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  1. Barry Smith (1988). Gestalt Theory: An Essay in Philosophy. In , Foundations of Gestalt Theory. Philosophia. 11--81.score: 102.0
    The Austrian philosopher Christian von Ehrenfels published his essay "On 'Gestalt Qualities'" in 1890. The essay initiated a current of thought which enjoyed a powerful position in the philosophy and psychology of the first half of this century and has more recently enjoyed a minor resurgence of interest in the area of cognitive science, above all in criticisms of the so-called 'strong programme' in artificial intelligence. The theory of Gestalt is of course associated most specifically with psychologists (...)
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  2. Kevin Mulligan & Barry Smith (1988). Mach and Ehrenfels: The Foundations of Gestalt Theory. In Barry Smith (ed.), Foundations of Gestalt Theory. 1988. 124.score: 78.0
    Ernst Mach's atomistic theory of sensation faces problems in doing justice to our ability to perceive and remember complex phenomena such as melodies and shapes. Christian von Ehrenfels attempted to solve these problems with his theory of "Gestalt qualities", which he sees as entities depending one-sidedly on the corresponding simple objects of sensation. We explore the theory of dependence relations advanced by Ehrenfels and show how it relates to the views on the objects of perception advanced (...)
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  3. K. W. Spence & R. Lippitt (1946). An Experimental Test of the Sign-Gestalt Theory of Trial and Error Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 36 (6):491.score: 75.0
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  4. Kenneth W. Spence & Howard H. Kendler (1948). The Speculations of Leeper with Respect to the Iowa Tests of the Sign-Gestalt Theory of Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (1):106-109.score: 75.0
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  5. Marek Timko (2013). Biophilic Transformation of Culture From the Point of View of Psychology of Environmental Problems (From Cognitive Psychology to Gestalt Theory). Human Affairs 23 (4):528-541.score: 75.0
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  6. Robert W. Leeper (1948). The Experiments by Spence and Lippitt and by Kendler on the Sign-Gestalt Theory of Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (1):102.score: 69.0
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  7. Michael A. Stadler & Peter Kruse (1994). Gestalt Theory and Synergetics: From Psychophysical Isomorphism to Holistic Emergentism. Philosophical Psychology 7 (2):211-226.score: 66.0
    Gestalt theory is discussed as one main precursor of synergetics, one of the most elaborated theories of self-organization. It is a precursor for two reasons: the Gestalt theoretical view of cognitive order-formation comes dose to the central ideas of self-organization. Furthermore both approaches have stressed the significance of non-linear perceptual processes (such as multistability) for the solution of the mind-brain problem. The question of whether Gestalt theory preferred a dualistic or a monistic view of the (...)
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  8. Steven Lehar, Computational Implications of Gestalt Theory: The Role of Feedback in Visual Processing.score: 60.0
    Neurophysiological investigations of the visual system by way of single-cell recordings have revealed a hierarchical architecture in which lower level areas, such as the primary visual cortex, contain cells that respond to simple features, while higher level areas contain cells that respond to higher order features apparently composed of combinations of lower level features. This architecture seems to suggest a feed-forward processing strategy in which visual information progresses from lower to higher visual areas. However there is other evidence, both neurophysiological (...)
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  9. Eugene H. Hunt & Ronald K. Bullis (1991). Applying the Principles of Gestalt Theory to Teaching Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 10 (5):341 - 347.score: 60.0
    Teaching ethics poses a dilemma for professors of business. First, they have little or no formal training in ethics. Second, they have established ethical values that they may not want to impose upon their students. What is needed is a well-recognized, yet non-sectarian model to facilitate the clarification of ethical questions. Gestalt theory offers such a framework. Four Gestalt principles facilitate ethical clarification and another four Gestalt principles anesthetize ethical clarification. This article examines each principle, illustrates (...)
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  10. G. D. Higginson (1926). Apparent Visual Movement and the Gestalt. I. Nine Observations Which Stand Against Wertheimer's Cortical Theory. II. The Effect Upon Visual Movement of Colored Stimulus Objects. [REVIEW] Journal of Experimental Psychology 9 (3):228.score: 60.0
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  11. Gaetano Kanizsa (1994). Gestalt Theory has Been Misinterpreted, but has Had Some Real Conceptual Difficulties. Philosophical Psychology 7 (2):149-162.score: 54.0
    In the present article, the role of Gestalt concepts in clarifying the issues of perception is evaluated. Grounded in anti-atomism, Gestalt assumed organizing forces intrinsic to perception. Insofar these were identified with singularity preference, Gestalt is criticized for having failed to distinguish between perception and thought.
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  12. Frederick V. Smith (1941). An Interpretation of the Theory of Gestalt. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 19 (December):193-215.score: 54.0
    In seeking an interpretation of the theory of Gestalt, the analysis revealed that the concept of Gestalt applies to processes and particularly to the way in which events or processes take place. The essential condition for the emergence of Gestalten or configurational properties was found to be—the ability of the parts or factors in the process to influence each other. In considering first, the more dynamic or formative phase of processes, the significant factors which influence the reciprocity (...)
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  13. M. C. Dillon (1971). Gestalt Theory and Merleau-Ponty's Concept of Intentionality. Man and World 4 (4):436-459.score: 54.0
    The intent of the article is to define merleau-ponty's place in the phenomenological tradition and, at the same time, to defend his standpoint, especially on those issues where his thought represents a departure from the tradition. although merleau-ponty espouses a form of the husserlian doctrine of the intentionality of consciousness, his understanding of intentionality differs in several fundamental respects from husserl's. the article attempts to show specifically where merleau-ponty's gestalt- theoretical orientation leads him to modify such basic aspects of (...)
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  14. David W. Hamlyn (1957). The Psychology Of Perception: A Philosophical Examination Of Gestalt Theory And Derivative Theories Of Perception. The Humanities Press.score: 51.0
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  15. Nicholas Rescher (1953). Mr Madden on Gestalt Theory. Philosophy of Science 20 (October):327-328.score: 51.0
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  16. Max Wertheimer (1944). Gestalt Theory. In Willis D. Ellis (ed.), Source Book of Gestalt Psychology. Harcourt, Brace and Co.score: 48.0
  17. Max Wertheimer (1938). Gestalt Theory,[Über Gestalttheorie], an Address Before the Kant Society, Berlin, 7th December 1924'. In Willis D. Ellis (ed.), Source Book of Gestalt Psychology. Harcourt, Brace and Co.score: 48.0
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  18. Kurt Koffka (1922). Perception: An Introduction to the Gestalt Theory. Psychological Bulletin 19:531-585.score: 45.0
  19. Edward H. Madden (1953). Science, Philosophy, and Gestalt Theory. Philosophy of Science 20 (4):329-331.score: 45.0
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  20. Edward H. Madden (1952). The Philosophy of Science in Gestalt Theory. Philosophy of Science 19 (3):228-238.score: 45.0
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  21. William A. Phillips & Steven M. Silverstein (2003). Convergence of Biological and Psychological Perspectives on Cognitive Coordination in Schizophrenia. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (1):65-82.score: 45.0
    The concept of locally specialized functions dominates research on higher brain function and its disorders. Locally specialized functions must be complemented by processes that coordinate those functions, however, and impairment of coordinating processes may be central to some psychotic conditions. Evidence for processes that coordinate activity is provided by neurobiological and psychological studies of contextual disambiguation and dynamic grouping. Mechanisms by which this important class of cognitive functions could be achieved include those long-range connections within and between cortical regions that (...)
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  22. Abraham S. Luchins & Edith H. Luchins (1993). Gestalt Theory, Formal Models and Mathematical Modeling. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):355.score: 45.0
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  23. Adrian Mirvish (2001). Department of Philosophy California State University Chico. California Sartre on Constitution: Gestalt Theory, Instrumentality. Existentia 11:407.score: 45.0
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  24. Barry Smith (ed.) (1988). Foundations of Gestalt Theory. Philosophia.score: 45.0
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  25. Anton Amann (1993). The Gestalt Problem in Quantum Theory: Generation of Molecular Shape by the Environment. [REVIEW] Synthese 97 (1):125 - 156.score: 39.0
    Quantum systems have a holistic structure, which implies that they cannot be divided into parts. In order tocreate (sub)objects like individual substances, molecules, nuclei, etc., in a universal whole, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations between all the subentities, e.g. all the molecules in a substance, must be suppressed by perceptual and mental processes.Here the particular problems ofGestalt (shape)perception are compared with the attempts toattribute a shape to a quantum mechanical system like a molecule. Gestalt perception and quantum mechanics turn out (on (...)
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  26. Carmelo Calì (2013). Gestalt Models for Data Decomposition and Functional Architecture in Visual Neuroscience. Gestalt Theory 35 (227-264).score: 39.0
    Attempts to introduce Gestalt theory into the realm of visual neuroscience are discussed on both theoretical and experimental grounds. To define the framework in which these proposals can be defended, this paper outlines the characteristics of a standard model, which qualifies as a received view in the visual neurosciences, and of the research into natural images statistics. The objections to the standard model and the main questions of the natural images research are presented. On these grounds, this paper (...)
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  27. Barry Smith (1986). The Theory of Value of Christian von Ehrenfels. In R. Fabian (ed.), Christian von Ehrenfels: Leben und Werk. Rodopi. 150.score: 36.0
    Christian von Ehrenfels was a student of both Franz Brentano and Carl Menger and his thinking on value theory was inspired both by Brentano’s descriptive psychology and by the subjective theory of economic value advanced by Menger, the founder of the Austrian school of economics. Value, for Ehrenfels, is a function of desire, and we ascribe value to those things which we either do in fact desire, or would desire if we were not convinced of their existence. He (...)
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  28. Johnjoe McFadden (2013). The CEMI Field Theory Gestalt Information and the Meaning of Meaning. Journal of Consciousness Studies 20 (3-4):3-4.score: 36.0
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  29. Arkadiusz Chrudzimski (2013). Gestalt, Equivalency, and Functional Dependency. Kurt Grelling’s Formal Ontology. In Nikolay Milkov & Volker Peckhaus (eds.), The Berlin Group and the Philosophy of Logical Empiricism. Springer. 245--261.score: 36.0
    In his ontological works Kurt Grelling tries to give a rigorous analysis of the foundations of the so-called Gestalt-psychology. Gestalten are peculiar emergent qualities, ontologically dependent on their foundations, but nonetheless non reducible to them. Grelling shows that this concept, as used in psychology and ontology, is often ambiguous. He distinguishes two important meanings in which the word “Gestalt” is used: Gestalten as structural aspects available to transposition and Gestalten as causally self-regulating wholes. Gestalten in the first meaning (...)
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  30. T. F. Cloonan (2006). Verstegen, I.(2005). Arnheim, Gestalt and Art: A Psychological Theory. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 37 (2):272.score: 36.0
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  31. Elijah Chudnoff (2013). Gurwitsch's Phenomenal Holism. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (3):559-578.score: 33.0
    Aron Gurwitsch made two main contributions to phenomenology. He showed how to import Gestalt theoretical ideas into Husserl’s framework of constitutive phenomenology. And he explored the light this move sheds on both the overall structure of experience and on particular kinds of experience, especially perceptual experiences and conscious shifts in attention. The primary focus of this paper is the overall structure of experience. I show how Gurwitsch’s Gestalt theoretically informed phenomenological investigations provide a basis for defending what I (...)
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  32. Steven Lehar (2003). Gestalt Isomorphism and the Primacy of Subjective Conscious Experience: A Gestalt Bubble Model. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (4):357-408.score: 30.0
    A serious crisis is identified in theories of neurocomputation, marked by a persistent disparity between the phenomenological or experiential account of visual perception and the neurophysiological level of description of the visual system. In particular, conventional concepts of neural processing offer no explanation for the holistic global aspects of perception identified by Gestalt theory. The problem is paradigmatic and can be traced to contemporary concepts of the functional role of the neural cell, known as the Neuron Doctrine. In (...)
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  33. William M. Epstein & Gary Hatfield (1994). Gestalt Psychology and the Philosophy of Mind. Philosophical Psychology 7 (2):163-181.score: 30.0
    The Gestalt psychologists adopted a set of positions on mind-body issues that seem like an odd mix. They sought to combine a version of naturalism and physiological reductionism with an insistence on the reality of the phenomenal and the attribution of meanings to objects as natural characteristics. After reviewing basic positions in contemporary philosophy of mind, we examine the Gestalt position, characterizing it m terms of phenomenal realism and programmatic reductionism. We then distinguish Gestalt philosophy of mind (...)
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  34. Luiz Pessoa, Evan Thompson & Alva Noë (1998). Finding Out About Filling-In: A Guide to Perceptual Completion for Visual Science and the Philosophy of Perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (21):723–802.score: 30.0
    In visual science the term filling-inis used in different ways, which often leads to confusion. This target article presents a taxonomy of perceptual completion phenomena to organize and clarify theoretical and empirical discussion. Examples of boundary completion (illusory contours) and featural completion (color, brightness, motion, texture, and depth) are examined, and single-cell studies relevant to filling-in are reviewed and assessed. Filling-in issues must be understood in relation to theoretical issues about neuralignoring an absencejumping to a conclusionanalytic isomorphismCartesian materialism, a particular (...)
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  35. Wolfgang Iser (2006). How to Do Theory. Blackwell Pub..score: 30.0
    This succinct introduction to modern theories of literature and the arts demonstrates how each theory is built and what it can accomplish. Represents a wide variety of theories, including phenomenological theory, hermeneutical theory, gestalt theory, reception theory, semiotic theory, Marxist theory, deconstruction, anthropological theory, and feminist theory. Uses classic literary texts, such as Keats’s Ode on a Grecian Urn, Spenser’s The Shephearde’s Calender and T. S. Eliot’s The Waste Land to (...)
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  36. Alf C. Zimmer & Hermann Korndle (1994). A Gestalt Theoretic Account for the Coordination of Perception and Action in Motor Learning. Philosophical Psychology 7 (2):249-265.score: 30.0
    A review of the scanty Gestaltist literature on motor behaviour indicates that a genuine Gestalt theoretic approach to motor behaviour can be characterized by three research questions: (1) What are the natural units of motor behaviour? (2) What characterizes the self-organization in motor behaviour? (3) What are the conditions for invariance in motor behaviour? Tentative answers to these questions can be found by analysing the parallels between Gestalt theory and Bernstein's theory of motor actions and by (...)
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  37. David Ludwig (2012). Language and Human Nature. Kurt Goldstein's Neurolinguistic Foundation of a Holistic Philosophy. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 48 (1):40-54.score: 30.0
  38. Carlos Acosta (2012). On the Physiological Generation of Antinomies and Paradoxes. Mind and Matter 10 (1):75 - 114.score: 27.0
    It is proposed that subconscious retro-predictions in conjunction with brain state update cycles are instrumental in the physiological generation of conscious sensations and perceptions, and in all abstract thought. In this paper the hypothesis is supported by conducting a detailed a re-evaluation of the self-referential statements in Set Theory and Formal Logic known as antinomies. This study concludes that the recursive behavior exhibited by abstract enigmas such as "Russell’s Paradox" is analogous to the oscillations typical of bistable perceptual phenomena.
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  39. Christian von Ehrenfels (1988). Gestalt Level and Gestalt Purity. In Barry Smith (ed.), Foundations of Gestalt Theory. Philosophia.score: 24.0
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  40. C. Von Ehrenfels (1988). On'Gestalt Qualities'. In Barry Smith (ed.), Foundations of Gestalt Theory. Philosophia. 82--117.score: 24.0
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  41. K. Grelling & P. Oppenheim (1988). The Concept of Gestalt in the Light of Modern Logic. In Barry Smith (ed.), Foundations of Gestalt Theory. Philosophia.score: 24.0
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  42. Aron Gurwitsch (1964). Field Of Consciousness. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press.score: 24.0
  43. Aron Gurwitsch (1964). The Field of Consciousness. Duquesne University Press.score: 24.0
  44. Peter M. Simons (1988). Gestalt and Functional Dependence. In Barry Smith (ed.), Foundations of Gestalt Theory. Philosophia. 158--190.score: 24.0
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  45. Massimo Pigliucci (2012). On the Different Ways of ‘‘Doing Theory’’ in Biology. Biological Theory 7 (4):DOI 10.1007/s13752-012-0047-1.score: 21.0
    ‘‘Theoretical biology’’ is a surprisingly heter- ogeneous field, partly because it encompasses ‘‘doing the- ory’’ across disciplines as diverse as molecular biology, systematics, ecology, and evolutionary biology. Moreover, it is done in a stunning variety of different ways, using anything from formal analytical models to computer sim- ulations, from graphic representations to verbal arguments. In this essay I survey a number of aspects of what it means to do theoretical biology, and how they compare with the allegedly much more restricted (...)
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  46. Pablo Gilabert (2012). Comparative Assessments of Justice, Political Feasibility, and Ideal Theory. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (1):39-56.score: 21.0
    What should our theorizing about social justice aim at? Many political philosophers think that a crucial goal is to identify a perfectly just society. Amartya Sen disagrees. In The Idea of Justice, he argues that the proper goal of an inquiry about justice is to undertake comparative assessments of feasible social scenarios in order to identify reforms that involve justice-enhancement, or injustice-reduction, even if the results fall short of perfect justice. Sen calls this the “comparative approach” to the theory (...)
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  47. Igor Primoratz (2002). Michael Walzer's Just War Theory: Some Issues of Responsibility. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 5 (2):221-243.score: 21.0
    In his widely influential statement of just war theory, Michael Walzer exempts conscripted soldiers from all responsibility for taking part in war, whether just or unjust (the thesis of the moral equality of soldiers). He endows the overwhelming majority of civilians with almost absolute immunity from military attack on the ground that they aren't responsible for the war their country is waging, whether just or unjust. I argue that Walzer is much too lenient on both soldiers and civilians. Soldiers (...)
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  48. Robert S. Taylor (2012). Hate Speech, the Priority of Liberty, and the Temptations of Nonideal Theory. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (3):353-68.score: 21.0
    Are government restrictions on hate speech consistent with the priority of liberty? This relatively narrow policy question will serve as the starting point for a wider discussion of the use and abuse of nonideal theory in contemporary political philosophy, especially as practiced on the academic left. I begin by showing that hate speech (understood as group libel) can undermine fair equality of opportunity for historically-oppressed groups but that the priority of liberty seems to forbid its restriction. This tension between (...)
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  49. Laurie Calhoun (2001). The Metaethical Paradox of Just War Theory. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 4 (1):41-58.score: 21.0
    The traditional requirements upon the waging of a just war are ostensibly independent, but in actual practice each tenet is subject ultimately to the interpretation of a legitimate authority, whose declaration becomes the necessary and sufficient condition. While just war theory presupposes that some acts are absolutely wrong, it also implies that the killing of innocents can be rendered permissible through human decree. Nations are conventionally delimited, and leaders are conventionally appointed. Any group of people could band together to (...)
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  50. Melissa Barry (2007). Realism, Rational Action, and the Humean Theory of Motivation. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (3):231-242.score: 21.0
    Realists about practical reasons agree that judgments regarding reasons are beliefs. They disagree, however, over the question of how such beliefs motivate rational action. Some adopt a Humean conception of motivation, according to which beliefs about reasons must combine with independently existing desires in order to motivate rational action; others adopt an anti-Humean view, according to which beliefs can motivate rational action in their own right, either directly or by giving rise to a new desire that in turn motivates the (...)
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