Search results for 'Goedel s incompleteness result' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. H. Gaifman (2000). What Godel's Incompleteness Result Does and Does Not Show. Journal of Philosophy 97 (8):462-471.score: 684.0
    In a recent paper S. McCall adds another link to a chain of attempts to enlist Gödel’s incompleteness result as an argument for the thesis that human reasoning cannot be construed as being carried out by a computer.1 McCall’s paper is undermined by a technical oversight. My concern however is not with the technical point. The argument from Gödel’s result to the no-computer thesis can be made without following McCall’s route; it is then straighter and more forceful. (...)
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  2. Nicolás F. Lori & Alex H. Blin (2010). Application of Quantum Darwinism to Cosmic Inflation: An Example of the Limits Imposed in Aristotelian Logic by Information-Based Approach to Gödel's Incompleteness. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 15 (2):199-211.score: 288.0
    Gödel’s incompleteness applies to any system with recursively enumerable axioms and rules of inference. Chaitin’s approach to Gödel’s incompleteness relates the incompleteness to the amount of information contained in the axioms. Zurek’s quantum Darwinism attempts the physical description of the universe using information as one of its major components. The capacity of quantum Darwinism to describe quantum measurement in great detail without requiring ad-hoc non-unitary evolution makes it a good candidate for describing the transition from quantum to (...)
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  3. C. Chihara (1972). On Alleged Refutations of Mechanism Using Godel's Incompleteness Results. Journal of Philosophy 69 (September):507-26.score: 278.0
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  4. Charles Sayward (2001). On Some Much Maligned Remarks of Wittgenstein on Gödel. Philosophical Investigations 24 (3):262–270.score: 263.3
    In "Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics" Wittgenstein discusses an argument that goes from Gödel’s incompleteness result to the conclusion that some truths of mathematics are unprovable. Wittgenstein takes issue with this argument. Wittgenstein’s remarks in this connection have received very negative reaction from some very prominent people, for example, Gödel and Dummett. The paper is a defense of what Wittgenstein has to say about the argument in question.
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  5. Haim Gaifman (2000). What Gödel's Incompleteness Result Does and Does Not Show. Journal of Philosophy 97 (8):462 - 470.score: 263.3
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  6. Geoffrey Hellman (1981). How to Goedel a Frege-Russell: Goedel's Incompleteness Theorem. Noûs 15:451-68.score: 263.3
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  7. Aaron Sloman (1992). The Emperor's Real Mind -- Review of Roger Penrose's The Emperor's New Mind: Concerning Computers Minds and the Laws of Physics. Artificial Intelligence 56 (2-3):355-396.score: 195.8
    "The Emperor's New Mind" by Roger Penrose has received a great deal of both praise and criticism. This review discusses philosophical aspects of the book that form an attack on the "strong" AI thesis. Eight different versions of this thesis are distinguished, and sources of ambiguity diagnosed, including different requirements for relationships between program and behaviour. Excessively strong versions attacked by Penrose (and Searle) are not worth defending or attacking, whereas weaker versions remain problematic. Penrose (like Searle) regards the notion (...)
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  8. Robert F. Hadley (2008). Consistency, Turing Computability and Gödel's First Incompleteness Theorem. Minds and Machines 18 (1):1-15.score: 193.5
    It is well understood and appreciated that Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorems apply to sufficiently strong, formal deductive systems. In particular, the theorems apply to systems which are adequate for conventional number theory. Less well known is that there exist algorithms which can be applied to such a system to generate a gödel-sentence for that system. Although the generation of a sentence is not equivalent to proving its truth, the present paper argues that the existence of these algorithms, when conjoined with (...)
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  9. Richard Zach (2005). Book Review: Michael Potter. Reason's Nearest Kin. Philosophies of Arithmetic From Kant to Carnap. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 46 (4):503-513.score: 189.0
  10. Dan E. Willard (2002). How to Extend the Semantic Tableaux and Cut-Free Versions of the Second Incompleteness Theorem Almost to Robinson's Arithmetic Q. Journal of Symbolic Logic 67 (1):465-496.score: 189.0
    Let us recall that Raphael Robinson's Arithmetic Q is an axiom system that differs from Peano Arithmetic essentially by containing no Induction axioms [13], [18]. We will generalize the semantic-tableaux version of the Second Incompleteness Theorem almost to the level of System Q. We will prove that there exists a single rather long Π 1 sentence, valid in the standard model of the Natural Numbers and denoted as V, such that if α is any finite consistent extension of Q (...)
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  11. Francesco Berto (2009). There's Something About Gödel: The Complete Guide to the Incompleteness Theorem. Wiley-Blackwell.score: 183.0
    The Gödelian symphony -- Foundations and paradoxes -- This sentence is false -- The liar and Gödel -- Language and metalanguage -- The axiomatic method or how to get the non-obvious out of the obvious -- Peano's axioms -- And the unsatisfied logicists, Frege and Russell -- Bits of set theory -- The abstraction principle -- Bytes of set theory -- Properties, relations, functions, that is, sets again -- Calculating, computing, enumerating, that is, the notion of algorithm -- Taking numbers (...)
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  12. Haim Gaifman, Gödel's Incompleteness Results.score: 173.3
    This short sketch of Gödel’s incompleteness proof shows how it arises naturally from Cantor’s diagonalization method [1891]. It renders Gödel’s proof and its relation to the semantic paradoxes transparent. Some historical details, which are often ignored, are pointed out. We also make some observations on circularity and draw brief comparisons with natural language. The sketch does not include the messy details of the arithmetization of the language, but the motives for it are made obvious. We suggest this as a (...)
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  13. Cezary Cieśliński & Rafal Urbaniak (2013). Gödelizing the Yablo Sequence. Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (5):679-695.score: 171.0
    We investigate what happens when ‘truth’ is replaced with ‘provability’ in Yablo’s paradox. By diagonalization, appropriate sequences of sentences can be constructed. Such sequences contain no sentence decided by the background consistent and sufficiently strong arithmetical theory. If the provability predicate satisfies the derivability conditions, each such sentence is provably equivalent to the consistency statement and to the Gödel sentence. Thus each two such sentences are provably equivalent to each other. The same holds for the arithmetization of the existential Yablo (...)
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  14. Stathis Livadas (2013). Are Mathematical Theories Reducible to Non-Analytic Foundations? Axiomathes 23 (1):109-135.score: 166.5
    In this article I intend to show that certain aspects of the axiomatical structure of mathematical theories can be, by a phenomenologically motivated approach, reduced to two distinct types of idealization, the first-level idealization associated with the concrete intuition of the objects of mathematical theories as discrete, finite sign-configurations and the second-level idealization associated with the intuition of infinite mathematical objects as extensions over constituted temporality. This is the main standpoint from which I review Cantor’s conception of infinite cardinalities and (...)
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  15. Roman Murawski (1997). Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems and Computer Science. Foundations of Science 2 (1):123-135.score: 162.0
    In the paper some applications of Gödel's incompleteness theorems to discussions of problems of computer science are presented. In particular the problem of relations between the mind and machine (arguments by J.J.C. Smart and J.R. Lucas) is discussed. Next Gödel's opinion on this issue is studied. Finally some interpretations of Gödel's incompleteness theorems from the point of view of the information theory are presented.
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  16. Paolo Mancosu (1999). Between Vienna and Berlin: The Immediate Reception of Godel's Incompleteness Theorems. History and Philosophy of Logic 20 (1):33-45.score: 141.0
    What were the earliest reactions to Gödel's incompleteness theorems? After a brief summary of previous work in this area I analyse, by means of unpublished archival material, the first reactions in Vienna and Berlin to Gödel's groundbreaking results. In particular, I look at how Carnap, Hempel, von Neumann, Kaufmann, and Chwistek, among others, dealt with the new results.
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  17. Diana Raffman Deutsch, George Schumm & Neil Tennant (1998). Clusions From Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems, and Related Results From Mathematical Logic. Languages, Minds, and Machines Figure Prominently in the Discussion. Gödel's Theorems Surely Tell Us Something About These Important Matters. But What? A Descriptive Title for This Paper Would Be “Gödel, Lucas, Penrose, Tur. [REVIEW] Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 4 (3).score: 139.5
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  18. Panu Raatikainen (2005). On the Philosophical Relevance of Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems. Revue Internationale de Philosophie 59 (4):513-534.score: 137.5
    Gödel began his 1951 Gibbs Lecture by stating: “Research in the foundations of mathematics during the past few decades has produced some results which seem to me of interest, not only in themselves, but also with regard to their implications for the traditional philosophical problems about the nature of mathematics.” (Gödel 1951) Gödel is referring here especially to his own incompleteness theorems (Gödel 1931). Gödel’s first incompleteness theorem (as improved by Rosser (1936)) says that for any consistent formalized (...)
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  19. Panu Raatikainen, Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (Ed.).score: 137.5
    Gödel's two incompleteness theorems are among the most important results in modern logic, and have deep implications for various issues. They concern the limits of provability in formal axiomatic theories. The first incompleteness theorem states that in any consistent formal system F within which a certain amount of arithmetic can be carried out, there are statements of the language of F which can neither be proved nor disproved in F. According to the second incompleteness theorem, such a (...)
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  20. William E. Seager (2003). Yesterday's Algorithm: Penrose and the Godel Argument. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 3 (9):265-273.score: 135.0
    Roger Penrose is justly famous for his work in physics and mathematics but he is _notorious_ for his endorsement of the Gödel argument (see his 1989, 1994, 1997). This argument, first advanced by J. R. Lucas (in 1961), attempts to show that Gödel’s (first) incompleteness theorem can be seen to reveal that the human mind transcends all algorithmic models of it1. Penrose's version of the argument has been seen to fall victim to the original objections raised against Lucas (see (...)
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  21. Harvey Friedman, Fromal Statements of Godel's Second Incompleteness Theorem.score: 127.0
    Informal statements of Gödel's Second Incompleteness Theorem, referred to here as Informal Second Incompleteness, are simple and dramatic. However, current versions of Formal Second Incompleteness are complicated and awkward. We present new versions of Formal Second Incompleteness that are simple, and informally imply Informal Second Incompleteness. These results rest on the isolation of simple formal properties shared by consistency statements. Here we do not address any issues concerning proofs of Second Incompleteness.
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  22. Nicholas Harrigan & Robert W. Spekkens (2010). Einstein, Incompleteness, and the Epistemic View of Quantum States. Foundations of Physics 40 (2):125-157.score: 126.0
    Does the quantum state represent reality or our knowledge of reality? In making this distinction precise, we are led to a novel classification of hidden variable models of quantum theory. We show that representatives of each class can be found among existing constructions for two-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Our approach also provides a fruitful new perspective on arguments for the nonlocality and incompleteness of quantum theory. Specifically, we show that for models wherein the quantum state has the status of something (...)
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  23. Marcelo E. Coniglio & Newton M. Peron (forthcoming). Dugundji's Theorem Revisited. Logica Universalis:1-16.score: 126.0
    In 1940 Dugundji proved that no system between S1 and S5 can be characterized by finite matrices. Dugundji’s result forced the development of alternative semantics, in particular Kripke’s relational semantics. The success of this semantics allowed the creation of a huge family of modal systems. With few adaptations, this semantics can characterize almost the totality of the modal systems developed in the last five decades. This semantics however has some limits. Two results of incompleteness (for the systems KH (...)
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  24. Raymond M. Smullyan (1992). Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems. Oxford University Press.score: 120.0
    Kurt Godel, the greatest logician of our time, startled the world of mathematics in 1931 with his Theorem of Undecidability, which showed that some statements in mathematics are inherently "undecidable." His work on the completeness of logic, the incompleteness of number theory, and the consistency of the axiom of choice and the continuum theory brought him further worldwide fame. In this introductory volume, Raymond Smullyan, himself a well-known logician, guides the reader through the fascinating world of Godel's incompleteness (...)
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  25. Newton C. A. Da Costa (2012). Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems and Physics. Principia 15 (3):453-459.score: 120.0
    This paper is a summary of a lecture in which I presented some remarks on Gödel’s incompleteness theorems and their meaning for the foundations of physics. The entire lecture will appear elsewhere. doi: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.5007 / 1808-1711.2011v15n3p453.
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  26. Makoto Kikuchi, Taishi Kurahashi & Hiroshi Sakai (2012). On Proofs of the Incompleteness Theorems Based on Berry's Paradox by Vopěnka, Chaitin, and Boolos. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 58 (4‐5):307-316.score: 120.0
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  27. Panu Raatikainen (1998). On Interpreting Chaitin's Incompleteness Theorem. Journal of Philosophical Logic 27 (6):569-586.score: 117.0
    The aim of this paper is to comprehensively question the validity of the standard way of interpreting Chaitin's famous incompleteness theorem, which says that for every formalized theory of arithmetic there is a finite constant c such that the theory in question cannot prove any particular number to have Kolmogorov complexity larger than c. The received interpretation of theorem claims that the limiting constant is determined by the complexity of the theory itself, which is assumed to be good measure (...)
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  28. Andrew Pessin (2000). Malebranche's Doctrine of Freedom / Consent and the Incompleteness of God's Volitions. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 8 (1):21 – 53.score: 115.0
    'God needs no instruments to act', Malebranche writes in Search 6.2.3; 'it suffices that He wills in order that a thing be, because it is a contradiction that He should will and that what He wills should not happen. Therefore, His power is His will' (450). After nearly identical language in Treatise 1.12, Malebranche writes that '[God's] wills are necessarily efficacious ... [H]is power differs not at all from [H]is will' (116). God's causal power, here, clearly traces only to His (...)
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  29. R. Smirnov-Rueda (2005). On Essential Incompleteness of Hertz's Experiments on Propagation of Electromagnetic Interactions. Foundations of Physics 35 (1):1-31.score: 114.0
    The historical background of the 19th century electromagnetic theory is revisited from the standpoint of the opposition between alternative approaches in respect to the problem of interactions. The 19th century electrodynamics became the battle-field of a paramount importance to test existing conceptions of interactions. Hertz’s experiments were designed to bring a solid experimental evidence in favor of one of them. The modern scientific method applied to analyze Hertz’s experimental approach as well as the analysis of his laboratory notes, dairy and (...)
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  30. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1989). Can There Be a Proof That an Unprovable Sentence of Arithmetic is True? Dialectica 43 (43):289-292.score: 112.5
    Various authors of logic texts are cited who either suggest or explicitly state that the Gödel incompleteness result shows that some unprovable sentence of arithmetic is true. Against this, the paper argues that the matter is one of philosophical controversy, that it is not a mathematical or logical issue.
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  31. Solomon Feferman, The Nature and Significance of Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems.score: 110.5
    What Gödel accomplished in the decade of the 1930s before joining the Institute changed the face of mathematical logic and continues to influence its development. As you gather from my title, I’ll be talking about the most famous of his results in that period, but first I want to indulge in some personal reminiscences. In many ways this is a sentimental journey for me. I was a member of the Institute in 1959-60, a couple of years after receiving my PhD (...)
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  32. Yi-Zhuang Chen (2004). Edgar Morin's Paradigm of Complexity and Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem. World Futures 60 (5 & 6):421 – 431.score: 108.0
    This article shows that in two respects, Gödel's incompleteness theorem strongly supports the arguments of Edgar Morin's complexity paradigm. First, from the viewpoint of the content of Gödel's theorem, the latter justifies the basic view of complexity paradigm according to which knowledge is a dynamic, unfinished process, and develops by way of self-criticism and self-transcendence. Second, from the viewpoint of the proof procedure of Gödel's theorem, the latter confirms the complexity paradigm's circular line of inference through which is formed (...)
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  33. Christopher Gauker (2001). T-Schema Deflationism Versus Gödel’s First Incompleteness Theorem. Analysis 61 (270):129–136.score: 108.0
    I define T-schema deflationism as the thesis that a theory of truth for our language can simply take the form of certain instances of Tarski's schema (T). I show that any effective enumeration of these instances will yield as a dividend an effective enumeration of all truths of our language. But that contradicts Gödel's First Incompleteness Theorem. So the instances of (T) constituting the T-Schema deflationist's theory of truth are not effectively enumerable, which casts doubt on the idea that (...)
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  34. Richard Tieszen (1994). Mathematical Realism and Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems. Philosophia Mathematica 2 (3):177-201.score: 108.0
    In this paper I argue that it is more difficult to see how Godel's incompleteness theorems and related consistency proofs for formal systems are consistent with the views of formalists, mechanists and traditional intuitionists than it is to see how they are consistent with a particular form of mathematical realism. If the incompleteness theorems and consistency proofs are better explained by this form of realism then we can also see how there is room for skepticism about Church's Thesis (...)
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  35. E. Sober & M. Steel (2013). Screening-Off and Causal Incompleteness: A No-Go Theorem. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (3):513-550.score: 108.0
    We begin by considering two principles, each having the form causal completeness ergo screening-off. The first concerns a common cause of two or more effects; the second describes an intermediate link in a causal chain. They are logically independent of each other, each is independent of Reichenbach's principle of the common cause, and each is a consequence of the causal Markov condition. Simple examples show that causal incompleteness means that screening-off may fail to obtain. We derive a stronger (...): in a rather general setting, if the composite cause C1 & C2 & … & Cn screens-off one event from another, then each of the n component causes C1, C2, …, Cn must fail to screen-off. The idea that a cause may be ordinally invariant in its impact on different effects is defined; it plays an important role in establishing this no-go theorem. Along the way, we describe how composite and component causes can all screen-off when ordinal invariance fails. We argue that this theorem is relevant to assessing the plausibility of the two screening-off principles. The discovery of incomplete causes that screen-off is not evidence that causal completeness must engender screening-off. Formal and epistemic analogies between screening-off and determinism are discussed. 1 Introduction2 Influence and Non-degeneracy Conditions3 A No-Go Theorem for Two Dichotomous Causes and its Limitations4 A More General No-Go Theorem: Allowing Several Causes, Possibly Non-dichotomous5 Examples Illustrating Corollary 3 and Theorem 5a6 Determinism and Screening-Off: Disanalogy and AnalogyAppendix. (shrink)
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  36. Peter Smith, Incompleteness – the Very Idea.score: 108.0
    Why these notes? After all, I’ve written An Introduction to Gödel’s Theorems (CUP, heavily corrected fourth printing 2009: henceforth IGT ). Surely that’s more than enough to be going on with? Ah, but there’s the snag. It is more than enough. In the writing, as is the way with these things, the book grew far beyond the scope of the lecture notes from which it started. And while I hope the result is still pretty accessible to someone prepared (...)
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  37. John W. Dawson (1984). The Reception of Godel's Incompleteness Theorems. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1984:253 - 271.score: 108.0
    According to several commentators, Kurt Godel's incompleteness discoveries were assimilated promptly and almost without objection by his contemporaries - - a circumstance remarkable enough to call for explanation. Careful examination reveals, however, that there were doubters and critics, as well as defenders and rival claimants to priority. In particular, the reactions of Carnap, Bernays, Zermelo, Post, Finsler, and Russell, among others, are considered in detail. Documentary sources include unpublished correspondence from Godel's Nachlass.
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  38. Gary J. Shipley & Nicola Masciandaro (2012). Open Commentary to Eugene Thacker's" Cosmic Pessimism". Continent 2 (2):76-81.score: 108.0
    continent. 2.2 (2012): 76–81 Comments on Eugene Thacker’s “Cosmic Pessimism” Nicola Masciandaro Anything you look forward to will destroy you, as it already has. —Vernon Howard In pessimism, the first axiom is a long, low, funereal sigh. The cosmicity of the sigh resides in its profound negative singularity. Moving via endless auto-releasement, it achieves the remote. “ Oltre la spera che piú larga gira / passa ’l sospiro ch’esce del mio core ” [Beyond the sphere that circles widest / penetrates (...)
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  39. Róbson Ramos dos Reis (2010). “Lizard-Things”: Semantical and Ontological Issues in Heidegger's Hermeneutic of Living Nature. Filosofia Unisinos 11 (3):225-243.score: 108.0
    In this paper I approach the hermeneutic of living nature as suggested by Martin Heidegger in The Fundamental Concepts of Metaphysics. On the basis of complex hermeneutic procedures, Heidegger held the well-known thesis about the animal’s poverty of world. My hypothesis is that the relevance of this thesis should be minimized for the sake of the acknowledgment of a poverty in the world proper to human beings. Poverty in the world refers to the main result of a comparison between (...)
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  40. Glen Hoffmann (2007). The Semantic Theory of Truth: Field's Incompleteness Objection. Philosophia 35 (2):161-170.score: 105.0
    According to Field’s influential incompleteness objection, Tarski’s semantic theory of truth is unsatisfactory since the definition that forms its basis is incomplete in two distinct senses: (1) it is physicalistically inadequate, and for this reason, (2) it is conceptually deficient. In this paper, I defend the semantic theory of truth against the incompleteness objection by conceding (1) but rejecting (2). After arguing that Davidson and McDowell’s reply to the incompleteness objection fails to pass muster, I argue that, (...)
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  41. Gregory Wheeler (2012). Explaining the Limits of Olsson's Impossibility Result. Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (1):136-150.score: 105.0
    In his groundbreaking book, Against Coherence (2005), Erik Olsson presents an ingenious impossibility theorem that appears to show that there is no informative relationship between probabilistic measures of coherence and higher likelihood of truth. Although Olsson's result provides an important insight into probabilistic models of epistemological coherence, the scope of his negative result is more limited than generally appreciated. The key issue is the role conditional independence conditions play within the witness testimony model Olsson uses to establish his (...)
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  42. Carlo Cellucci (1993). From Closed to Open Systems. In J. Czermak (ed.), Philosophy of Mathematics, pp. 206-220. Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky.score: 103.5
    While Gödel's (first) incompleteness theorem has been used to refute the main contentions of Hilbert's program, it does not seem to have been generally used to stress that a basic ingredient of that program, the concept of formal system as a closed system - as well as the underlying view, embodied in the axiomatic method, that mathematical theories are deductions from first principles must be abandoned. Indeed the logical community has generally failed to learn Gödel's lesson that Hilbert's concept (...)
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  43. Saeed Salehi (2012). Herbrand Consistency of Some Arithmetical Theories. Journal of Symbolic Logic 77 (3):807-827.score: 99.0
    Gödel's second incompleteness theorem is proved for Herbrand consistency of some arithmetical theories with bounded induction, by using a technique of logarithmic shrinking the witnesses of bounded formulas, due to Z. Adamowicz [Herbrand consistency and bounded arithmetic, Fundamenta Mathematical vol. 171 (2002), pp. 279-292]. In that paper, it was shown that one cannot always shrink the witness of a bounded formula logarithmically, but in the presence of Herbrand consistency, for theories I∆₀+ Ωm, with m ≥ 2, any witness for (...)
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  44. Francesco Berto (2009). The Gödel Paradox and Wittgenstein's Reasons. Philosophia Mathematica 17 (2):208-219.score: 96.0
    An interpretation of Wittgenstein’s much criticized remarks on Gödel’s First Incompleteness Theorem is provided in the light of paraconsistent arithmetic: in taking Gödel’s proof as a paradoxical derivation, Wittgenstein was drawing the consequences of his deliberate rejection of the standard distinction between theory and metatheory. The reasoning behind the proof of the truth of the Gödel sentence is then performed within the formal system itself, which turns out to be inconsistent. It is shown that the features of paraconsistent arithmetics (...)
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  45. Robert Rynasiewicz (2001). Definition, Convention, and Simultaneity: Malament's Result and its Alleged Refutation by Sarkar and Stachel. Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2001 (3):S345-.score: 96.0
    The question whether distant simultaneity (relativized to an inertial frame) has a factual or a conventional status in special relativity has long been disputed and remains in contention even today. At one point it appeared that Malament (1977) had settled the issue by proving that the only non-trivial equivalence relation definable from (temporally symmetric) causal connectability is the standard simultaneity relation. Recently, though, Sarkar and Stachel (1999) claim to have identified a suspect assumption in the proof by defining a non-standard (...)
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  46. Daniele Mundici (1981). An Algebraic Result About Soft Model Theoretical Equivalence Relations with an Application to H. Friedman's Fourth Problem. Journal of Symbolic Logic 46 (3):523-530.score: 96.0
    We prove the following algebraic characterization of elementary equivalence: $\equiv$ restricted to countable structures of finite type is minimal among the equivalence relations, other than isomorphism, which are preserved under reduct and renaming and which have the Robinson property; the latter is a faithful adaptation for equivalence relations of the familiar model theoretical notion. We apply this result to Friedman's fourth problem by proving that if L = L ωω (Q i ) i ∈ ω 1 is an (ω (...)
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  47. Frank Poletti (2005). Translator's Introduction to the Incompleteness of Each Tradition: Toward an Ethic of Complexity. World Futures 61 (4):287 – 290.score: 96.0
    (2005). Translator's Introduction to The Incompleteness of Each Tradition: Toward an Ethic of Complexity. World Futures: Vol. 61, No. 4, pp. 287-290.
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  48. Marcelo Tsuji, Newton C. A. Costdaa & Francisco A. Doria (1998). The Incompleteness of Theories of Games. Journal of Philosophical Logic 27 (6):553-568.score: 93.0
    We first state a few previously obtained results that lead to general undecidability and incompleteness theorems in axiomatized theories that range from the theory of finite sets to classical elementary analysis. Out of those results we prove several incompleteness theorems for axiomatic versions of the theory of noncooperative games with Nash equilibria; in particular, we show the existence of finite games whose equilibria cannot be proven to be computable.
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  49. Marcelo Tsuji, Newton C. A. Da Costa & Francisco A. Doria (1998). The Incompleteness of Theories of Games. Journal of Philosophical Logic 27 (6):553 - 568.score: 93.0
    We first state a few previously obtained results that lead to general undecidability and incompleteness theorems in axiomatized theories that range from the theory of finite sets to classical elementary analysis. Out of those results we prove several incompleteness theorems for axiomatic versions of the theory of noncooperative games with Nash equilibria; in particular, we show the existence of finite games whose equilibria cannot be proven to be computable.
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  50. Gregory J. Chaitin (1970). Computational Complexity and Godel's Incompleteness Theorem. [Rio De Janeiro,Centro Técnico Científico, Pontifícia Universidade Católica Do Rio De Janeiro.score: 93.0
     
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