 30.0
    On the agent-relativity thesis, what an agent ought to do is a function of the evidence available to her about the consequences of her potential actions. On the objectivity thesis, what an agent ought to do is a function of what the consequences of her potential actions would be, regardless of the evidence available to her. This article argues for the agent-relativity thesis. The main opposing argument, due to Thomson, points to cases where a bystander can see that an agent (...)
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  36. David Matzko McCarthy & M. Therese Lysaught (eds.) (2007). Gathered for the Journey: Moral Theology in Catholic Perspective. William B. Eerdmans Pub..score: 30.0
    Life together : moral reasoning in theological context -- Pilgrim's progress : virtues and the goal of the journey -- The imitation of Christ : issues along the way.
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  37. David McCarthy (1997). Rights, Explanation, and Risks. Ethics 107 (2):205-225.score: 30.0
    Theories of rights seem well equipped to explain widely accepted claims about the morality of harming. But can they explain popular claims about the morality of imposing risks of harm? Many think not. But a plausible theory of rights can explain those claims if it says we have the right that others not impose risks of harm upon us. That is a good reason to believe we have that right. There are many objections to the claim that we have that (...)
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  38. Thomas McCarthy, On Reconciling Cosmopolitan Unity and National Diversity.score: 30.0
    There are few ideas as important to the history of modern democracy as that of the nation as a political community. And yet, by comparison to its companion idea of political community as based upon the agreement of free and equal individuals, it remained until recently a marginal concern of liberal political theory. The aftermath of decolonization and the breakup of the Soviet empire, among other things, has changed that and brought it finally to the center of theoretical attention. And (...)
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  39. T. A. McCarthy (1973). A Theory of Communicative Competence. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 3 (1):135-156.score: 30.0
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  40. David McCarthy (1996). Liability and Risk. Philosophy and Public Affairs 25 (3):238-262.score: 30.0
    Standard theories of liability say that X is liable to Y only if Y was harmed, only if X caused Y harm, and (usually) only if X was at fault. This article offers a series of criticisms of each of these claims, and use them to construct an alternative theory of liability in which the nature of X's having imposed a risk of harm on Y is central to the question of when X is liable to Y, and for how (...)
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  41. Thomas McCarthy, Multicultural Cosmopolitanism Remarks on the Idea of Universal History.score: 30.0
    From the time of our first communication, some thirty years ago, Fred Dallmayr and I have never ceased to disagree about key foundational issues in social and political theory. Our disagreements are not haphazard but consistent; they might be characterized roughly as stemming from the differences between his brand of hermeneutics and my brand of critical theory, or between his sources of inspiration in Hegel and Heidegger and my own in Kant and Habermas. But they are also “reasonable disagreements” that (...)
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  42. Irene N. McCarthy (1997). Professional Ethics Code Conflict Situations: Ethical and Value Orientation of Collegiate Accounting Students. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 16 (12-13):1467-1473.score: 30.0
    Public accounting in the United States is generally guided by the Code of Professional Conduct of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). It has been suggested that education in understanding and accepting their ethical code would increase accountants' adherence and ethicality.This study was designed to examine the level of consensus to AICPA ethical standards by accounting students (ethical orientation). Situation ethics provided the theoretical rationale for this study.
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  43. Thomas McCarthy (2002). Vergangenheitsbewältigung in the USA: On the Politics of the Memory of Slavery. Political Theory 30 (5):623-648.score: 30.0
    The settlement of the North American continent was... a consequence not of any higher claim in a democratic or international sense, but rather of a consciousness of what is right which had its sole roots in the conviction of the superiority and thus of the right of the white race. —Adolf Hitler, 1932.
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  44. Timothy McCarthy & Sean C. Stidd (eds.) (2001). Wittgenstein in America. Oxford University Press.score: 30.0
    This remarkable collection explores the legacy of Wittgenstein's work in contemporary American philosophy. The contributors (including several celebrated philosophers) take a variety of approaches to Wittgenstein; they discuss such topics as rule-following, realism about mathematics, the method of the Tractatus, the relation between style and content in Wittgenstein, and his distinction between sense and nonsense. Wittgenstein also is discussed in relation to subsequent philosophers such as Quine and Kripke.
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  45. John McCarthy, Notes on Self-Awareness.score: 30.0
    These notes discuss self-awareness in humans and machines. The goal is to determine useful forms of machine self-awareness and also those that are on the road to human-level AI. This is a draft which is to be improved, and suggestions are solicited. There are a few formulas in this version. The final version will have more.
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  46. Timothy McCarthy (1987). Modality, Invariance, and Logical Truth. Journal of Philosophical Logic 16 (4):423 - 443.score: 30.0
    Let us sum up. We began with the question, “What is the interest of a model-theoretic definition of validity?” Model theoretic validity consists in truth under all reinterpretations of non-logical constants. In this paper, we have described for each necessity concept a corresponding modal invariance property. Exemplification of that property by the logical constants of a language leads to an explanation of the necessity, in the corresponding sense, of its valid sentences. I have fixed upon the epistemic modalities in characterizing (...)
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  47. Thomas McCarthy (1990). The Critique of Impure Reason: Foucault and the Frankfurt School. Political Theory 18 (3):437-469.score: 30.0
  48. E. Pronin, Daniel M. Wegner, K. McCarthy & S. Rodriguez (2006). Everyday Magical Powers: The Role of Apparent Mental Causation in the Overestimation of Personal Influence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91:218-231.score: 30.0
    These studies examined whether having thoughts related to an event before it occurs leads people to infer that they caused the event— even when such causation might otherwise seem magical. In Study 1, people perceived that they had harmed another person via a voodoo hex. These perceptions were more likely among those who had first been induced to harbor evil thoughts about their victim. In Study 2, spectators of a peer’s basketball-shooting performance were more likely to perceive that they had (...)
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  49. John McCarthy, An Everywhere Continuous Nowhere Differentiable Function.score: 30.0
    My 1953 proof that the function is everywhere continuous and nowhere differentiable is just 13 lines. I've added some remarks to the note in the American Mathematical Monthly.
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  50. Timothy G. Mccarthy (1994). Self-Reference and Incompleteness in a Non-Monotonic Setting. Journal of Philosophical Logic 23 (4):423 - 449.score: 30.0
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