Search results for 'Gradualism' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Andre Ariew (2003). Natural Selection Doesn't Work That Way: Jerry Fodor Vs. Evolutionary Psychology on Gradualism and Saltationism. Mind and Language 18 (5):478-483.score: 24.0
    In Chapter Five of The Mind Doesn’t Work That Way, Jerry Fodor argues that since it is likely that human minds evolved quickly as saltations rather than gradually as the product of an accumulation of small mutations, evolutionary psychologists are wrong to think that human minds are adaptations. I argue that Fodor’s requirement that adaptationism entails gradualism is wrongheaded. So, while evolutionary psychologists may be wrong to endorse gradualism—and I argue that they are wrong—it does not follow that (...)
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  2. Stephen Hetherington (2013). Concessive Knowledge-Attributions: Fallibilism and Gradualism. Synthese 190 (14):2835-2851.score: 24.0
    Any knowledge-fallibilist needs to solve the conceptual problem posed by concessive knowledge-attributions (such as ‘I know that p, but possibly not-p’). These seem to challenge the coherence of knowledge-fallibilism. This paper defuses that challenge via a gradualist refinement of what Fantl and McGrath (2009) call weak epistemic fallibilism.
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  3. Adam Leite (2006). Epistemic Gradualism and Ordinary Epistemic Practice: Responce to Hetherington. Philosophia 34 (3):311-324.score: 24.0
    This paper responds to Stephen Hetherington's discussion of my ‘Is Fallibility an Epistemological Shortcoming?’ (2004). The Infallibilist skeptic holds that in order to know something, one must be able to rule out every possible alternative to the truth of one’s belief. This requirement is false. In this paper I first clarify this requirement’s relation to our ordinary practice. I then turn to a more fundamental issue. The Infallibilist holds – along with many non-skeptical epistemologists – that Infallibility is epistemically superior (...)
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  4. David Castle (2001). A Gradualist Theory of Discovery in Ecology. Biology and Philosophy 16 (4):547-571.score: 18.0
    The distinction between the context ofdiscovery and the context of justificationrestricts philosophy of science to the rationalreconstruction of theories, and characterizesscientific discovery as rare, theoreticalupheavals that defy rational reconstruction. Kuhnian challenges to the two contextsdistinction show that non-rational elementspersist in the justification of theories, butgo no further to provide a positive account ofdiscovery. A gradualist theory of discoverydeveloped in this paper shows, with supportfrom ecological cases, that discoveries areroutinely made in ecology by extending modelsto new domains, or by making additions (...)
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  5. J. C. Vaupel Klein (1994). Punctuated Equilibria and Phyletic Gradualism: Even Partners Can Be Good Friends. Acta Biotheoretica 42 (1).score: 18.0
    The allegedly alternative theories of Phyletic Gradualism and Punctuated Equilibria are examined as regards the nature of their differences. The explanatory value of both models is determined by establishing their actual connection with reality. It is concluded that they are to be considered complementary rather than mutually exclusive at all levels of infraspecific, specific, and supraspecific evolution. So, in order to be described comprehensively, the pathways of evolution require at least two distinct models, each based on a discrete range (...)
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  6. J. C. Vaupel Kleivonn (1995). Phyletic Gradualism Versus Punctuated Equilibria: Why Case Histories Do Not Suffice. Acta Biotheoretica 43 (3).score: 18.0
    Many attempts have been made at supporting either one of the allegedly complementary divergence models Phyletic Gradualism (PG) and Punctuated Equilibria (PE) by patterns found in specific fossil sequences. However, assessing each model's connection with reality via such “individual case histories” appears not to constitute a relevant approach. Instead, in order to correctly establish the possible merits of both concepts, the claims of each have to be verified against general evolutionary theory. This is being pointed out herein by (...)
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  7. Gunnar Skirbekk (1999). Discourse-Ethical Gradualism. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 1:95-106.score: 18.0
    My question is the following: to what extent is ethical anthropocentrism tenable? In a “discourse ethical” perspective I will consider some case-oriented arguments in favor of a paradigmatically unique ethical standing for humans and some arguments in favor of an ethical gradualism between humans and other mammals and between humans and nature, ending with a conclusion in favor of a fair treatment of all moral subjects, human and non-human.
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  8. Paul Draper (2002). Irreducible Complexity and Darwinian Gradualism. Faith and Philosophy 19 (1):3-21.score: 15.0
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  9. Lu Jiande (2009). Confucian Politics and Its Redress: From Radicalism to Gradualism. Diogenes 56 (1):83-93.score: 15.0
    This paper addresses the current revival of Confucianism in China. It analyzes its political issues and outcomes, underlines the possible defects in Confucianism as a theory of politics, i.e., as a science and art of government and a public ethics. It looks back to the dialectical relationship between Confucius and Mencius and shows how the presence of Confucianist elements in 20th-century politics contributed to shape the public and political sphere in contemporary China. The strains between revolutionary and reformist orientations through (...)
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  10. Preston Cloud (1989). Is Phyletic Gradualism a Straw Man? Genetics, Paleontology, and Macroevolution Jeffrey Levinton. Bioscience 39 (8):571-571.score: 15.0
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  11. Frank H. T. Rhodes (1987). Darwinian Gradualism and Its Limits: The Development of Darwin's Views on the Rate and Pattern of Evolutionary Change. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 20 (2):139 - 157.score: 15.0
    The major tenets of the recent hypothesis of punctuated equilibrium are explicit in Darwin's writing. His notes from 1837–1838 contain references to stasis and rapid change. In the first edition of the Origin (1859), Darwin described the importance of isolation of local varieties in the process of speciation. His views on the tempo of speciation were influenced by Hugh Falconer and also, perhaps, by Edward Suess (1831–1914). It is paradoxical that, although both topics were recorded in his unpublished notes of (...)
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  12. Philippe Huneman (2012). Computer Science Meets Evolutionary Biology: Pure Possible Processes and the Issue of Gradualism. In. In Torres Juan, Pombo Olga, Symons John & Rahman Shahid (eds.), Special Sciences and the Unity of Science. Springer. 137--162.score: 15.0
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  13. Monica Meijsing (2006). The Development of the First-Person Perspective. A Gradualist Approach. Manuscrito 29 (2).score: 15.0
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  14. R. D. Francis, Erminio Gius & Romina Coin (2004). Ethical Gradualism: A Practical Approach. Australian Journal of Professional and Applied Ethics 5 (1):25-34.score: 15.0
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  15. Philippe Huneman (2012). Computer Sciences Meet Evolutionary Biology: Issues in Gradualism. In Torres Juan, Pombo Olga, Symons John & Rahman Shahid (eds.), Special sciences and the Unity of Science. Springer.score: 15.0
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  16. Stephen Hetherington (2006). Scepticism and Ordinary Epistemic Practice. Philosophia 34 (3):303-310.score: 9.0
    It is not unusual for epistemologists to argue that ordinary epistemic practice is a setting within which (infallibilist) scepticism will not arise. Such scepticism is deemed to be an alien invader, impugning such epistemic practice entirely from without. But this paper argues that the suggested sort of analysis overstates the extent to which ordinary epistemic practice is antipathetic to some vital aspects of such sceptical thinking. The paper describes how a gradualist analysis of knowledge can do more justice to what (...)
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  17. Bradley E. Wilson (1996). Changing Conceptions of Species. Biology and Philosophy 11 (3):405-420.score: 9.0
    Species are thought by many to be important units of evolution. In this paper, I argue against that view. My argument is based on an examination of the role of species in the synthetic theory of evolution. I argue that if one adopts a gradualist view of evolution, one cannot make sense of the claim that species are units in the minimal sense needed to claim that they are units of evolution, namely, that they exist as discrete entities over time. (...)
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  18. Luis Aquiles Mejía Arnal (2012). Popper y la libertad Había una vez un país que perdió el rumbo. Apuntes Filosóficos 19 (36).score: 9.0
    Karl Popper postula que no puede haber una teoría científica del desarrollo histórico que sirva de base para la predicción. Para mejorar la sociedad es necesario recurrir a la ingeniería social gradual, que busca introducir cambios tentativos, en sí mismos valiosos, al margen de que exista o no un plan general. Si no se obtiene el resultado esperado, habrá oportunidad de rectificar. El progreso gradual, la necesidad de un equilibrio de fuerzas bajo el poder del Estado, y la proporción entre (...)
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  19. Ute Deichmann (2010). Gemmules and Elements: On Darwin's and Mendel's Concepts and Methods in Heredity. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 41 (1):85-112.score: 6.0
    Inheritance and variation were a major focus of Charles Darwin’s studies. Small inherited variations were at the core of his theory of organic evolution by means of natural selection. He put forward a developmental theory of heredity (pangenesis) based on the assumption of the existence of material hereditary particles. However, unlike his proposition of natural selection as a new mechanism for evolutionary change, Darwin’s highly speculative and contradictory hypotheses on heredity were unfruitful for further research. They attempted to explain many (...)
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  20. Roger Sansom (2014). What Are the Implications of Evolvable Molecules? Biology and Philosophy 29 (3):425-432.score: 6.0
    James Shapiro’s view of evolution is inspired by looking at the molecular mechanisms of mutation. Finding these systems to be intelligent and the mutations non-gradual, Shapiro concludes that neither the role of DNA in development, nor and the role of natural selection in evolution are what we thought them to be. The cases discussed are interesting and may require some modification of theory in biology, but this reviewer finds many of Shapiro’s conclusions unwarranted.
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  21. Katja Wagner-Westerhausen (2008). Gradualistic Concepts and Their Alternatives in the Debate on (the Medical Use of) Embryos. Ethik in der Medizin 20 (1):6-16.score: 5.0
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  22. Tom Stoneham (2009). Time and Truth: The Presentism-Eternalism Debate. Philosophy 84 (2):201-218.score: 3.0
    There are many questions we can ask about time, but perhaps the most fundamental is whether there are metaphysically interesting differences between past, present and future events. An eternalist believes in a block universe: past, present and future events are all on an equal footing. A gradualist believes in a growing block: he agress with the eternalist about the past and the present but not about the future. A presentist believes that what is present has a special status. My first (...)
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  23. Elliott Sober (1980). Evolution, Population Thinking, and Essentialism. Philosophy of Science 47 (3):350-383.score: 3.0
    Ernst Mayr has argued that Darwinian theory discredited essentialist modes of thought and replaced them with what he has called "population thinking". In this paper, I characterize essentialism as embodying a certain conception of how variation in nature is to be explained, and show how this conception was undermined by evolutionary theory. The Darwinian doctrine of evolutionary gradualism makes it impossible to say exactly where one species ends and another begins; such line-drawing problems are often taken to be the (...)
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  24. Ruth Levitas (2008). Pragmatism, Utopia and Anti-Utopia. Critical Horizons 9 (1):42-59.score: 3.0
    This paper explores the tension between pragmatism and utopia, especially in the concept of "realistic utopianism". It argues that historically, the pragmatic and gradualist rejection of utopia has been anti-utopian in effect, notably in the case of Popper. More recent attempts to argue in favour of "realistic utopianism" or its equivalent, by writers such as Wallerstein and Rorty are also profoundly anti-utopian, despite Rorty's commitment to "social hope". They co-opt the terminology of utopia to positions that are antagonistic to radical (...)
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  25. M. Janvid (2004). Epistemological Naturalism and the Normativity Objection. Erkenntnis 60 (1):35-49.score: 3.0
    A common objection raised against naturalism is that anaturalized epistemology cannot account for the essential normative character of epistemology. Following an analysis of different ways in which this charge could be understood, it will be argued that either epistemology is not normative in the relevant sense, or if it is, then in a way which a naturalized epistemology can account for with an instrumental and hypothetical model of normativity. Naturalism is here captured by the two doctrines of empiricism and (...). Epistemology is a descriptive discipline about what knowledge is and under what conditions a knowledge-claim is justified. However, we can choose to adopt a standard of justification and by doing so be evaluated by it. In this sense our epistemic practices have a normative character, but this is a form of normativity a naturalized epistemology can make room for. The normativity objection thus fails. However, in the course of this discussion, as yet another attempt to clarify the normativity objection, such a naturalistic model will be contrasted with Donald Davidson's theory of interpretation. Even though this comparison will not improve upon the negative verdict upon the original objection, it will be argued that naturalism cannot accept Davidson's theory since it contains at least one constitutive principle – the principle of charity – whose epistemic status is incompatible with the naturalistic doctrine of gradualism. So, if this principle has this role, then epistemology cannot be naturalized. (shrink)
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  26. Walter J. Bock (2010). Multiple Explanations in Darwinian Evolutionary Theory. Acta Biotheoretica 58 (1).score: 3.0
    Variational evolutionary theory as advocated by Darwin is not a single theory, but a bundle of related but independent theories, namely: (a) variational evolution; (b) gradualism rather than large leaps; (c) processes of phyletic evolution and of speciation; (d) causes for the formation of varying individuals in populations and for the action of selective agents; and (e) all organisms evolved from a common ancestor. The first four are nomological-deductive explanations and the fifth is historical-narrative. Therefore evolutionary theory must be (...)
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  27. Bruce H. Weber & David J. Depew (1996). Natural Selection and Self-Organization. Biology and Philosophy 11 (1):33-65.score: 3.0
    The Darwinian concept of natural selection was conceived within a set of Newtonian background assumptions about systems dynamics. Mendelian genetics at first did not sit well with the gradualist assumptions of the Darwinian theory. Eventually, however, Mendelism and Darwinism were fused by reformulating natural selection in statistical terms. This reflected a shift to a more probabilistic set of background assumptions based upon Boltzmannian systems dynamics. Recent developments in molecular genetics and paleontology have put pressure on Darwinism once again. Current work (...)
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  28. Gunnar Skirbekk (1997). The Discourse Principle and Those Affected. Inquiry 40 (1):63 – 71.score: 3.0
    Focusing on the terms 'possibly affected persons' and 'those affected' in the Habermasian 'discourse principle', I argue that we need a notion of moral subjects in addition to that of a person (in terms of moral agents and moral discussants) and that this notion of moral subjects implies a 'normative gradualism' which weakens the participatory and consensual aspect of discourse theory and strengthens the aspect of enlightened 'advocatory' deliberation in terms of needs and the good life. I (...)
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  29. Mikael Janvid (2004). Epistemological Naturalism and the Normativity Objection or From Normativity to Constitutivity. Erkenntnis 60 (1):35-49.score: 3.0
    A common objection raised against naturalism is that a naturalized epistemology cannot account for the essential normative character of epistemology. Following an analysis of different ways in which this charge could be understood, it will be argued that either epistemology is not normative in the relevant sense, or if it is, then in a way which a naturalized epistemology can account for with an instrumental and hypothetical model of normativity. Naturalism is here captured by the two doctrines of empiricism and (...)
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  30. Lorenzo Peña, Cultural Relativism and Philosophy : North and Latin American Perspectives.score: 3.0
    Introductory Remarks Why Paradigm Variation is Ensuant upon Contradiction How Externalistic Warrant Parries the Threat of [Truth] Relativism Why Not to Ward Relativism off by Means of Foundationalistic Justification Defending a relativistic View of Warrant A Transcendental Argument against [Truth] Relativism Towards [Partial] convergence A Gradualistic Paraconsistent Way to Convergence 7.1. - Perspectivism and Non Copulative Paraconsistent Logics 7.2. - The Strength and Weakness of Two Copulative Approaches to Paraconsistent Logic 7.3. - The Logic of Contradictorial Gradualism 7.4. - (...)
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  31. David Lumsden (2005). How Can a Symbol System Come Into Being? Dialogue 44 (1):87-96.score: 3.0
    One holistic thesis about symbols is that a symbol cannot exist singly, but only as apart of a symbol system. There is also the plausible view that symbol systems emerge gradually in an individual, in a group, and in a species. The problem is that symbol holism makes it hard to see how a symbol system can emerge gradually, at least if we are considering the emergence of a first symbol system. The only way it seems possible is if being (...)
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  32. Davida E. Kellogg (1988). “And Then a Miracle Occurs” — Weak Links in the Chain of Argument From Punctuation to Hierarchy. Biology and Philosophy 3 (1):3-28.score: 3.0
    Weak links, in the form of inadequacies in both reasoning and supporting evidence, exist at several critical steps in the derivation of an hierarchical concept of evolution from punctuated equilibria. Punctuation itself is predicated on a distorted reading of phyletic change as phyletic gradualism, and of allopatric speciation as the instantaneous formation of unchanging typological taxa. The concept of punctuation is further confounded by the indescriminate employment of the same term to denote both a causal explanation for evolutionary change (...)
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  33. Benton M. Stidd (1985). Are Punctuationists Wrong About the Modern Synthesis? Philosophy of Science 52 (1):98-109.score: 3.0
    A common criticism of punctuated equilibria as an evolutionary theory is that it erects a straw man by characterizing the modern synthesis as being devoid of mechanisms that bring about rapid speciation and abrupt changes in morphology. Thompson supports this view and argues that the modern synthesis does not entail gradualism, all-pervasive adaptationism, or extrapolationism and that punctuationists have mischaracterized the theory on all these points; properly understood the synthetic theory is hierarchical and able to explain phenomena at all (...)
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  34. Mark E. Yellin (2000). Indirect Utility, Justice, and Equality in the Political Thought of David Hume. Critical Review 14 (4):375-389.score: 3.0
    Abstract Differing interpretations of the political thought of David Hume have tended to emphasize either conservative, gradualist elements similar to Burke or rationalist aspects similar to Hobbes. The concept of indirect utility as used by Hume reconciles these two approaches. Indirect utility is best illustrated by Hume's conception of justice, in contrast to his conception of benevolence, which yields direct benefits. This understanding of Hume's consequentialism also helps underscore certain egalitarian aspects of Hume's thought.
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  35. Arthur L. Caplan (1986). Exemplary Reasoning? A Comment on Theory Structure in Biomedicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 11 (1):93-105.score: 3.0
    The contributions that the philosophy of medicine can make to both the philosophy of science and the practice of science have been obscured in recent years by an overemphasis on personalities rather than critical themes. Two themes have dominated general discussion within contemporary philosophy of science: methodological essentialism and dynamic gradualism. These themes are defined and considered in light of Kenneth Schaffner's argument that theories in biomedicine have a structure and logic unlike that found in theories of the natural (...)
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  36. O. Collyns, G. Gillett & B. Darlow (2009). Overlap of Premature Birth and Permissible Abortion. Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (6):343-347.score: 3.0
    Abortion is permitted in many jurisdictions after the age at which an infant is viable on the basis of intensive neonatal care techniques. Does this cause special concerns for those involved in perinatal care and termination of pregnancy services or is the overlap mainly an abstract issue fretted over by ethicists and academics? In order to explore this question, a group of clinicians involved in this area of care were interviewed and their interviews analysed using qualitative measures. The clinicians concerned (...)
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  37. Johan Tavernier (2014). Morality and Nature: Evolutionary Challenges to Christian Ethics. Zygon 49 (1):171-189.score: 3.0
    Christian ethics accentuates in manifold ways the unique character of human nature. Personalists believe that the mind is never reducible to material and physical substance. The human person is presented as the supreme principle, based on arguments referring to free-willed actions, the immateriality of both the divine spirit and the reflexive capacity, intersubjectivity and self-consciousness. But since Darwin, evolutionary biology slowly instructs us that morality roots in dispositions that are programmed by evolution into our nature. Historically, Thomas Huxley, “Darwin's bulldog,” (...)
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  38. Stephen Hetherington (2005). Knowing (How It Is) That P: Degrees and Qualities of Knowledge. Veritas 50 (4).score: 3.0
    Pode o conhecimento de uma dada verdade admitir gradações? Sim, de fato, segundo o gradualismo deste artigo. O artigo introduz o conceito do saber-como que p – isto é, o conceito de saber como é que p. Saber-como que p é claramente gradual – admitindo gradações, dado que se pode saber mais ou menos como é que p. E a vinculação que este artigo faz entre sabercomo que p e saber que p revela que este último tipo de conhecimento também (...)
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  39. K. Ehrich, B. Farsides, C. Williams & R. Scott (2007). Testing the Embryo, Testing the Fetus. Clinical Ethics 2 (4):181-186.score: 3.0
    This paper stems from an ethnographic, multidisciplinary study that explored the views and experiences of practitioners and scientists on social, ethical and clinical dilemmas encountered when working in the area of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for serious genetic disorders. We focus here on staff perceptions and experiences of working with embryos and helping women/couples to make choices that will result in selecting embryos for transfer and disposal of 'affected' embryos, compared to the termination of affected pregnancies following prenatal diagnosis. Analysis and (...)
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  40. Sherrie L. Lyons (1993). Thomas Huxley: Fossils, Persistence, and the Argument From Design. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 26 (3):545 - 569.score: 3.0
    In struggling to free science from theological implications, Huxley let his own philosophical beliefs influence his interpretation of the data. However, he was certainly not unique in this respect. Like the creationists he despised, he made many important contributions to the issue of progression in the fossil record and its relationship to evolutionary theory. Certainly other factors were involved as well. Undoubtedly, just the sheer inertia of ideas played a role. He was committed to a theory of type and was (...)
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  41. Joshua M. Moritz (2014). Animal Suffering, Evolution, and the Origins of Evil: Toward a “Free Creatures” Defense. Zygon 49 (2):348-380.score: 3.0
    Does an affirmation of theistic evolution make the task of theodicy impossible? In this article, I will review a number of ancient and contemporary responses to the problem of evil as it concerns animal suffering and suggest a possible way forward which employs the ancient Jewish insight that evil—as resistance to God's will that results in suffering and alienation from God's purposes—precedes the arrival of human beings and already has a firm foothold in the nonhuman animal world long before humans (...)
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  42. Alan M. W. Porter (2013). Do Animals Have Souls? An Evolutionary Perspective. Heythrop Journal 54 (2):533-542.score: 3.0
    This paper addresses the question of whether animals have souls and the ability to experience God after death within the limitations of their nature. Plausible explanations for the natural origin of life and for the development of subsequent complexity are increasingly being advanced by molecular biologists. Christian tradition and scholasticism teach that the human body is animated by the soul which is the agent of vital activities. This teaching is incompatible with the claim for a natural origin for life. At (...)
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  43. Paul Thompson (1983). Tempo and Mode in Evolution: Punctuated Equilibria and the Modern Synthetic Theory. Philosophy of Science 50 (3):432 - 452.score: 3.0
    Several paleontologists have recently challenged the explanatory adequacy of the modern synthetic theory of evolution. Their position is that, contrary to the prevailing view that evolutionary change is gradual, the fossil record manifests long periods of species stasis (equilibrium) punctuated by periods of rapid species formation. And, they argue, this punctuated equilibria pattern challenges the gradualist, adaptationist and extrapolationist assumptions of the modern synthetic theory of evolution and supports a hierarchical, non-extrapolationist (non-reductionist) view of evolution. In this paper I argue (...)
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  44. Dario Martinelli (2004). The Musical Circle. Sign Systems Studies 32 (1-2):229-251.score: 3.0
    The purpose of the present article is to illustrate the crucial role played by the Umwelt theory in zoomusicological (and, more generally, zoosemiotic) studies. Too much, in fact too little, has been written on the relationship between non-human animals and music. Most of these writings do not explicitly aim at contributing to the actual problem (a good example being the reflections on birdsong contained in John Locke’s Essay Concerning Human Understanding). Some are, so to speak, a little folkloristic, quite a (...)
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  45. Koen Vermeir (2008). Imagination Between Physick and Philosophy. Intellectual History Review 18 (1):119-137.score: 3.0
    I argue that the imagination plays a central role in the thought of the Cambridge Platonist Henry More. First, physiological descriptions of melancholy and imagination were at the heart of his attack against enthusiasm and atheism. Second, in order to defend his metaphysical dualism, he had to respond to traditional accounts of the imagination as a mediating faculty between body and soul. Third, More also opposed the traditional view that the imagination was a material faculty, because in the context of (...)
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  46. William Calvin, No-Slides Bookstore Talk (October 2002).score: 3.0
    In particular, one of Gould's important contributions as a paleontologist was to convince us that there are long periods in evolution where species don't change very much, that Darwinian gradualism doesn't guarantee a steady course of improvements. And that there are periods -- not at all inconsistent with Darwinian gradualism -- when things progress considerably faster. I tuned right into what Steve was saying since both of my main interests in evolution, the evolution of the big brain in (...)
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  47. Jan Dejnožka (2006). Observational Ecumenism, Holist Sectarianism. Philo 9 (2):165-191.score: 3.0
    Do any significant philosophical differences between Quine and Carnap follow from Quine’s rejection of Carnap’s analytic-synthetic distinction? Not if they both understand empirical evidence in merely observational terms. But it follows from Quine’s rejection of the distinction that empirical evidence has degrees of holophrastic depth penetrating even into logic and ontology (gradualism). Thus his reasons to prefer realism to idealism are holophrastically empirical. I discuss Quine’s holist sectarian realism on private languages, externalism versus internalism, unobserved objects, unobservable abstract entities, (...)
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  48. Henri Waesberghe (1982). Towards an Alternative Evolution Model. Acta Biotheoretica 31 (1).score: 3.0
    . Lamarck and Darwin agreed on the inconstancy of species and on the exclusive gradualism of evolution (nature does not jump). Darwinism, revived as neo-Darwinism, was almost generally accepted from about 1930 till 1960. In the sixties the evolutionary importance of selection has been called in question by the neutralists. The traditional conception of the gene is disarranged by recent molecular-biological findings. Owing to the increasing confusion about the concept of genotype, this concept is reconsidered. The idea of (...)
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