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  1. Gerd Gigerenzer (1999). Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart. Oxford University Press.
    Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart invites readers to embark on a new journey into a land of rationality that differs from the familiar territory of cognitive science and economics. Traditional views of rationality tend to see decision makers as possessing superhuman powers of reason, limitless knowledge, and all of eternity in which to ponder choices. To understand decisions in the real world, we need a different, more psychologically plausible notion of rationality, and this book provides it. It is about (...)
     
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  2.  36
    Gerd Gigerenzer & Henry Brighton (2009). Homo Heuristicus: Why Biased Minds Make Better Inferences. Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (1):107-143.
    Heuristics are efficient cognitive processes that ignore information. In contrast to the widely held view that less processing reduces accuracy, the study of heuristics shows that less information, computation, and time can in fact improve accuracy. We review the major progress made so far: the discovery of less-is-more effects; the study of the ecological rationality of heuristics, which examines in which environments a given strategy succeeds or fails, and why; an advancement from vague labels to computational models of heuristics; the (...)
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  3.  7
    Gerd Gigerenzer (2008). Rationality for Mortals: How People Cope with Uncertainty. OUP Usa.
    This volume collects Gigerenzer's recent articles on the psychology of rationality. This volume should appeal, like the earlier volumes, to a broad mixture of cognitive psychologists, philosophers, economists, and others who study decision making.
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  4.  12
    Gerd Gigerenzer & Klaus Hug (1992). Domain-Specific Reasoning: Social Contracts, Cheating, and Perspective Change. Cognition 43 (2):127-171.
    What counts as human rationality: reasoning processes that embody content-independent formal theories, such as propositional logic, or reasoning processes that are well designed for solving important adaptive problems? Most theories of human reasoning have been based on content-independent formal rationality, whereas adaptive reasoning, ecological or evolutionary, has been little explored. We elaborate and test an evolutionary approach, Cosmides' social contract theory, using the Wason selection task. In the first part, we disentangle the theoretical concept of a “social contract” from that (...)
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  5. Gerd Gigerenzer & Thomas Sturm (2012). How (Far) Can Rationality Be Naturalized? Synthese 187 (1):243-268.
    The paper shows why and how an empirical study of fast-and-frugal heuristics can provide norms of good reasoning, and thus how (and how far) rationality can be naturalized. We explain the heuristics that humans often rely on in solving problems, for example, choosing investment strategies or apartments, placing bets in sports, or making library searches. We then show that heuristics can lead to judgments that are as accurate as or even more accurate than strategies that use more information and computation, (...)
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  6. Gerd Gigerenzer (1989). The Empire of Chance How Probability Changed Science and Everyday Life. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  7.  57
    Peter M. Todd & Gerd Gigerenzer (2000). Précis of Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):727-741.
    How can anyone be rational in a world where knowledge is limited, time is pressing, and deep thought is often an unattainable luxury? Traditional models of unbounded rationality and optimization in cognitive science, economics, and animal behavior have tended to view decision-makers as possessing supernatural powers of reason, limitless knowledge, and endless time. But understanding decisions in the real world requires a more psychologically plausible notion of bounded rationality. In Simple heuristics that make us smart (Gigerenzer et al. 1999), we (...)
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  8.  78
    Gerd Gigerenzer (2010). Moral Satisficing: Rethinking Moral Behavior as Bounded Rationality. Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (3):528-554.
    What is the nature of moral behavior? According to the study of bounded rationality, it results not from character traits or rational deliberation alone, but from the interplay between mind and environment. In this view, moral behavior is based on pragmatic social heuristics rather than moral rules or maximization principles. These social heuristics are not good or bad per se, but solely in relation to the environments in which they are used. This has methodological implications for the study of morality: (...)
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  9.  58
    Gerd Gigerenzer (2005). I Think, Therefore I Err. Social Research: An International Quarterly 72 (1):1-24.
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  10.  23
    Gerd Gigerenzer (2015). On the Supposed Evidence for Libertarian Paternalism. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 6 (3):361-383.
    Can the general public learn to deal with risk and uncertainty, or do authorities need to steer people’s choices in the right direction? Libertarian paternalists argue that results from psychological research show that our reasoning is systematically flawed and that we are hardly educable because our cognitive biases resemble stable visual illusions. For that reason, they maintain, authorities who know what is best for us need to step in and steer our behavior with the help of “nudges.” Nudges are nothing (...)
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  11.  7
    Liqi Zhu & Gerd Gigerenzer (2006). Children Can Solve Bayesian Problems: The Role of Representation in Mental Computation. Cognition 98 (3):287-308.
  12.  26
    Valerie M. Chase, Ralph Hertwig & Gerd Gigerenzer (1998). Visions of Rationality. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2 (6):206-214.
    The classical view that equates rationality with adherence to the laws of probability theory and logic has driven much research on inference. Recently, an increasing number of researchers have begun to espouse a view of rationality that takes account of organisms' adaptive goals, natural environments, and cognitive constraints. We argue that inference is carried out using boundedly rational heuristics, that is, heuristics that allow organisms to reach their goals under conditions of limited time, information, and computational capacity. These heuristics are (...)
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  13.  8
    Gerd Gigerenzer (2001). Content-Blind Norms, No Norms, or Good Norms? A Reply to Vranas. Cognition 81 (1):93-103.
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  14.  30
    Mareile Drechsler, Konstantinos Katsikopoulos & Gerd Gigerenzer (2014). Axiomatizing Bounded Rationality: The Priority Heuristic. Theory and Decision 77 (2):183-196.
    This paper presents an axiomatic framework for the priority heuristic, a model of bounded rationality in Selten’s (in: Gigerenzer and Selten (eds.) Bounded rationality: the adaptive toolbox, 2001) spirit of using empirical evidence on heuristics. The priority heuristic predicts actual human choices between risky gambles well. It implies violations of expected utility theory such as common consequence effects, common ratio effects, the fourfold pattern of risk taking and the reflection effect. We present an axiomatization of a parameterized version of the (...)
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  15.  67
    Gerd Gigerenzer (2004). The Irrationality Paradox. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (3):336-338.
    In the study of judgmental errors, surprisingly little thought is spent on what constitutes good and bad judgment. I call this simultaneous focus on errors and lack of analysis of what constitutes an error, the irrationality paradox. I illustrate the paradox by a dozen apparent fallacies; each can be logically deduced from the environmental structure and an unbiased mind.
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  16.  18
    Gerd Gigerenzer & Thomas Sturm (2007). Tools=Theories=Data? On Some Circular Dynamics in Cognitive Science. In Mitchell G. Ash & Thomas Sturm (eds.), Psychology’s Territories: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives from Different Disciplines. Erlbaum
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  17.  4
    Peter Sedlmeier & Gerd Gigerenzer (2001). Teaching Bayesian Reasoning in Less Than Two Hours. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 130 (3):380.
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  18.  17
    Julian N. Marewski, Wolfgang Gaissmaier, Lael J. Schooler, Daniel G. Goldstein & Gerd Gigerenzer (2009). Do Voters Use Episodic Knowledge to Rely on Recognition. In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.
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  19.  9
    Gerd Gigerenzer (2001). Decision Making: Nonrational Theories. In N. J. Smelser & B. Baltes (eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. 5--3304.
  20.  23
    Peter M. Todd & Gerd Gigerenzer (2001). Shepard's Mirrors or Simon 's Scissors? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (4):704-705.
    Shepard promotes the important view that evolution constructs cognitive mechanisms that work with internalized aspects of the structure of their environment. But what can this internalization mean? We contrast three views: Shepard's mirrors reflecting the world, Brunswik's lens inferring the world, and Simon 's scissors exploiting the world. We argue that Simon 's scissors metaphor is more appropriate for higher-order cognitive mechanisms and ask how far it can also be applied to perceptual tasks. [Barlow; Kubovy & Epstein; Shepard].
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  21. Gerd Gigerenzer & Wolfgang Gaissmaier (2011). Heuristic Decision Making. Annual Review of Psychology 62:451-482.
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  22.  36
    Gerd Gigerenzer & Ulrich Hoffrage (2007). The Role of Representation in Bayesian Reasoning: Correcting Common Misconceptions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (3):264-267.
    The terms nested sets, partitive frequencies, inside-outside view, and dual processes add little but confusion to our original analysis (Gigerenzer & Hoffrage 1995; 1999). The idea of nested set was introduced because of an oversight; it simply rephrases two of our equations. Representation in terms of chances, in contrast, is a novel contribution yet consistent with our computational analysis System 1.dual process theory” is: Unless the two processes are defined, this distinction can account post hoc for almost everything. In contrast, (...)
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  23.  9
    Pantelis P. Analytis, Mehdi Moussaïd, Florian Artinger, Juliane E. Kämmer & Gerd Gigerenzer (2014). “Big Data” Needs an Analysis of Decision Processes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (1):76-78.
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  24.  1
    Gerd Gigerenzer & Daniel G. Goldstein (1996). Reasoning the Fast and Frugal Way: Models of Bounded Rationality. Psychological Review 103 (4):650-669.
    Humans and animals make inferences about the world under limited time and knowledge. In contrast, many models of rational inference treat the mind as a Laplacean Demon, equipped with unlimited time, knowledge, and computational might. Following H. Simon's notion of satisficing, the authors have proposed a family of algorithms based on a simple psychological mechanism: one-reason decision making. These fast and frugal algorithms violate fundamental tenets of classical rationality: They neither look up nor integrate all information. By computer simulation, the (...)
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  25.  2
    Iztok Hozo, Benjamin Djulbegovic, Shenghua Luan, Athanasios Tsalatsanis & Gerd Gigerenzer (forthcoming). Towards Theory Integration: Threshold Model as a Link Between Signal Detection Theory, Fast-and-Frugal Trees and Evidence Accumulation Theory. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice:n/a-n/a.
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  26.  2
    Gerd Gigerenzer (2016). Moral Satisficing: moralisches Verhalten als „Bounded Rationality“. In Jan-Christoph Heilinger & Julian Nida-Rümelin (eds.), Moral, Wissenschaft Und Wahrheit. De Gruyter 223-262.
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  27. Gerd Gigerenzer (2008). Why Heuristics Work. Perspectives on Psychological Science 3 (1):20-29.
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  28.  46
    Henry Brighton & Gerd Gigerenzer (2011). Towards Competitive Instead of Biased Testing of Heuristics: A Reply to Hilbig and Richter (2011). Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (1):197-205.
    Our programmatic article on Homo heuristicus (Gigerenzer & Brighton, 2009) included a methodological section specifying three minimum criteria for testing heuristics: competitive tests, individual-level tests, and tests of adaptive selection of heuristics. Using Richter and Späth’s (2006) study on the recognition heuristic, we illustrated how violations of these criteria can lead to unsupported conclusions. In their comment, Hilbig and Richter conduct a reanalysis, but again without competitive testing. They neither test nor specify the compensatory model of inference they argue for. (...)
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  29. Peter M. Todd & Gerd Gigerenzer (2007). Environments That Make Us Smart Ecological Rationality. Current Directions in Psychological Science 16 (3):167-171.
    Traditional views of rationality posit general-purpose decision mechanisms based on logic or optimization. The study of ecological rationality focuses on uncovering the “adaptive toolbox” of domain-specific simple heuristics that real, computationally bounded minds employ, and explaining how these heuristics produce accurate decisions by exploiting the structures of information in the environments in which they are applied. Knowing when and how people use particular heuristics can facilitate the shaping of environments to engender better decisions.
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  30.  9
    Gerd Gigerenzer (1991). On Cognitive Illusions and Rationality. In Probability and Rationality. Amsterdam: Rodopi 225-249.
  31.  2
    Gerd Gigerenzer (1992). Discovery in Cognitive Psychology: New Tools Inspire New Theories. Science in Context 5 (2).
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  32.  36
    Robert Boyd, Gerd Gigerenzer, Peter J. Richerson, Arthur Robson, Jeffrey R. Stevens & Peter Hammerstein, Individual Decision Making and the Evolutionary Roots of Institutions.
    Humans hunt and kill many different species of animals, but whales are our biggest prey. In the North Atlantic, a male long-fi nned pilot whale (Globiceph- ala melaena), a large relative of the dolphins, can grow as large as 6.5 meters and weigh as much as 2.5 tons. As whales go, these are not particularly large, but there are more than 750,000 pilot whales in the North Atlantic, traveling in groups, “pods,” that range from just a few individuals to a (...)
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  33.  40
    Gerd Gigerenzer (1998). We Need Statistical Thinking, Not Statistical Rituals. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (2):199-200.
    What Chow calls NHSTP is an inconsistent hybrid of Fisherian and Neyman-Pearsonian ideas. In psychology it has been practiced like ritualistic handwashing and sustained by wishful thinking about its utility. Chow argues that NHSTP is an important tool for ruling out chance as an explanation for data. I disagree. This ritual discourages theory development by providing researchers with no incentive to specify hypotheses.
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  34.  9
    Gerd Gigerenzer (2001). Are We Losing Control? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):408-409.
    Most students are trained in using but not in actively choosing a research methodology. I support Hertwig and Ortmann's call for more rationality in the use of methodology. I comment on additional practices that sacrifice experimental control to the experimenter's convenience, and on the strange fact that such laissez-faire attitudes and rigid intolerance actually co-exist in psychological research programs.
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  35.  13
    Gerd Gigerenzer & Stephanie Kurzenhauser (2005). Fast and Frugal Heuristics in Medical Decision Making. In Roger Bibace (ed.), Science and Medicine in Dialogue: Thinking Through Particulars and Universals. Praeger 3--15.
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  36.  10
    Gerd Gigerenzer (1995). The Taming of Content: Some Thoughts About Domains and Modules. Thinking and Reasoning 1 (4):324 – 333.
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  37.  35
    Gerd Gigerenzer & Thalia Gigerenzer (2005). Is the Ultimatum Game a Three-Body Affair? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):823-824.
    The Ultimatum Game is commonly interpreted as a two-person bargaining game. The third person who donates and may withdraw the money is not included in the theoretical equations, but treated like a neutral measurement instrument. Yet in a cross-cultural analysis it seems necessary to consider the possibility that the thoughts of a player – strategic, altruistic, selfish, or concerned about reputation – are influenced by both an anonymous second player and the non-anonymous experimenter.
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  38. Daniel G. Goldstein & Gerd Gigerenzer (2002). Models of Ecological Rationality: The Recognition Heuristic. Psychological Review 109 (1):75-90.
    [Correction Notice: An erratum for this article was reported in Vol 109 of Psychological Review. Due to circumstances that were beyond the control of the authors, the studies reported in "Models of Ecological Rationality: The Recognition Heuristic," by Daniel G. Goldstein and Gerd Gigerenzer overlap with studies reported in "The Recognition Heuristic: How Ignorance Makes Us Smart," by the same authors and with studies reported in "Inference From Ignorance: The Recognition Heuristic". In addition, Figure 3 in the Psychological Review article (...)
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  39. Lorenz Krüger, Gerd Gigerenzer & Mary S. Morgan (eds.) (1990). The Probabilistic Revolution, Volume 2. MIT Press: Cambridge.
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  40.  5
    Odette Wegwarth, Robert W. Day & Gerd Gigerenzer (2011). Decisions on Pharmacogenomic Tests in the USA and Germany. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (2):228-235.
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  41.  20
    Thomas Sturm & Gerd Gigerenzer (2006). How Can We Use the Distinction Between Discovery and Justification? On the Weaknesses of the Strong Programme in the Sociology of Science. In Jutta Schickore & Friedrich Steinle (eds.), Revisiting Discovery and Justification. Springer 133--158.
    We attack the SSK's rejection of the distinction between discovery and justification (the DJ distinction), famously introduced by Hans Reichenbach and here defended in a "lean" version. Some critics claim that the DJ distinction cannot be drawn precisely, or that it cannot be drawn prior to the actual analysis of scientific knowledge. Others, instead of trying to blur or to reject the distinction, claim that we need an even more fine-grained distinction (e.g. between discovery, invention, prior assessment, test and justification). (...)
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  42.  8
    Ulrich Hoffrage, Stephanie Kurzenhäuser & Gerd Gigerenzer (2005). Understanding the Results of Medical Tests: Why the Representation of Statistical Information Matters. In Roger Bibace (ed.), Science and Medicine in Dialogue: Thinking Through Particulars and Universals. Praeger 83--98.
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  43.  7
    Johan Steurer, Ulrike Held, Mathias Schmidt, Gerd Gigerenzer, Brigitte Tag & Lucas M. Bachmann (2009). Legal Concerns Trigger Prostate‐Specific Antigen Testing. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (2):390-392.
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  44. Gerd Gigerenzer (1996). The Psychology of Good Judgment Frequency Formats and Simple Algorithms. Medical Decision Making 16 (3):273-280.
    Mind and environment evolve in tandem—almost a platitude. Much of judgment and decision making research, however, has compared cognition to standard statistical models, rather than to how well it is adapted to its environment. The author argues two points. First, cognitive algorithms are tuned to certain information formats, most likely to those that humans have encountered during their evolutionary history. In par ticular, Bayesian computations are simpler when the information is in a frequency format than when it is in a (...)
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  45.  6
    Peter M. Todd & Gerd Gigerenzer (2000). How Can We Open Up the Adaptive Toolbox? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):89-100.
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  46.  4
    Gerd Gigerenzer (1991). Does the Environment Have the Same Structure as Bayes' Theorem? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (3):495-496.
  47.  4
    Gerd Gigerenzer (forthcoming). And Public Policy. Philosophy of the Social Sciences: Philosophical Theory and Scientific Practice:207.
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  48.  5
    Gerd Gigerenzer (1996). Why Do Frequency Formats Improve Bayesian Reasoning? Cognitive Algorithms Work on Information, Which Needs Representation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (1):23.
  49.  6
    Marco Monti, Riccardo Boero, Nathan Berg, Gerd Gigerenzer & Laura Martignon (2012). How Do Common Investors Behave? Information Search and Portfolio Choice Among Bank Customers and University Students. Mind and Society 11 (2):203-233.
    Bank customers are not financial experts, and yet they make high-stakes decisions that can substantively affect personal wealth. Sooner or later, every individual has to take relevant investment decisions. Using data collected from financial advisors, bank customers and university students in Italy, this paper aims to reveal new insights about the decision processes of average non-expert investors: their investment goals, the information sets they consider, and the factors that ultimately influence decisions about investment products. Using four portfolio choice tasks based (...)
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  50.  3
    Ulrich Hoffrage & Gerd Gigerenzer (1996). The Impact of Information Representation on Bayesian Reasoning. In Garrison W. Cottrell (ed.), Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Lawrence Erlbaum 126--130.
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