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  1. Niki Pfeifer & Gernot D. Kleiter, Syllogistic Reasoning with Intermediate Quantifiers.
    n S are P ”) is proposed for evaluating the rationality of human syllogistic reasoning. Some relations between intermediate quantifiers and probabilistic interpretations are discussed. The paper concludes by the generalization of the atmosphere, matching and conversion hypothesis to syllogisms with intermediate quanti- fiers. Since our experiments are currently still running, most of the paper is theoretical and intended to stimulate psychological studies.
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  2. Christian Wallmann & Gernot D. Kleiter (2014). Probability Propagation in Generalized Inference Forms. Studia Logica 102 (4):913-929.
    Probabilistic inference forms lead from point probabilities of the premises to interval probabilities of the conclusion. The probabilistic version of Modus Ponens, for example, licenses the inference from \({P(A) = \alpha}\) and \({P(B|A) = \beta}\) to \({P(B)\in [\alpha\beta, \alpha\beta + 1 - \alpha]}\) . We study generalized inference forms with three or more premises. The generalized Modus Ponens, for example, leads from \({P(A_{1}) = \alpha_{1}, \ldots, P(A_{n})= \alpha_{n}}\) and \({P(B|A_{1} \wedge \cdots \wedge A_{n}) = \beta}\) to an according interval for (...)
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  3. A. J. B. Fugard, Niki Pfeifer, B. Mayerhofer & Gernot D. Kleiter (2011). How People Interpret Conditionals: Shifts Towards the Conditional Event. Journal of Experimental Psychology 37 (3):635-648.
    We investigated how people interpret conditionals and how stable their interpretation is over a long series of trials. Participants were shown the colored patterns on each side of a six-sided die, and were asked how sure they were that a conditional holds of the side landing upwards when the die is randomly thrown. Participants were presented with 71 trials consisting of all combinations of binary dimensions of shape (e.g., circles and squares) and color (e.g., blue and red) painted onto the (...)
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  4. Gernot D. Kleiter, Michael E. Doherty & Ryan D. Tweney (2011). The Pseudodiagnosticity Trap: Should Participants Consider Alternative Hypotheses? Thinking and Reasoning 16 (4):332-345.
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  5. Andrew Jb Fugard, Niki Pfeifer, Bastian Mayerhofer & Gernot D. Kleiter (2009). How People Interpret an Uncertain If. In T. Kroupa & J. Vejnarova (eds.), Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Uncertainty Processing.
  6. Niki Pfeifer & Gernot D. Kleiter (2009). Mental Probability Logic. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):98-99.
    We discuss O&C's probabilistic approach from a probability logical point of view. Specifically, we comment on subjective probability, the indispensability of logic, the Ramsey test, the consequence relation, human nonmonotonic reasoning, intervals, generalized quantifiers, and rational analysis.
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  7. Gernot D. Kleiter (2007). Implications of Natural Sampling in Base-Rate Tasks. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (3):270-271.
    The hypothesis that structural properties and not frequencies per se improve base-rate sensitivity is supported from the perspective of natural sampling. Natural sampling uses a special frequency format that makes base-rates redundant. Unfortunately, however, it does not allow us to empirically investigate human understanding of essential properties of uncertainty – most importantly, the understanding of conditional probabilities in Bayes' Theorem.
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  8. Niki Pfeifer & Gernot D. Kleiter (2005). Coherence and Nonmonotonicity in Human Reasoning. Synthese 146 (1-2):93 - 109.
    Nonmonotonic reasoning is often claimed to mimic human common sense reasoning. Only a few studies, though, have investigated this claim empirically. We report four experiments which investigate three rules of SYSTEMP, namely the AND, the LEFT LOGICAL EQUIVALENCE, and the OR rule. The actual inferences of the subjects are compared with the coherent normative upper and lower probability bounds derived from a non-infinitesimal probability semantics of SYSTEM P. We found a relatively good agreement of human reasoning and principles of nonmonotonic (...)
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  9. Gernot D. Kleiter (1996). Critical and Natural Sensitivity to Base Rates. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (1):27.
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  10. Gernot D. Kleiter & Kurt Schwarzenbacher (1989). Beyond the Answer: Post-Error Processes. Cognition 32 (3):255-277.
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