New concepts may prove necessary to profit from the avalanche of sequence data on the genome, transcriptome, proteome and interactome and to relate this information to cell physiology. Here, we focus on the concept of large activity-based structures, or hyperstructures, in which a variety of types of molecules are brought together to perform a function. We review the evidence for the existence of hyperstructures responsible for the initiation of DNA replication, the sequestration of newly replicated origins of replication, cell division (...) and for metabolism. The processes responsible for hyperstructure formation include changes in enzyme affinities due to metabolite-induction, lipid-protein affinities, elevated local concentrations of proteins and their binding sites on DNA and RNA, and transertion. Experimental techniques exist that can be used to study hyperstructures and we review some of the ones less familiar to biologists. Finally, we speculate on how a variety of in silico approaches involving cellular automata and multi-agent systems could be combined to develop new concepts in the form of an Integrated cell (I-cell) which would undergo selection for growth and survival in a world of artificial microbiology. (shrink)
Mucoidy and cytotoxicity arise from two independent modifications of the phenotype of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa that contribute to the mortality and morbidity of cystic fibrosis. We show that, even though the transcriptional regulatory networks controlling both processes are quite different from a molecular or mechanistic point of view, they may be identical from a dynamic point of view: epigenesis may in both cases be the cause of the acquisition of these new phenotypes. This was highlighted by the identity of (...) formal graphs modelling these networks. A mathematical framework based on formal methods from computer science was defined and implemented with a software environment. It allows an easy and rigorous validation and certification of these models and of the experimental methods that can be proposed to falsify or validate the underlying hypothesis. (shrink)
We investigate how a group of players might cooperate with each other within the setting of a non-cooperative game. We pursue two notions of partial cooperative equilibria that follow a modification of Nash’s best response rationality rather than a core-like approach. Partial cooperative Nash equilibrium treats non-cooperative players and the coalition of cooperators symmetrically, while the notion of partial cooperative leadership equilibrium assumes that the group of cooperators has a first-mover advantage. We prove existence theorems for both types of equilibria. (...) We look at three well-known applications under partial cooperation. In a game of voluntary provision of a public good we show that our two new equilibrium notions of partial cooperation coincide. In a modified Cournot oligopoly, we identify multiple equilibria of each type and show that a non-cooperator may have a higher payoff than a cooperator. In contrast, under partial cooperation in a symmetric Salop City game, a cooperator enjoys a higher return. (shrink)
The uses of the most “social” of the social sciences—sociology and anthropology—in international agricultural research and development (R&D) have often been poorly understood. Drawing upon a decade of work by the Sociology Project of the Small Ruminant Collaborative Research Support Program, this article exemplifies how and where social scientists can and have contributed to major development initiatives, and it illustrates some of the larger lessons to be learned for human values concerns in international agriculture.
Rural families must constantly negotiate their livelihoods by obtaining access to natural resources, labor, capital, knowledge, and markets. Successful negotiation leads to enhanced family well-being and sustainable use of natural resources. Unsuccessful negotiation threatens family survival, threatens sustainable use of natural resources, and reduces bio-diversity. These negotiation processes are mediated by gender relations. The ideas of negotiation and of survival strategies outlined here provide a framework within which the articles of this issue can be situated. The articles are the result (...) of research on gender and natural resource management conducted in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and North America. Each experience illustrates the consequences for natural resources and family well being when they have voice and when they do not have voice in household decisions. (shrink)
To address the theological turn in phenomenology, this paper sets out critical arguments opposing the theist phenomenology of Michel Henry and Gilles Deleuze’s philosophy of the event. Henry’s phenomenology has been overlooked in recent commentaries compared with, for example, Jean-Luc Marion’s work. It will be shown here that Henry’s philosophy presents a detailed novel turn in phenomenology structured according to critical moves against positions developed from Husserl, Heidegger, and Merleau-Ponty. This demonstration is done through a strong contrast with Deleuze (...) and a short engagement with Quentin Meillassoux. The paper presents an argument against the theological turn on the grounds that it misunderstands the form of affectivity when compared to Deleuze’s work on affect and event. It will be argued that Henry’s search for a free-standing affect deduced as a condition for any appearance underplays the way any affect is included in many causal and transcendentally determined series such that any notion of the pure affect independent of other processes is a fiction. The loss of this pure affect entails the questioning of the theological turn in Henry. (shrink)
This article examines Gilles Deleuze's methodological approach to the history of philosophy. While Deleuze's readings of past philosophers may not stand up to the standards set by the scholarly history of philosophy, they may be approached more productively as a continuation of the approach developed by the ancient and medieval commentary tradition.
One of the twentieth-century's most exciting and challenging intellectuals, Gilles Deleuze's writings covered literature, art, psychoanalysis, philosophy, genetics, film and social theory. This book not only introduces Deleuze's ideas, it also demonstrates the ways in which his work can provide new readings of literary texts. This guide goes on to cover his work in various fields, his theory of literature and his overarching project of a new concept of becoming.
This essay discusses the role of being and ontology in the work of Gilles Deleuze. Starting from an examination of Alain Badiou’s ontology and theory of the event, I discuss the possible opposition of being and the event in Deleuze’s work. Though famous for his discussions of the univocity of being, Deleuze does discuss the event as that which is not being. Deleuze’s theory of the event is similar to that of Badiou in that he considers the event to (...) be extra-ontological. The essay closes by considering the differences between Deleuze and Badiou on the subject of the event. (shrink)
Friendship, in its nature, purpose, and effects, has been an important concern of philosophy since antiquity. It was of particular significance in the life of Gilles Deleuze, one of the most original and influential philosophers of the late twentieth century. Taking L'Abécédaire de Gilles Deleuze -- an eight-hour video interview that was intended to be aired only after Deleuze's death -- as a key source, Charles J. Stivale examines the role of friendship as it appears in Deleuze's work (...) and life. Stivale develops a zigzag methodology practiced by Deleuze himself to explore several concepts as they relate to friendship and to discern how friendship shifts, slips, and creates movement between Deleuze and specific friends. The first section of this study discusses the elements of creativity, pedagogy, and literature that appear implicitly and explicitly in his work. The second section focuses on Deleuze's friendships with Foucault, Derrida, Claire Parnet, and Félix Guattari and reveals his conception of friendship as an ultimately impersonal form of intensity that goes beyond personal relationships. Stivale's analysis offers an intimate view into the thought of one of the greatest thinkers of our time. (shrink)
Gilles Deleuze (January 18, 1925–November 4, 1995) was one of the most influential and prolific French philosophers of the second half of the twentieth century. Deleuze conceived of philosophy as the production of concepts, and he characterized himself as a “pure metaphysician.” In his magnum opus Difference and Repetition , he tries to develop a metaphysics adequate to contemporary mathematics and science—a metaphysics in which the concept of multiplicity replaces that of substance, event replaces essence and virtuality replaces possibility. (...) Deleuze was also well-known for a number of important monographs he published in the history of philosophy (on Hume, Nietzsche, Kant, Bergson, Spinoza, Foucault, and Leibniz), as well as for his writings on the various arts, which include a two- volume study of the cinema, books on Proust and Sacher-Masoch, a monograph on the painter Francis Bacon, and a collection of essays on literature. Deleuze considered these latter works as pure philosophy, and not criticism, since he sought to create the concepts that correspond to the artistic practices of painters, filmmakers, and writers. In 1968, he met Félix Guattari, a political activist and radical psychoanalyst, with whom he wrote several works, among them the two-volume Capitalism and Schizophrenia , comprised of Anti-Oedipus (1972) and A Thousand Plateaus (1980). Their final collaboration was What is Philosophy? (1991). (shrink)
This paper is concerned with an aspect of Deleuze and Guattari's thought which has not been duly analyzed: systematicity. More specifically, it deals with their conception of the system in three co-authored major works: What is Philosophy?, Anti-Oedipus and A Thousand Plateaus. These works are of renewed interest because they tease out, each in its own way, a particular type of system. Regardless of whether it has a philosophical import, a botanical reference, a social dimension, or a libidinal investment, the (...) system that Deleuze and Guattari advocate is allegedly a hyper-dynamic system that resists closure. Thus, in an interview with Didier Eribon, Deleuze points out that philosophy is 'an open system' and then, referring to A Thousand Plateaus, he further observes that what he and Guattari 'call a rhizome is also one example of an open system'. The purpose of this essay is not merely to explore how the system in the works of these two prominent poststructuralists is conceived, how it is structured, and how it works, but also to show how it is only superficially open. Paying a special attention to Deleuze and Guattari's exegesis on capitalism, I argue that the proposed system is cynical and ultimately untenable. Key Words: capitalism Gilles Deleuze Félix Guattari open system philosophy total system. (shrink)
Other books have tried to explain Gilles Deleuze (1925-1995), one of the twentieth century's most important and elusive thinkers, in general terms. However, Todd May organizes his introduction around a central question at the heart of Deleuze's philosophy: How might we live? He demonstrates how Deleuze offers a view of the cosmos as a living entity that provides ways of conducting our lives that we may not have even dreamed of.
In this essay, I will look closer at the death of the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze, who committed suicide in 1995. I will scrutinize his death in concordance with his philosophical thoughts, but frame my gaze within Albert Camus’ well-known opening- question from The Myth of Sisyphus: “Judging whether life is worth living amounts to answering the fundamental question of philosophy” (Camus, 2005:1).
Some philosophers in recent discussions concerned with current ecological crises have attempted to address and sometimes to utilize poststructuralist thought. Yet few of their studies have delineated the ecological orientation of a specific poststructuralist. In this paper, I provide a discussion of the naturalistic ontology embraced by the contemporary French philosopher Gilles Deleuze, one of the most significant voices in poststructuralism. I interpret Deleuze as holding an ecologically informed perspective that emphasizes the human place within nature while encouraging awareness (...) of and respect for the differences of interconnected life on the planet. I also suggest that this view may be joined with Deleuze’s innovative ethical-political approach, which he refers to as micropolitics, to create new ways of thinking and feeling that support social and political transformation with respect to the flourishing of ecological diversity. Finally, I briefly show how Deleuze’s ecological orientation compares to several versions of ecological theory and politics. (shrink)
This paper critically examines the materialism that Gilles Deleuze espouses in his oeuvre to the benefit of educational theory. In Difference and Repetition, he presented transcendental empiricism by underwriting Kant with realism (Deleuze, 1994). Later, in Capitalism & Schizophrenia I & II that were co-written with Félix Guattari (1984, 1988) and that they named Anti-Oedipus and A Thousand Plateaus, Deleuze's philosophical approach is realigned into what I term here as transcendental materialism, and latterly as immanent materialism; that I claim (...) effectively eliminate phenomenology as perceptual input. This essay takes this transformation seriously as a way of understanding educational data, research and practices. The proposition that is central to this paper is that transcendental and immanent materialism give us a means of dealing with educational phenomena without the interference of perception or a stable category of experience, by connecting data with theory and circumventing subjectification. It is argued that this proposition has important consequences for educational research, and the construction of educational arguments that will be illustrated in this essay. Deleuze's debt to French Marxism and in particular to the work of Louis Althusser are also recognised through this writing. (shrink)
This article is part of alarger project exploring the continuity betweentwo philosophical positions â that of Frenchpoststructuralist Gilles Deleuze (1925â1995)and John Dewey â that appear at first sight tobe separated by time, place and culture. Thescope of the present paper is necessarilylimited and focuses on one aspect of theproject, namely: the problematics ofsubjectivity, or subject formation, inDeleuze's philosophy. Deleuze's position isestablished as pragmatic by virtue of itssharing the value allotted by Dewey toexperiential and experimental inquiry inphilosophy. By drawing initial (...) parallels with anumber of selected Dewey's excerpts, this paperaims to open up a space for the imaginarydialogue between two philosophical thoughts soas to consider a possibility for applyingDeleuze's philosophy to educational theory andpractice in the context of current debates andin a manner continuous with the Deweyan legacy.The paper concludes by affirming Deleuze'splace in the contemporary scholarship on Dewey. (shrink)
In this article I examine the relation between the philosophies of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Gilles Deleuze by looking at the way in which they refer to Henri Bergson’s time theory. Although Merleau-Ponty develops some fundamental Bergsonian insights on the nature of time, he presents himself as a critical reader of the latter. I will show that although Merleau-Ponty’s interpretation of Bergson differs fundamentally from Deleuze’s interpretation, Merleau-Ponty’s “corrections” of Bergson’s theory fit Deleuze’s reading of Bergson very well. This indicates (...) a similarity with respect to what is at stake in the philosophies of Merleau-Ponty and Deleuze. Hence the critical reference that Deleuze makes to Merleau-Ponty’s conception of cinema and thus of movement is not justified, but is the result of a selective and prototypical reading of the early Merleau-Ponty. (shrink)
Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O texto aborda em termos gerais a problemática da técnica contemporânea, tomando como ponto de partida o diagnóstico de Martin Heidegger. O horizonte principal da análise será aberto pela pergunta entorno do estatuto ontológico da Técnica, a partir dos conceitos oferecidos pela ontologia do "virtual" de Gilles Deleuze, expondo por esta via o deslocamento decisivo que o filósofo francês opera com relação à leitura heideggeriana. Neste sentido, a questão nevrálgica (...) passa por considerar, desde a filosofia deleuziana, este universo técnico, não como homogêneo e determinado por uma unidade endógena, mas como multiplicidade auto-diferenciada. A noção de virtual é a peça central, em chave ontológica, para pensar a Técnica como produção que opera pela atualização singular de um campo virtual animado internamente pela Diferença. O trabalho verifica como com Deleuze é possível afirmar que a tecnologia nada acaba, encerra, ou enclausura, uma vez que ela se agencia em variadas configurações sempre diferenciadas. (shrink)
Estabelecer uma cone çáo entre um pressuposto etico - viver a vida e um enunciado ontologico: uma vida em sua imanencia. Articular os conceitos filosoficos ao seu plano de imanencia. lnstaurar uma relaç áo inequivoca entre imanencia e vida filosofica em Gilles Deleuze. ' Palavras-chave: Imanencia/ vidal ontologia/ Deleuze.
Un enjeu éthico-politique de taille, retentissant autant chez Gilles Deleuze que chez Félix Guattari, consiste par conséquent à analyser les transformations de la subjectivité et de l'être-ensemble dans le cadre des mutations en cours ...
As symbols of adaptability and transformation, together with qualities of vigilance and intelligence, we argue the relevance of dragons for spatial planning in China. We develop a metaphorical concept – the green dragon – for grasping the condition of contemporary Chinese societies and for facilitating the development of theories and practices of spatial planning which are able to face the challenges of rapid change. We ask Chinese scholars and spatial planners to liberate Deleuzian potential for strategic spatial planning in a (...) ‘becoming-between, coming-together’ of concepts which can effectively make a difference in the world. Having outlined what we regard as key transversals or diagonals between our reading of Gilles Deleuze and aspects of Chinese philosophy, we then offer the metaphor of strategic spatial planning as Chinese literati landscape painting. This is a form of painting which rejects the idea of the world being supremely organised from a particular point of view, preferring to paint immanence and transformation. Chinese literati landscape paintings, like philosophy and strategic spatial planning, ‘look only at the movements’. We conclude that connections between what concepts of Chinese philosophy and those of Gilles Deleuze can do, suggest that in China, a conception of strategic spatial planning as metaphorical green dragon may offer academics and planning practitioners a transverse way to relate the legacies of past philosophies and current thinking. (shrink)
Gilles Deleuze définit la philosophie comme création de concepts. S'agit-il d'une définition originale? La fonction du concept consiste à « donner une consistance au virtuel ». Qu'est-ce que cela signifie? On montre que c'est à partir de la distinction bergsonienne entre la matière et l'esprit qu'il faut comprendre la distinction entre l'actuel et le virtuel, et que c'est à partir de la philosophie critique qu'il faut comprendre l'expression « donner de la consistance ». Le repérage de ces deux sources (...) et des déplacements que Deleuze opère permet de préciser en partie l'originalité de sa définition de la philosophie. L'examen de la façon dont le concept de concept est lui-même construit permet aussi de mieux comprendre les mécanismes à l'œuvre dans la création philosophique Gilles Deleuze defines philosophy as a creation of concepts. Is that an original definition? The function of concept lies in "giving consistency to the virtual". What does that mean? We show how the distinction between the actual and the virtual may be understood in terms of the Bergsonian distinction between matter and mind, and how the phrase "to give consistency" may be referred to critical philosophy. Identifying these two sources, as well as the displacements Deleuze operates, help to pinpoint some of the originality of his definition of philosophy. This examination of how the concept of concept itself is constructed sheds new light on the concrete mechanisms at work in philosophical creation. (shrink)
Este artigo visa introduzir a noção de dramatização em Gilles Deleuze. Trata-se da subversão das clássicas perguntas metafísicas que justificam as essências e as idéias. Uma distribuição de diferenças determina a atualização das idéias. O método de dramatização envolve processos de diferenciação. Diferenças internas, relativas a blocos de espaço-tempo criam condições para os conceitos. Um campo intensivo e diferencial de forças faz emergir um teatro especial de virtualidades e uma expressividade das idéias. A realidade não é dada , mas (...) dramatizada por forças não individuais e subjetividades larvares. O método de dramatização está aquém do conhecimento e até mesmo de toda consolidação que a filosofia ganha com os conceitos. O artigo procurará ainda indicar os vínculos da dramatização com os mundos incompossíveis de Leibniz e com o cinema de David Lynch. (shrink)
Este texto é uma apresentação da interpretação feita por Gilles Deleuze da filosofia de Henri Bergson. Procura-se enfocar os temas que viriam a ser retomados pela filosofia deleuziana, sendo desenvolvidos em Diferença e repetição e a partir dessa obra. Dentre os mais relevantes, encontrase o tema da ontologia afirmativa, que envolve a passagem do virtual para o atual através do processo de diferenciação do ser. O ser não deixa de ter existência ao atualizar-se, mas ele diferencia a si mesmo (...) nesse processo, individuando-se como as coisas presentes na experiência. O ser é, desse modo, pré-individual e pré-subjetivo. Em Bergson, haveria a coexistência virtual de todos os graus de diferenças na duração. (shrink)
En este texto analizamos el término �emancipación� y su funcionamiento en la filosofía de Gilles Deleuze y Félix Guattari. Ello requiere tratar los tres niveles políticos �sin mezclarlos� en los que se mueve el pensamiento de los dos filósofos y localizar en qué contexto se podría hablar de �emancipación�. No es baladí que este concepto sea inseparable para los filósofos franceses al de �prudencia�, pues estas filosofías políticas, lejos de mostrar un postmodernismo de mercado, sugieren un modo de pensar (...) y resistir en nuestra actualidad. (shrink)
El artículo aborda el estatuto del pensar según el filósofo francés Gilles Deleuze, buscando hallar una respuesta a la pregunta ¿qué significa pensar? La tesis central del artículo es que, según Deleuze, el ser humano no piensa cuando reconoce el mundo a través de sus representaciones. Por el contrario, el hombre alcanza a pensar solo cuando se enfrenta a una experiencia radical que no puede representar. Solo ahí, ante la absoluta necesidad, se activa el pensador que habita en nosotros. (...) Lo que nos conduciría a pensar no sería entonces una identidad representada, sino una diferencia experimentada. (shrink)
La temática de este artículo se centra en la importancia, tanto ontológica como política, de un concepto esencial en el pensamiento de Gilles Deleuze: el «Porvenir». El porvenir deleuzeano no consiste estrictamente en el futuro ya que si este último concepto apela a una temporalidad cronológica, el de porvenir hace intervenir el devenir inmanente y una coexistencia con el presente que es necesaria también en política y en arte en orden a plantear el concepto, también deleuzeano, de «un pueblo (...) por venir». (shrink)
El presente texto analiza la reflexión ontológica de Gilles Deleuze a partir de la noción de “univocidad del Ser”, con el objetivo de exponer su importancia para el pensamiento de la Diferencia que el filósofo francés propone. En su primer movimiento el trabajo expone, resumidamente y de modo cartográfico, la configuración general de la ontología deleuziana y sus principales ejes de reflexión. Enseguida acompaña el itinerario que Deleuze elabora para la determinación de la historia conceptual del pensamiento de la (...) univocidad. Finalmente, el texto aborda el concepto de univocidad según lo piensa y expone el propio Deleuze, verificando, por esta vía, su centralidad para la ontología de nuestra contemporaneidad que el pensador Francés moviliza. Palabras clave : deleuze; ontología; univocidad; diferencia; equivocidad. Centrality of the Notion of ‘Univocity’ in Gilles Deleuze’s OntologyThis paper analyzes Gilles Deleuze’s ontological reflection from the notion of “univocity of Being”, in order to expose its importance for the philosophy of Difference proposed by the French thinker. In its first movement the work briefly exposes the configuration of Deleuze’s ontology and its main axes of reflection. There immediately follows the itinerary set up by Deleuze to determine the conceptual history of the philosophy of univocity. Finally, the paper addresses the concept of univocity as Deleuze thinks of and exposes it, thus verifying its centrality to the ontology of our contemporary times which the French thinker has set in motion. Keywords : Deleuze;Ontology; Univocity; Difference; Equivocity. (shrink)
This essay adds a theological voice to the current debate over the legacy of Gilles Deleuze. It discusses Peter Hallward's charge that Deleuze is best read as a mystical, theophanic philosopher who values creativity to the detriment of real creatures. It argues that while Hallward is right to discern a flight from bodies, relations, and politics in Deleuze, this is due not to Deleuze's contemplative mysticism, but rather to his strident rejection of any transcendence. The essay then draws upon (...) Thomas Merton in order to argue that only a fully contemplative engagement with transcendence allows us to save the sort of radical becoming that Deleuze sought but couldn't achieve. (shrink)
The problematical point is the relations between the State and war with respect to the notion of « machine of war ». Based on this concept, Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari intend : to analyse the way state machines « capture » social forces in order to produce and reproduce their own strength of administration, control and repression in the immanent social praxis ; to connect this « heterogenesis » of State power with a genealogy of war ; to (...) reform marxist concepts of State power, State apparatus, primitive accumulation and State capitalism in the light of the leading role of the economy of war in the development of capitalism. (shrink)
This paper is an attempt to explicate the relationship between Spinozist expressionism and philosophical constructivism in Deleuze's work through the concept of immanent causality. Deleuze finds in Spinoza a philosophy of immanent causality used to solve the problem of the relation between substance, attribute and mode as an expression of substance. But, when he proceeds to take up this notion of immanent causality found in Spinoza in Difference and Repetition, Deleuze instead inverts it into a modal one such that the (...) identity of substance may be said only of the difference of the modes. Complicating this further, Deleuze and Guattari claim in A Thousand Plateaus that substance, attribute, and mode are each, themselves, multiplicities. What is Philosophy? takes up immanent causality once again, this time through a constructivist lens aimed at resolving the question of the relation between philosophical multiplicities: ‘plane,’ ‘persona,’ and ‘concept.’ By following the different formulations of immanent causality in these works this essay hopes to discover the relationship between Spinozist expressionism and philosophical constructivism in Deleuze's work. (shrink)
Exploring the evolution of the conceptual persona of the idiot from the philosophical idiot in Deleuze to the Russian idiot in Deleuze and Guattari, this article suggests that their use of the figure of Antonin Artaud as a model for an idiocy that is freed from the image of thought is problematic since Artaud in fact evinces a nostalgia for the capacity for thought. The article invites the writings of Kathy Acker and argues that Acker makes possible a more successful (...) way of thinking of the event of thought beyond the Image and thereby a new conceptual persona of the post-Russian idiot. (shrink)