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  1. Christian Barry, Matthew Lindauer & Gerhard Øverland (forthcoming). Doing, Allowing, and Enabling Harm: An Empirical Investigation. In Joshua Knobe, Tania Lombrozo & Shaun Nichols (eds.), Oxford Studies in Experimental Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    Traditionally, moral philosophers have distinguished between doing and allowing harm, and have normally proceeded as if this bipartite distinction can exhaustively characterize all cases of human conduct involving harm. By contrast, cognitive scientists and psychologists studying causal judgment have investigated the concept ‘enable’ as distinct from the concept ‘cause’ and other causal terms. Empirical work on ‘enable’ and its employment has generally not focused on cases where human agents enable harm. In this paper, we present new empirical evidence to support (...)
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  2. Christian Barry & Gerhard Øverland (forthcoming). The Implications of Failing to Assist. Social Theory and Practice 40 (4).
  3. Gerhard Øverland (2014). Moral Obstacles: An Alternative to the Doctrine of Double Effect. Ethics 124 (3):481-506.
    The constraint against harming people in order to save yourself and others seems stronger than the constraint against harming people as a consequence of saving yourself and others. The reduced constraint against acting in one type of case is often justified with reference to the intentions of the agent or to the fact that she does not use the people she harms as a means. In this article I offer a victim-centered account. I argue that the circumstances in which the (...)
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  4. Christian Barry & Gerhard Øverland (2013). How Much for the Child? Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (1):189-204.
    In this paper we explore what sacrifices you are morally required to make to save a child who is about to die in front of you. It has been argued that you would have very demanding duties to save such a child (or any adult who is in similar circumstance through no fault of their own, for that matter), and some examples have been presented to make this claim seem intuitively correct. Against this, we argue that you do not in (...)
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  5. Gerhard Øverland (2013). 602 and One Dead: On Contribution to Global Poverty and Liability to Defensive Force. European Journal of Philosophy 21 (2):279-299.
    : When suggesting that we—the affluent in the developed world—are legitimate targets of defensive force due to our contribution to global poverty one is likely to be countered by one of two strategies. The first denies that we contribute to global poverty. The second seems to affirm that we contribute, and even that we have stringent contribution-based duties to address this poverty, but denies that such contribution makes forcible resistance permissible. Those in this second group employ several argumentative strategies. In (...)
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  6. Gerhard Øverland (2013). Pogge on Poverty: Contribution or Exploitation? Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (4):319-333.
    Thomas Pogge argues that affluent people in the developing world have contribution-based duties to help protect the poor. And it follows from Pogge's most general thesis that affluent people are contributing to most, if not all, instances of global poverty. In this article I explore two problems with Pogge's general thesis. First, I investigate a typical way in which affluent people would be contributing to global poverty according to Pogge: that affluent countries use their superior bargaining power to get poor (...)
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  7. Christian Barry & Gerhard Øverland (2012). Are Trade Subsidies and Tariffs Killing the Global Poor? Social Research (4):865-896.
    In recent years it has often been claimed that policies such as subsidies paid to domestic producers by affluent countries and tariffs on goods produced by foreign producers in poorer countries violate important moral requirements because they do severe harm to poor people, even kill them. Such claims involve an empirical aspect—such policies are on balance very bad for the global poor—and a philosophical aspect—that the causal influence of these policies can fairly be characterized as doing severe harm and killing. (...)
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  8. Christian Barry & Gerhard Øverland (2012). The Feasible Alternatives Thesis: Kicking Away the Livelihoods of the Global Poor. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 11 (1):97-119.
    Many assert that affluent countries have contributed in the past to poverty in developing countries through wars of aggression and conquest, colonialism and its legacies, the imposition of puppet leaders, and support for brutal dictators and venal elites. Thomas Pogge has recently argued that there is an additional and, arguably, even more consequential way in which the affluent continue to contribute to poverty in the developing world. He argues that when people cooperate in instituting and upholding institutional arrangements that foreseeably (...)
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  9. Gerhard Øverland (2011). Moral Taint: On the Transfer of the Implications of Moral Culpability. Journal of Applied Philosophy 28 (2):122-136.
    Suppose two people are about to drown. We are in a position to save only one, so the other will have to die. One of the two has just culpably killed an innocent person, but has no intention of killing anybody else and there is no reason to expect that he will. Everything else being equal, should we give them an equal chance of being saved by flipping a coin? In this paper I argue that we should not. I argue (...)
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  10. Gerhard Øverland (2011). On Disproportionate Force and Fighting in Vain. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 41 (2):235-261.
    Two conditions guiding permissible use of force in self-defence are proportionality and success. According to the proportionality condition the means used to prevent an attack can be permissible only if they are proportional to the interest at stake.1 According to the success condition, otherwise impermissible acts can be justified under the right to self-defence only if they are likely to succeed in preventing the perceived threat.2 These requirements should not always be interpreted narrowly. Sometimes people are permitted to kill culpable (...)
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  11. Gerhard Øverland & Christian Barry (2011). Do Democratic Societies Have a Right to Do Wrong? Journal of Social Philosophy 42 (2):111-131.
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  12. Christian Barry & Gerhard Øverland (2010). Why Remittances to Poor Countries Should Not Be Taxed. NYU Journal of International Law and Politics 42 (1):1180-1207.
  13. Christian Barry & Gerhard Øverland (2009). Responding to Global Poverty: Review Essay of Peter Singer, the Life You Can Save. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (2):239-247.
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  14. Gerhard Øverland (2009). Forced Assistance. Law and Philosophy 28 (2):203 - 232.
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  15. Gerhard Øverland (2007). Survival Lotteries Reconsidered. Bioethics 21 (7):355–363.
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  16. Gerhard Øverland (2007). The Illegal Way in and the Moral Way Out. European Journal of Philosophy 15 (2):186–203.
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  17. Gerhard Øverland (2007). The Right to Do Wrong. Law and Philosophy 26 (4):377-404.
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  18. Gerhard Øverland (2006). Killing Soldiers. Ethics and International Affairs 20 (4):455–475.
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  19. William J. FitzPatrick, Gerhard Øverland, Talbot Brewer, David Enoch & Philip Stratton‐Lake (2005). 2.“Doing and Allowing” and Doing and Allowing “Doing and Allowing” and Doing and Allowing (Pp. 799-808). Ethics 115 (4).
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  20. Gerhard Øverland (2005). Poverty and the Moral Significance of Contribution. Journal of Moral Philosophy 2 (3):299-315.
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  21. Gerhard Øverland (2005). Self-Defence Among Innocent People. Journal of Moral Philosophy 2 (2):127-146.
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  22. Gerhard Øverland (2005). Brill Online Books and Journals. Journal of Moral Philosophy 2 (2).
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  23. Gerhard Øverland (2005). Contractual Killing. Ethics 115 (4):692-720.
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  24. Gerhard Øverland (2005). Killing Civilians. European Journal of Philosophy 13 (3):345–363.
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  25. Gerhard Øverland (2004). Just Adjustments. Public Affairs Quarterly 18 (4):387-408.
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