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  1.  23
    Gordon Pennycook, James Allan Cheyne, Paul Seli, Derek J. Koehler & Jonathan A. Fugelsang (2012). Analytic Cognitive Style Predicts Religious and Paranormal Belief. Cognition 123 (3):335-346.
    An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting supernatural claims, both religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined associations of God beliefs, religious engagement, conventional religious beliefs and paranormal beliefs with performance measures of cognitive ability and analytic cognitive style. An analytic cognitive style negatively predicted both religious and paranormal beliefs (...)
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  2.  5
    Valerie A. Thompson, Jamie A. Prowse Turner, Gordon Pennycook, Linden J. Ball, Hannah Brack, Yael Ophir & Rakefet Ackerman (2013). The Role of Answer Fluency and Perceptual Fluency as Metacognitive Cues for Initiating Analytic Thinking. Cognition 128 (2):237-251.
    Although widely studied in other domains, relatively little is known about the metacognitive processes that monitor and control behaviour during reasoning and decision-making. In this paper, we examined the conditions under which two fluency cues are used to monitor initial reasoning: answer fluency, or the speed with which the initial, intuitive answer is produced, and perceptual fluency, or the ease with which problems can be read. The first two experiments demonstrated that answer fluency reliably predicted Feeling of Rightness judgments to (...)
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  3.  10
    Gordon Pennycook, Robert M. Ross, Derek J. Koehler & Jonathan A. Fugelsang (2016). Atheists and Agnostics Are More Reflective Than Religious Believers: Four Empirical Studies and a Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE 11 (4):e0153039.
    Individual differences in the mere willingness to think analytically has been shown to predict religious disbelief. Recently, however, it has been argued that analytic thinkers are not actually less religious; rather, the putative association may be a result of religiosity typically being measured after analytic thinking (an order effect). In light of this possibility, we report four studies in which a negative correlation between religious belief and performance on analytic thinking measures is found when religious belief is measured in a (...)
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  4.  17
    Gordon Pennycook, Jonathan A. Fugelsang & Derek J. Koehler (2012). Are We Good at Detecting Conflict During Reasoning? Cognition 124 (1):101-106.
    Recent evidence suggests that people are highly efficient at detecting conflicting outputs produced by competing intuitive and analytic reasoning processes. Specifically, De Neys and Glumicic demonstrated that participants reason longer about problems that are characterized by conflict between stereotypical personality descriptions and base-rate probabilities of group membership. However, this finding comes from problems involving probabilities much more extreme than those used in traditional studies of base-rate neglect. To test the degree to which these findings depend on such extreme probabilities, we (...)
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  5.  7
    Gordon Pennycook, James Allan Cheyne, Nathaniel Barr, Derek J. Koehler & Jonathan A. Fugelsang (2014). The Role of Analytic Thinking in Moral Judgements and Values. Thinking and Reasoning 20 (2):188-214.
    While individual differences in the willingness and ability to engage analytic processing have long informed research in reasoning and decision making, the implications of such differences have not yet had a strong influence in other domains of psychological research. We claim that analytic thinking is not limited to problems that have a normative basis and, as an extension of this, predict that individual differences in analytic thinking will be influential in determining beliefs and values. Along with assessments of cognitive ability (...)
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  6. Valerie A. Thompson, Rakefet Ackerman, Yael Sidi, Linden J. Ball, Gordon Pennycook & Jamie A. Prowse Turner (2013). The Role of Answer Fluency and Perceptual Fluency in the Monitoring and Control of Reasoning: Reply To. Cognition 128 (2):256-258.
    In this reply, we provide an analysis of Alter et al. response to our earlier paper. In that paper, we reported difficulty in replicating Alter, Oppenheimer, Epley, and Eyre’s main finding, namely that a sense of disfluency produced by making stimuli difficult to perceive, increased accuracy on a variety of reasoning tasks. Alter, Oppenheimer, and Epley argue that we misunderstood the meaning of accuracy on these tasks, a claim that we reject. We argue and provide evidence that the tasks were (...)
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  7.  4
    Dries Trippas, Gordon Pennycook, Michael F. Verde & Simon J. Handley (2015). Better but Still Biased: Analytic Cognitive Style and Belief Bias. Better but Still Biased: Analytic Cognitive Style and Belief Bias 21 (4):431-445.
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  8.  18
    Nathaniel Barr, Gordon Pennycook, Jennifer A. Stolz & Jonathan A. Fugelsang (2014). Reasoned Connections: A Dual-Process Perspective on Creative Thought. Thinking and Reasoning 21 (1):61-75.
    A divide exists in the creativity literature as to whether relatively more or less executive processing is beneficial to creative thinking. To explore this issue, we employ an individual differences perspective informed by dual-process theories in which it is assumed that people vary in the extent to which they rely on autonomous or controlled processing . We find that those more willing and/or able to engage Type 2 processing are more likely to successfully make creative connections in tasks requiring the (...)
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  9.  5
    Dries Trippas, Gordon Pennycook, Michael F. Verde & Simon J. Handley (2015). Better but Still Biased: Analytic Cognitive Style and Belief Bias. Thinking and Reasoning 21 (4):431-445.
    Belief bias is the tendency for prior beliefs to influence people's deductive reasoning in two ways: through the application of a simple belief-heuristic and through the application of more effortful reasoning for unbelievable conclusions. Previous research indicates that cognitive ability is the primary determinant of the effect of beliefs on accuracy. In the current study, we show that the mere tendency to engage analytic reasoning is responsible for the effect of cognitive ability on motivated reasoning. The implications of this finding (...)
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  10.  44
    Lewis Mehl-Madrona & Gordon Pennycook (2009). Construction of an Aboriginal Theory of Mind and Mental Health. Anthropology of Consciousness 20 (2):85-100.
    Most research on aboriginal mind and mental health has sought to apply or confirm preexisting European-derived theories among aboriginal people. Culture has been underappreciate. An understanding of uniquely aboriginal models for mind and mental health might lead to more effective and robust interventions. To address this issue, a core group of elders from five separate regions of North America was developed to help determine how aboriginal people conceived of mind, self, and identity before European contact. The process utilized for this (...)
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  11.  3
    Valerie A. Thompson, Jamie A. Prowse Turner, Gordon Pennycook, Linden J. Ball, Hannah Brack, Yael Ophir & Rakefet Ackerman (2014). Corrigendum to “The Role of Answer Fluency and Perceptual Fluency as Metacognitive Cues for Initiating Analytic Thinking” [COGNIT 128/2 237–251]. [REVIEW] Cognition 130 (1):140.
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