Search results for 'Goal (Psychology' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Michael Frese & John Sabini (eds.) (1985). Goal Directed Behavior: The Concept of Action in Psychology. L. Erlbaum Associates.
  2.  23
    Endre E. Kadar & Judith A. Effken (2005). From Discrete Actors to Goal-Directed Actions: Toward a Process-Based Methodology for Psychology. Philosophical Psychology 18 (3):353 – 382.
    Studying social phenomena is often assumed to be inherently different from studying natural science phenomena. In psychology, this assumption has led to a division of the field into social and experimental domains. The same kind of division has carried over into ecological psychology, despite the fact that Gibson clearly intended his theory for both social and natural phenomena. In this paper, we argue that the social/natural science dichotomy can be derived from a distinction between hermeneutics and (...)
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  3.  1
    Daniel Conroy-Beam & David M. Buss (2014). A Deeper Integration of Selfish Goal Theory and Modern Evolutionary Psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (2):140-141.
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  4. Alice H. Eagly (2015). Mischaracterizing Social Psychology to Support the Laudable Goal of Increasing its Political Diversity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 38.
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  5. George Sperling (1999). 13 The Goal of Theory in Experimental Psychology. In Robert L. Solso (ed.), Mind and Brain Sciences in the 21st Century. Cambridge: MIT Press 253.
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  6.  26
    Henk Aarts & Andrew J. Elliot (eds.) (2012). Goal-Directed Behavior. Psychology Press.
    This volume presents chapters from internationally renowned scholars in the area of goals and social behavior.
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  7.  45
    Elizabeth Valentine (1988). Teleological Explanations and Their Relation to Causal Explanation in Psychology. Philosophical Psychology 1 (1):61-68.
    The relation of teleological to causal explanations in psychology is examined. Nagel's claim that they are logically equivalent is rejected. Two arguments for their non-equivalence are considered: (i) the impossibility of specifying initial conditions in the case of teleological explanations and (ii) the claim that different kinds of logic are involved. The view that causal explanations provide only necessary conditions whereas teleological explanations provide sufficient conditions is rejected: causal explanations can provide sufficient conditions, typically being unable to provide necessary ones, (...)
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  8.  15
    Charles S. Carver (1998). On the Self-Regulation of Behavior. Cambridge University Press.
    This book presents a thorough overview of a model of human functioning based on the idea that behavior is goal-directed and regulated by feedback control processes. It describes feedback processes and their application to behavior, considers goals and the idea that goals are organized hierarchically, examines affect as deriving from a different kind of feedback process, and analyzes how success expectancies influence whether people keep trying to attain goals or disengage. Later sections consider a series of emerging themes, including (...)
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  9.  7
    John Iuculano & George Abaunza (2006). The Relevance of the Metaphysics of Ortega y Gasset for Psychology. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 26 (1-2):189-204.
    This paper attempts to introduce the significance of Metaphysics in Psychology and the therapeutic process. It relies on the radical attempt of Jose Ortega y Gasset and to some extent Gabriel Marcel to redefine metaphysics as an attempt to define the "singular" or "positional" existence of the individual as represented by Ortega y Gasset's concept "My life." The paper further attempts to show that "perspective" is the ultimate goal of one's attempt to penetrate the veil of mystery that surrounds (...)
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  10.  21
    Christian B. Miller (2016). Should Christians Be Worried About Situationist Claims in Psychology and Philosophy? Faith and Philosophy 33 (1):48-73.
    The situationist movement in psychology and, more recently, in philosophy has been associated with a number of striking claims, including that most people do not have the moral virtues and vices, that any ethical theory which is wedded to such character traits is empirically inadequate, and that much of our behavior is causally influenced, to significant degrees, by psychological influences about which we are often unaware. Yet Christian philosophers have had virtually nothing to say about situationist claims. The goal (...)
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  11.  16
    Ken Wilber (2000). Integral Psychology: Consciousness, Spirit, Psychology, Therapy. Shambhala Publications.
    The goal of an "integral psychology" is to honor and embrace every legitimate aspect of human consciousness under one roof. This book presents one of the first truly integrative models of consciousness, psychology, and therapy.
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  12. Jussi Jylkkä (2008). Theories of Natural Kind Term Reference and Empirical Psychology. Philosophical Studies 139 (2):153-169.
    In this paper, I argue that the causal and description theories of natural kind term reference involve certain psychological elements. My main goal is to refine these theories with the help of empirical psychology of concepts, and to argue that the refinement process ultimately leads to the dissolution of boundaries between the two kinds of theories. However, neither the refined theories nor any other existing theories provide an adequate answer to the question of what makes natural kind terms rigid. (...)
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  13.  77
    Carsten Held, Markus Knauff & Gottfried Vosgerau (eds.) (2006). Mental Models and the Mind: Current Developments in Cognitive Psychology, Neuroscience, and Philosophy of Mind. Elsevier.
    "Cognitive psychology," "cognitive neuroscience," and "philosophy of mind" are names for three very different scientific fields, but they label aspects of the same scientific goal: to understand the nature of mental phenomena. Today, the three disciplines strongly overlap under the roof of the cognitive sciences. The book's purpose is to present views from the different disciplines on one of the central theories in cognitive science: the theory of mental models. Cognitive psychologists report their research on the representation (...)
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  14.  40
    Radu J. Bogdan (1994). Grounds for Cognition. Erlbaum.
    This is how guidance of behavior to goal grounds and explains cognition and the main forms in which it manages information.
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  15.  73
    Harmon R. Holcomb (1996). Just so Stories and Inference to the Best Explanation in Evolutionary Psychology. Minds and Machines 6 (4):525-540.
    Evolutionary psychology is a science in the making, working toward the goal of showing how psychological adaptation underlies much human behavior. The knee-jerk reaction that sociobiology is unscientific because it tells just-so stories has become a common charge against evolutionary psychology as well. My main positive thesis is that inference to the best explanation is a proper method for evolutionary analyses, and it supplies a new perspective on the issues raised in Schlinger's (1996) just-so story critique. My main negative (...)
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  16.  28
    Karolina Krysińska & David Lester (2006). The Contribution of Psychology to the Study of the Holocaust. Dialogue and Universalism 16 (5-6):141-156.
    Numerous scholars, representing various fields of knowledge, have studied the Holocaust and published extensively on this subject since the end of the Second World War. Many original Holocaust documents, diaries and memoirs of victims and survivors have been edited and published, along with numerous historical, philosophical and theological treaties on the Shoah. The goal of this paper is to present psychology’s contribution to the study of the Holocaust. The authors discuss results of empirical research and clinical observations concerning the (...)
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  17.  25
    Uljana Feest (2007). Science and Experience/Science of Experience: Gestalt Psychology and the Anti-Metaphysical Project of the Aufbau. Perspectives on Science 15 (1):1-25.
    : This paper investigates the way in which Rudolf Carnap drew on Gestalt psychological notions when defining the basic elements of his constitutional system. I argue that while Carnap's conceptualization of basic experience was compatible with ideas articulated by members of the Berlin/Frankfurt school of Gestalt psychology, his formal analysis of the relationship between two basic experiences ("recollection of similarity") was not. This is consistent, given that Carnap's aim was to provide a unified reconstruction of scientific knowledge, as opposed to (...)
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  18.  7
    James T. Lamiell (1991). Explanation in a Reconceived Psychology of Personality. Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 11 (1):11-23.
    Following a brief discussion of the need for a psychology of personality conceived as something other than the assessment and study of individual differences, the present article is addressed to four misconceptions which must be eliminated if this goal is ever to be realized. The four misconceptions are that to abandon the traditional individual differences paradigm is to abandon the search for so-called nomothetic principles; that to advocate the study of individuals is to advocate the study of just one (...)
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  19.  16
    Arthur W. Staats (1986). Unified Positivism: A Philosophy for Psychology and the Disunified Sciences. Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 6 (2):77-90.
    A new philosophy of science has been proposed, one that especially aims at dealing with the problems of the "disunified sciences" . This philosophy states, among other things, that there is a central dimension of progress in science that can be abstracted from some descriptions of early science, but that has been ignored, to all intents and purposes; the significance of this dimension of progress in science overlooked. The dimension refers to progress in the unification of the elements of science, (...)
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  20.  9
    Arthur W. Staats (1989). Unificationism: Philosophy for the Modern Disunified Science of Psychology. Philosophical Psychology 2 (2):143-164.
    Abstract Psychology's goal has been to become a science, taking the modern natural sciences as the model. It has not been understood that each science undergoes a transition from early disunification to later unification, that a fundmental dimension is involved that differentiates sciences. Psychology is a modern disunified science, distinguished by its chaotic knowledge and ways of operating. A philosophy of science based on modem unified science, as philosophies generally are, is inappropriate as a means of understanding psychology or (...)
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  21.  6
    Deborah A. Kleese (2001). Nature and Nature in Psychology. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 21 (1):61-79.
    This article explores the meanings of nature, and examines how understandings of this term inform the field of psychology. In this period of high, late, or post-modernity, many of the "givens" become contested, and perhaps nothing has become more contested than nature itself. There is a threefold purpose to this paper. This first goal is to unravel two types of nature in psychology, to be distinguished as nature and Nature. The second aim is to discuss how these types of (...)
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  22.  30
    Elliott Jaques (2002). The Life and Behavior of Living Organisms: A General Theory. Praeger.
    Jaques provides a general theory that gives a dynamic scientific foundation for the understanding of all living behavior.
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  23. Alistair Miller (2008). A Critique of Positive Psychology—or 'the New Science of Happiness'. Journal of Philosophy of Education 42 (3-4):591-608.
    This paper argues that the new science of positive psychology is founded on a whole series of fallacious arguments; these involve circular reasoning, tautology, failure to clearly define or properly apply terms, the identification of causal relations where none exist, and unjustified generalisation. Instead of demonstrating that positive attitudes explain achievement, success, well-being and happiness, positive psychology merely associates mental health with a particular personality type: a cheerful, outgoing, goal-driven, status-seeking extravert.
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  24.  13
    Michael Rescorla (2016). Bayesian Sensorimotor Psychology. Mind and Language 31 (1):3-36.
    Sensorimotor psychology studies the mental processes that control goal-directed bodily motion. Recently, sensorimotor psychologists have provided empirically successful Bayesian models of motor control. These models describe how the motor system uses sensory input to select motor commands that promote goals set by high-level cognition. I highlight the impressive explanatory benefits offered by Bayesian models of motor control. I argue that our current best models assign explanatory centrality to a robust notion of mental representation. I deploy my analysis to defend (...)
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  25.  57
    Katinka Quintelier & Daniel Fessler (2012). Varying Versions of Moral Relativism: The Philosophy and Psychology of Normative Relativism. Biology and Philosophy 27 (1):95-113.
    Among naturalist philosophers, both defenders and opponents of moral relativism argue that prescriptive moral theories (or normative theories) should be constrained by empirical findings about human psychology. Empiricists have asked if people are or can be moral relativists, and what effect being a moral relativist can have on an individual’s moral functioning. This research is underutilized in philosophers’ normative theories of relativism; at the same time, the empirical work, while useful, is conceptually disjointed. Our goal is to integrate philosophical (...)
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  26.  71
    Patrick Rysiew (2008). Rationality Disputes – Psychology and Epistemology. Philosophy Compass 3 (6):1153-1176.
    This paper reviews the largely psychological literature surrounding apparent failures of human rationality (sometimes referred to as 'the Rationality Wars') and locates it with respect to concepts and issues within more traditional epistemological inquiry. The goal is to bridge the gap between these two large and typically disconnected literatures – concerning rationality and the psychology of human reasoning, on the one hand, and epistemological theories of justified or rational belief, on the other – and to do so in such (...)
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  27. Robert D. Rupert (2007). Realization, Completers, and Ceteris Paribus Laws in Psychology. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 58 (1):1-11.
    University of Colorado, Boulder If there are laws of psychology, they would seem to hold only ceteris paribus (c.p., hereafter), i.e., other things being equal. If a person wants that q and believes that doing a is the most efficient way to make it the case that q, then she will attempt to do a—but not, however, if she believes that a carries with it consequences much more hated than q is liked, or she believes she is incapable of doing (...)
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  28.  30
    Christian Miller (2010). Character Traits, Social Psychology, and Impediments to Helping Behavior. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 5 (1):1-36.
    In a number of recent papers, I have begun to develop a new theory of character which is conceptually distinct both from traditional Aristotelian accounts as well as from the positive view of local traits outlined by John Doris. On my view, many human beings do have robust traits of character which play an important explanatory and predictive role, but which are triggered by certain situational variables which preclude them from counting as genuine Aristotelian virtues. Like others in this discussion, (...)
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  29.  34
    Inna Semetsky & Joshua A. Delpech-Ramey (2012). Jung's Psychology and Deleuze's Philosophy: The Unconscious in Learning. Educational Philosophy and Theory 44 (1):69-81.
    This paper addresses the unconscious dimension as articulated in Carl Jung's depth psychology and in Gilles Deleuze's philosophy. Jung's theory of the archetypes and Deleuze's pedagogy of the concept are two complementary resources that posit individuation as the goal of human development and self-education in practice. The paper asserts that educational theory should explore the role of the unconscious in learning, especially with regard to adult education in the process of learning from life-experiences. The integration of the unconscious into (...)
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  30. Christian Miller (2011). Moral Relativism and Moral Psychology. In Steven Hales (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to Relativism. Blackwell
    Much recent work in meta-ethics and ethical theory has drawn extensively on claims about moral psychology. The goal of this paper is to provide a broad overview of some of these claims and the implications that certain philosophers are taking them to have for the plausibility of moral relativism.
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  31.  19
    Martin Evenden & Gregory Sandstrom (2011). Calling for Scientific Revolution in Psychology: K. K. Hwang on Indigenous Psychologies. Social Epistemology 25 (2):153 - 166.
    This interview with Kwang?Kuo Hwang offers an introductory insight into the emergence of the field of indigenous psychologies. In the process of doing so, it attempts to illuminate the main historical factors behind its development, its key issues of debate and the important challenges it faces. It also provides details pertaining to new theories and methods that have recently emerged in connection with the indigenous approach and how they have contributed to its advancement. In addition, it outlines Hwang?s proposed strategy (...)
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  32. K. Rao (2011). Applied Yoga Psychology Studies of Neurophysiology of Meditation. Journal of Consciousness Studies 18 (11-12):161-198.
    Yoga-Sutras of Patanjali is a foundational psychological text that organizes, codifies, and systematically presents in s_tra form the psychology as practised in India around second century BCE. Its theme is to help humans free themselves from their congenital bondage due to conditioned existence and consequent suffering. The goal is to restore the person to her inherent unconditioned blissful being. The quintessence of Yoga is meditation. Meditation consists of dharana and dhyana, a contemplative state of passive attention precipitated by a (...)
     
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  33.  18
    Nicholas Shea, Kristine Krug & Philippe N. Tobler (2008). Conceptual Representations in Goal-Directed Decision Making. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience 8 (4):418-428.
    Emerging evidence suggests that the long-established distinction between habit-based and goal-directed decision-making mechanisms can also be sustained in humans. Although the habit-based system has been extensively studied in humans, the goal-directed system is less well characterized. This review brings to that task the distinction between conceptual and nonconceptual representational mechanisms. Conceptual representations are structured out of semantic consituents - the use of which requires an ability to perform some language-like syntactic processing. Decision making - as investigated by neuroscience (...)
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  34.  50
    Edward Younkins (2010). Human Nature, Flourishing, and Happiness: Toward a Synthesis of Aristotelianism, Austrian Economics, Positive Psychology, and Ayn Rand's Objectivism. Libertarian Papers 2.
    This article presents a skeleton of a potential paradigm of human flourishing and happiness in a free society. It is an exploratory attempt to construct an understanding from various disciplines and to integrate them into a clear, consistent, coherent, and systematic whole. Holding that there are essential interconnections among objective ideas, the article specifically emphasizes the compatibility of Aristotelianism, Austrian Economics, Positive Psychology, and Ayn Rand’s Objectivism arguing that particular ideas from these areas can be integrated into a paradigm of (...)
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  35. Charles R. Gallistel (1985). Motivation, Intention and Emotion: Goal-Directed Behavior From a Cognitive-Neuro-Ethological Perspective. In Michael Frese & John Sabini (eds.), Goal Directed Behavior: The Concept of Action in Psychology. L. Erlbaum Associates 48--66.
     
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  36.  15
    A. Nehamas (2012). Nietzsche, Psychology, and First Philosophy. Common Knowledge 18 (2):361-362.
    Friedrich Nietzsche is one of the most elusive thinkers in the philosophical tradition. His highly unusual style and insistence on what remains hidden or unsaid in his writing make pinning him to a particular position tricky. Nonetheless, certain readings of his work have become standard and influential. In this major new interpretation of Nietzsche’s work, Robert B. Pippin challenges various traditional views of Nietzsche, taking him at his word when he says that his writing can best be understood as a (...)
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  37.  6
    Rose Catacutan (2013). Educating in Virtues as Goal of Business Ethics Instruction. African Journal of Business Ethics 7 (2):62-67.
    The moral development paradigm underlying a particular <span class='Hi'>business</span> <span class='Hi'>ethics</span> curriculum design plays a significant role in determining the goals of <span class='Hi'>business</span> <span class='Hi'>ethics</span> instruction. Concretely, the view of moral development advanced by cognitive developmental psychology that dominates <span class='Hi'>business</span> <span class='Hi'>ethics</span> literature identifies moral development with cognitive processes but disregards the education of students in virtues. The aim of the paper is to propose an alternative paradigm of moral development to that of cognitive developmental psychology, and presents (...)
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  38. Wolfgang Schönpflug (1985). Goal Directed Behavior as a Source of Stress: Psychological Origins and Consequences of Inefficiency. In Michael Frese & John Sabini (eds.), Goal Directed Behavior: The Concept of Action in Psychology. L. Erlbaum Associates 172--188.
     
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  39.  15
    Matthew Gildersleeve (2013). Trading Accuracy or Affiliation for Bad Faith in Social Influence Experimental Psychology. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 27 (1):113-130.
    Currently there is an unattached link between the study of social influence in experimental psychology and bad faith in the existential philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre. The methods of psychology and philosophy differ significantly and can be integrated into a unified whole to provide enhanced insight into a topic of investigation compared to what can be achieved separately in each of these disciplines. The goal of this paper is to review the social influence literature with the aim of expositing, integrating (...)
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  40.  10
    Harmon R. Holcomb Iii (1996). Just so Stories and Inference to the Best Explanation in Evolutionary Psychology. Minds and Machines 6 (4):525-540.
    Evolutionary psychology is a science in the making, working toward the goal of showing how psychological adaptation underlies much human behavior. The knee-jerk reaction that sociobiology is unscientific because it tells “just-so stories” has become a common charge against evolutionary psychology as well. My main positive thesis is that inference to the best explanation is a proper method for evolutionary analyses, and it supplies a new perspective on the issues raised in Schlinger's (1996) just-so story critique. My main negative (...)
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  41.  22
    Uljana Feest (2012). Husserl's Crisis as a Crisis of Psychology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 43 (2):493-503.
    This paper places Husserl’s mature work, The Crisis of the European Sciences, in the context of his engagement with – and critique of – experimental psychology at the time. I begin by showing (a) that Husserl accorded psychology a crucial role in his philosophy, i.e., that of providing a scientific analysis of subjectivity, and (b) that he viewed contemporary psychology – due to its naturalism – as having failed to pursue this goal in the appropriate manner. I then provide (...)
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  42.  4
    Elizabeth Soliday & Annette L. Stanton (1995). Deceived Versus Nondeceived Participants' Perceptions of Scientific and Applied Psychology. Ethics and Behavior 5 (1):87 – 104.
    Research examining the possible effects of deceptive research participation on participants' perceptions of psychology has yielded equivocal results. The present study's goal was to clarify the possible effects of participation in mildly deceptive research on participants' impressions of scientific and applied psychology. Participants (N = 112) were randomly assigned to one of six experimental conditions: active groups receiving negative, positive, or no feedback, or passive groups receiving negative, positive, or no feedback. Following participation, participants completed measures of impressions of (...)
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  43.  18
    Daniel A. Helminiak (2011). Spirituality as an Explanatory and Normative Science: Applying Lonergan's Analysis of Intentional Consciousness to Relate Psychology and Theology. Heythrop Journal 52 (4):596-627.
    In a pluralistic society, consensus in spirituality must rest on a common human basis. The relevant social sciences as currently conceived cannot provide one. Bernard Lonergan's analysis of the human spirit – or intentional consciousness – elaborates the overlooked element in a psychological account of the human mind and, thus, grounds a psychology of spirituality as the natural expression of ongoing human integration, an account that is fully open to and, indeed, begs for theological elaboration. Initially unpacking the complexities of (...)
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  44.  14
    Christopher D. Green, Classics in the History of Psychology.
    Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods, nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness. The behaviorist, in his efforts to get a unitary scheme of animal response, recognizes no dividing line between man and brute. The behavior of (...)
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  45.  6
    R. Catacutan (2013). Education in Virtues as Goal of Buisness Ethics Instruction. African Journal of Business Ethics 7 (2):62.
    The moral development paradigm underlying a particular business ethics curriculum design plays a significant role in determining the goals of business ethics instruction. Concretely, the view of moral development advanced by cognitive developmental psychology that dominates business ethics literature identifies moral development with cognitive processes, but disregards educating students in virtues. The aim of the present paper is to propose an alternative paradigm of moral development to that of cognitive developmental psychology and presents Aquinas' view of moral development as a (...)
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  46.  5
    T. H. Pear (1926). The Definition and Scope of Psychology. Philosophy 1 (1):86.
    The general goal of psychology is usually the understanding of human behaviour.
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  47.  3
    D. Mackay (1992). Problems with Popper: The Initial Goal is to Develop Viable Theories, Not Disconfirm Them. Consciousness and Cognition 1 (3):231-240.
    The Popperian epistemology underlying Levelt's commentary and other aspects of contemporary psychology has limited application and, in particular, does not apply to the creation or development of theory, the main goal of MacKay . This is relevant to Levelt's questions, “What has changed?” and “What is the harvest?”: From a non-Popperian perspective, both changes and harvest are greater than Levelt's commentary would suggest and carry implications for the field at large.
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  48. William Ascher & Barbara Hirschfelder-Ascher (2004). Revitalizing Political Psychology: The Legacy of Harold D. Lasswell. Psychology Press.
    The goal of this book is to recapture the diminished roles of affect, psychological needs, and the psychodynamic mechanisms that are crucial for understanding political behavior by explaining and extending the contributions of Harold D. Lasswell, the dominant figure in political psychology in the mid-twentieth-century. Although Lasswell was best known for applying psychodynamic theories to politics, this book also demonstrates how his framework accommodated for cognitive processes and social interactions ranging from communications to policy-making. The authors use Lasswell's contributions (...)
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  49. Winfried Hacker (1985). Activity: A Fruitful Concept in Industrial Psychology. In Michael Frese & John Sabini (eds.), Goal Directed Behavior: The Concept of Action in Psychology. L. Erlbaum Associates 262--284.
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  50. George-Harold Jennings (2010). Passages Beyond the Gate: A Jungian Approach to Understanding American Psychology. Upa.
    This book examines American psychology's development from a Jungian perspective, and argues that the discipline is at a point where a deeper and broader exploration of spirituality is essential in order to realize the goal of creating a complete psychology of human beings.
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