1. Gita Martohardjono, Samuel David Epstein & Suzanne Flynn (1998). Universal Grammar: Hypothesis Space or Grammar Selection Procedures? Is UG Affected by Critical Periods? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):612-614.
    Universal Grammar (UG) can be interpreted as a constraint on the form of possible grammars (hypothesis space) or as a constraint on acquisition strategies (selection procedures). In this response to Herschensohn we reiterate the position outlined in Epstein et al. (1996a, r), that in the evaluation of L2 acquisition as a UG- constrained process the former (possible grammars/ knowledge states) is critical, not the latter. Selection procedures, on the other hand, are important in that they may have a bearing on (...)
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  2. Samuel David Epstein, Suzanne Flynn & Gita Martohardjono (1996). Second Language Acquisition: Theoretical and Experimental Issues in Contemporary Research. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):677-714.
    To what extent, if any, does Universal Grammar (UG) constrain second language (L2) acquisition? This is not only an empirical question, but one which is currently investigable. In this context, L2 acquisition is emerging as an important new domain of psycholinguistic research. Three logical possibilities have been articulated regarding the role of UG in L2 acquisition: The first is the hypothesis that claims that no aspect of UG is available to the L2 learner. The second is the hypothesis that claims (...)
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  3. Samuel David Epstein, Suzanne Flynn & Gita Martohardjono (1996). Universal Grammar and Second Language Acquisition: The Null Hypothesis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):746.
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