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  1. Gerhard Overland (2012). Dividing Harm. Journal of Moral Philosophy 8 (4):547-566.
    In this paper I argue that mere causal contribution to harm is morally significant on two counts: a) innocent aggressors have a duty to bear additional costs to help protect their potential victims, as compared to the duty innocent bystanders are expected to bear, and correspondingly; b) it is permissible to use more force against innocent aggressors, as used in self-defense and defense of others, than innocent bystanders. The paper has two parts. First I aim to demonstrate the intuitive plausibility (...)
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  2. Gerhard Overland (2010). Conditional Threats. Journal of Moral Philosophy 7 (3):334-345.
    In this paper I ponder the moral status of conditional threats, in particular the extent to which a threatened party would be permitted to use (lethal) defensive force. I first investigate a mugger case before turning briefly to the more complicated issue of national defence in the face of an invading army. One should not exaggerate the level of protection people under threat owe their conditioned killers simply because what is extorted is of little value. After all, either the conditional (...)
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  3. Gerhard Overland (2005). Contractual Killing. Ethics 115 (4):692-720.
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  4. Gerhard Overland (2005). Killing Civilians. European Journal of Philosophy 13 (3):345-363.
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