Search results for 'Gert Woerner' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Ingrid Fischer-Schreiber, Stephan Schuhmacher & Gert Woerner (eds.) (1989). The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy and Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala.score: 240.0
  2. Bernard Gert (2007). Reply to Julia Driver, Timm Triplett, and Kathleen Wallace. Metaphilosophy 38 (4):404-419.score: 90.0
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  3. Bernard Gert, Charles M. Culver & K. Danner Clouser (2000). Common Morality Versus Specified Principlism: Reply to Richardson. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 25 (3):308 – 322.score: 60.0
    In his article 'Specifying, balancing and interpreting bioethical principles' (Richardson, 2000), Henry Richardson claims that the two dominant theories in bioethics - principlism, put forward by Beauchamp and Childress in Principles of Bioethics , and common morality, put forward by Gert, Culver and Clouser in Bioethics: A Return to Fundamentals - are deficient because they employ balancing rather than specification to resolve disputes between principles or rules. We show that, contrary to Richardson's claim, the major problem with principlism, either (...)
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  4. Bernard Gert (2004/2007). Common Morality: Deciding What to Do. Oxford University Press.score: 60.0
    Moral problems do not always come in the form of great social controversies. More often, the moral decisions we make are made quietly, constantly, and within the context of everyday activities and quotidian dilemmas. Indeed, these smaller decisions are based on a moral foundation that few of us ever stop to think about but which guides our every action. Here distinguished philosopher Bernard Gert presents a clear and concise introduction to what he calls "common morality" -- the moral system (...)
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  5. Bernard Gert (1998). Morality: Its Nature and Justification. Oxford University Press.score: 60.0
    This book offers the fullest and most sophisticated account of Gert's influential moral theory, a model first articulated in the classic work The Moral Rules: A New Rational Foundation for Morality, published in 1970. In this final revision, Gert makes clear that the moral rules are only one part of an informal system that does not provide unique answers to every moral question but does always provide a range of morally acceptable options. A new chapter on reasons includes (...)
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  6. Joshua Gert (2004). Brute Rationality: Normativity and Human Action. Cambridge University Press.score: 60.0
    Joshua Gert presents a new account of normative practical reasons and the way in which they contribute to the rationality of action. He argues that, rather than simply "counting in favor of" action, normative reasons play two logically distinct roles--that of requiring action and that of justifying action. Gert's book will appeal to a range of readers interested in practical reasoning in particular, and moral theory more generally.
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  7. Bernard Gert (1997). Bioethics: A Return to Fundamentals. Oxford University Press.score: 60.0
    An updated and expanded successor to Culver and Gert's Philosophy in Medicine, this book integrates moral philosophy with clinical medicine to present a comprehensive summary of the theory, concepts, and lines of reasoning underlying the ...
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  8. Joshua Gert (2012). Normative Bedrock: Response-Dependence, Rationality, and Reasons. Oup Oxford.score: 60.0
    Joshua Gert offers an original account of normative facts and properties, those which have implications for how we ought to behave. He argues that our ability to think and talk about normative notions such as reasons and benefits is dependent on how we respond to the world around us, including how we respond to the actions of other people.
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  9. Bernard Gert (1988). Morality: A New Justification of the Moral Rules. Oxford University Press.score: 60.0
    This volume is a revised, enlarged, and broadened version of Gert's classic 1970 book, The Moral Rules. Advocating an approach he terms "morality as impartial rationality," Gert here presents a full discussion of his moral theory, adding a wealth of new illuminating detail to his analysis of the concepts--rationality/irrationality, good/evil, and impartiality--by which he defines morality. He constructs a "moral system" that includes rules prohibiting the kinds of actions that cause evil, procedures for determining when violation of the (...)
     
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  10. Bernard Gert (1967). Hobbes and Psychological Egoism. Journal of the History of Ideas 28 (4):503-520.score: 30.0
    Hobbes has served for both philosophers and political scientists as the paradigm case of someone who held an egoistic view of human nature. In this article I shall attempt to show that the almost unanimous view that Hobbes held psychological egoism is mistaken, and further that Hobbes's political theory does not demand an egoistic psychology, but on the contrary is incompatible with psychological egoism. I do not maintain that Hobbes was completely consistent; in fact, I shall show that there was (...)
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  11. Joshua Gert (2008). Michael Smith and the Rationality of Immoral Action. Journal of Ethics 12 (1):1 - 23.score: 30.0
    Although it goes against a widespread significant misunderstanding of his view, Michael Smith is one of the very few moral philosophers who explicitly wants to allow for the commonsense claim that, while morally required action is always favored by some reason, selfish and immoral action can also be rationally permissible. One point of this paper is to make it clear that this is indeed Smith’s view. It is a further point to show that his way of accommodating this claim is (...)
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  12. Bernard Gert (2010). Moral Disagreement Concerning Abortion. Diametros 26:23-43.score: 30.0
    I use the example of abortion to show that there are some unresolvable moral disagreements. I list four sources of unresolvable moral disagreement: 1) differences in the rankings of the basic evils of death, pain, disability, loss of freedom, and loss of pleasure, 2) differences in the interpretation of moral rules, 3) ideological differences in the view of human nature and human societies, and 4) differences concerning who is impartially protected by the moral rules. It is this last difference that (...)
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  13. Bernard Gert (1990). A Critique of Principlism. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 15 (2):219-236.score: 30.0
    The authors use the term "principlism" to refer to the practice of using "principles" to replace both moral theory and particular moral rules and ideals in dealing with the moral problems that arise in medical practice. The authors argue that these "principles" do not function as claimed, and that their use is misleading both practically and theoretically. The "principles" are in fact not guides to action, but rather they are merely names for a collection of sometimes superficially related matters for (...)
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  14. Joshua Gert (2006). Problems for Moral Twin Earth Arguments. Synthese 150 (2):171 - 183.score: 30.0
    Terry Horgan and Mark Timmons have recently presented a series of papers in which they argue against what has come to be called the ‘new wave’ moral realism and moral semantics of David Brink, Richard Boyd, Peter Railton, and a number of other philosophers. The central idea behind Horgan and Timmons’s criticism of these ‘new wave’ theories has been extended by Sean Holland to include the sort of realism that drops out of response-dependent accounts that make use of an analogy (...)
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  15. Joshua Gert (2007). Normative Strength and the Balance of Reasons. Philosophical Review 116 (4):533-562.score: 30.0
  16. Bernard Gert, The Definition of Morality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 30.0
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  17. Joshua Gert (2009). Response-Dependence and Normative Bedrock. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 79 (3):718-742.score: 30.0
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  18. Joshua Gert (2009). Colour, Emotion and Objectivity. Analysis 69 (4):714-721.score: 30.0
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  19. Joshua Gert (2009). Toward an Epistemology of Certain Substantive a Priori Truths. Metaphilosophy 40 (2):214-236.score: 30.0
    Abstract: This article explains and motivates an account of one way in which we might have substantive a priori knowledge in one important class of domains: domains in which the central concepts are response-dependent. The central example will be our knowledge of the connection between something's being harmful and the fact that it is irrational for us to fail to be averse to that thing. The idea is that although the relevant responses (basic aversion in the case of harm, and (...)
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  20. Joshua Gert (2006). A Realistic Colour Realism. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 84 (4):565 – 589.score: 30.0
    Whether or not one endorses realism about colour, it is very tempting to regard realism about determinable colours such as green and yellow as standing or falling together with realism about determinate colours such as unique green or green31. Indeed some of the most prominent representatives of both sides of the colour realism debate explicitly endorse the idea that these two kinds of realism are so linked. Against such theorists, the present paper argues that one can be a realist about (...)
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  21. Joshua Gert (2008). Vague Terms, Indexicals, and Vague Indexicals. Philosophical Studies 140 (3):437 - 445.score: 30.0
    Jason Stanley has criticized a contextualist solution to the sorites paradox that treats vagueness as a kind of indexicality. His objection rests on a feature of indexicals that seems plausible: that their reference remains fixed in verb phrase ellipsis. But the force of Stanley’s criticism depends on the undefended assumption that vague terms, if they are a special sort of indexical, must function in the same way that more paradigmatic indexicals do. This paper argues that there can be more than (...)
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  22. Joshua Gert (2002). Korsgaard's Private-Reasons Argument. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 64 (2):303-324.score: 30.0
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  23. Joshua Gert (2008). Putting Particularism in its Place. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 89 (3):312-324.score: 30.0
    Abstract: The point of this paper is to undermine the support that particularism in the domain of epistemic reasons might seem to give to particularism in the domain of practical reasons. In the epistemic domain, there are two related notions: truth and the rationality of belief. Epistemic reasons are related to the rationality of belief, and not directly to truth. In the domain of practical reasons, however, the role of truth is taken by the notion of objective rationality. Practical reasons (...)
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  24. Joshua Gert (2010). Color Constancy and the Color/Value Analogy. Ethics 121 (1):58-87.score: 30.0
    This article explains and defends the existence of value constancy, understood on the model of color constancy. Color constancy involves a phenomenal distinction between the transient color appearances of objects and the unchanging colors that those objects appear to have. The existence of value constancy allows advocates of response-dependent accounts of value to reject the question “What is the uniquely appropriate attitude to have toward this evaluative property?” as containing a false uniqueness assumption. Rejecting this assumption allows response-dependent accounts of (...)
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  25. Joshua Gert (2013). Color Constancy and Dispositionalism. Philosophical Studies 162 (2):183-200.score: 30.0
    This article attempts to do two things. The first is to make it plausible that any adequate dispositional view of color will have to associate colors with complex functions from a wide range of normal circumstances to a wide range of (simultaneously) incompatible color appearances, so that there will be no uniquely veridical appearance of any given color. The second is to show that once this move is made, dispositionalism is in a position to provide interesting answers to some of (...)
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  26. Bernard Gert (2010). F. M. Kamm, Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities, and Permissible Harms (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007) Pp. X + 509. [REVIEW] Utilitas 22 (2):234-238.score: 30.0
  27. Joshua Gert (2003). Internalism and Different Kinds of Reasons. Philosophical Forum 34 (1):53–72.score: 30.0
  28. Joshua Gert (2003). Requiring and Justifying: Two Dimensions of Normative Strength. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 59 (1):5 - 36.score: 30.0
    Many contemporary accounts of normative reasons for action accord a single strength value to normative reasons. This paper first uses some examples to argue against such views by showing that they seem to commit us to intransitive or counterintuitive claims about the rough equivalence of the strengths of certain reasons. The paper then explains and defends an alternate account according to which normative reasons for action have two separable dimensions of strength: requiring strength, and justifying strength. Such an account explains (...)
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  29. Joshua Gert (2004). Value and Parity. Ethics 114 (3):492-510.score: 30.0
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  30. Joshua Gert (2010). Color Constancy, Complexity, and Counterfactual. Noûs 44 (4):669-690.score: 30.0
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  31. Joshua Gert (2003). Brute Rationality. Noûs 37 (3):417–446.score: 30.0
  32. Joshua Gert (2005). Neo-Sentimentalism and Disgust. Journal of Value Inquiry 39 (3):345-352.score: 30.0
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  33. Bernard Gert (1965). Hobbes, Mechanism, and Egoism. Philosophical Quarterly 15 (61):341-349.score: 30.0
  34. Joshua Gert (2008). What Colors Could Not Be: An Argument for Color Primitivism. Journal of Philosophy 105 (3):128-155.score: 30.0
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  35. Joshua Gert (2005). A Functional Role Analysis of Reasons. Philosophical Studies 124 (3):353 - 378.score: 30.0
    One strategy for providing an analysis of practical rationality is to start with the notion of a practical reason as primitive. Then it will be quite tempting to think that the rationality of an action can be defined rather simply in terms of ‘the balance of reasons’. But just as, for many philosophical purposes, it is extremely useful to identify the meaning of a word in terms of the systematic contribution the word makes to the meanings of whole sentences, this (...)
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  36. Joshua Gert & Michael McKenna (2008). Review of Normativity and the Will by R. Jay Wallace. [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 58 (232):559–563.score: 30.0
  37. Bernard Gert & Timothy J. Duggan (1979). Free Will as the Ability to Will. Noûs 13 (2):197-217.score: 30.0
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  38. Heather J. Gert (1995). Family Resemblances and Criteria. Synthese 105 (2):177-190.score: 30.0
    In §66 ofPhilosophical Investigations Wittgenstein looks for something common to various games and finds only an interconnecting network of resemblances. These are family resemblances. Sympathetic as well as unsympathetic readers have interpreted him as claiming that games form a family in virtue of these resemblances. This assumes Wittgenstein inverted the relation between being a member of a family and bearing family resemblances to others of that family. (The Churchills bear family resemblances to one another because they belong to the same (...)
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  39. Bernard Gert (1986). Wittgenstein's Private Language Arguments. Synthese 68 (3):409-39.score: 30.0
  40. Bernard Gert (1969). Justifying Violence. Journal of Philosophy 66 (19):616-628.score: 30.0
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  41. Bernard Gert (1995). Moral Impartiality. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 20 (1):102-128.score: 30.0
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  42. Joshua Gert (2005). Breaking the Law of Desire. Erkenntnis 62 (3):295-319.score: 30.0
    This paper offers one formal reason why it may often be inappropriate to hold, of two conflicting desires, that the first must be weaker than, stronger than, or of the same strength as the second. The explanation of this fact does not rely on vagueness or epistemological problems in determining the strengths of desires. Nor does it make use of the problematic notion of incommensurability. Rather, the suggestion is that the motivational capacities of many desires might best be characterized by (...)
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  43. Joshua Gert (2007). Moral Reasons and Rational Status. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 37 (5):pp. 171-196.score: 30.0
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  44. Joshua Gert (2002). Avoiding the Conditional Fallacy. Philosophical Quarterly 52 (206):88-95.score: 30.0
    Over-simple internalist accounts of practical reasons imply that we cannot have reasons to become more rational, because they claim that we have a reason to φ only if we would have some desire to φ if we were fully rational. But if we were fully rational, we would have no desire to become more rational. Robert Johnson has recently argued that in their attempts to avoid this problem, existing versions of internalism yield reasons which do not have an appropriate connection (...)
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  45. Joshua Gert & Alfred Mele (2005). Lenman on Externalism and Amoralism: An Interplanetary Exploration. Philosophia 32 (1-4):275-283.score: 30.0
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  46. Bernard Gert & Charles M. Culver (1976). Paternalistic Behavior. Philosophy and Public Affairs 6 (1):45-57.score: 30.0
  47. Heather J. Gert, Linda Radzik & and Michael Hand (2004). Hampton on the Expressive Power of Punishment. Journal of Social Philosophy 35 (1):79–90.score: 30.0
    In her later writings Jean Hampton develops an expressive theory of punishment she takes to be retributivist. Unlike Feinberg, Hampton claims wrongdoings as well as punishments are expressive. Wrongdoings assert that the victim is less valuable than victimizer. On her view we are obligated to punish because we are obligated to respond to this false assertion. Punishment expresses the moral truth that victim and wrongdoer are equally valuable. We argue that Hampton's argument would work only if she held that exerting (...)
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  48. Joshua Gert (2012). Internalism and Hyperexternalism About Reasons. Journal of Ethics 16 (1):15-34.score: 30.0
    Alan Goldman’s Reasons from Within is one of the most thorough recent defenses of what might be called ‘orthodox internalism’ about practical reasons. Goldman’s main target is an opposing view that includes a commitment to the following two theses: (O) that there are such things as objective values, and (E) that these values give rise to external reasons. One version of this view, which we can call ‘orthodox externalism’, also includes a commitment to the thesis (I) that rational people will (...)
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  49. Heather J. Gert (1990). Rights and Rights Violators: A New Approach to the Nature of Rights. Journal of Philosophy 87 (12):688-694.score: 30.0
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  50. Bernard Gert (2006). Bioethics: A Systematic Approach. Oxford University Press.score: 30.0
    This book is the result of over 30 years of collaboration among its authors. It uses the systematic account of our common morality developed by one of its authors to provide a useful foundation for dealing with the moral problems and disputes that occur in the practice of medicine. The analyses of impartiality, rationality, and of morality as a public system not only explain why some bioethical questions, such as the moral acceptability of abortion, cannot be resolved, but also provide (...)
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