Search results for 'Gravitation' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Greg Bamford (1996). Popper and His Commentators on the Discovery of Neptune: A Close Shave for the Law of Gravitation? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 27 (2):207-232.score: 24.0
    Knowledge of residual perturbations in Uranus's orbit led to Neptune's discovery in 1846 rather than the refutation of Newton's law of gravitation. Karl Popper asserts that this case is untypical of science and that the law was at least prima facie falsified. I argue that these assertions are the product of a false, a priori methodological position, 'Weak Popperian Falsificationism' (WPF), and that on the evidence the law was not, and was not considered, prima facie false. Many of Popper's (...)
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  2. Steffen Ducheyne (2009). Understanding (in) Newton's Argument for Universal Gravitation. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 40 (2):227 - 258.score: 24.0
    In this essay, I attempt to assess Henk de Regt and Dennis Dieks recent pragmatic and contextual account of scientific understanding on the basis of an important historical case-study: understanding in Newton’s theory of universal gravitation and Huygens’ reception of universal gravitation. It will be shown that de Regt and Dieks’ Criterion for the Intelligibility of a Theory (CIT), which stipulates that the appropriate combination of scientists’ skills and intelligibility-enhancing theoretical virtues is a condition for scientific understanding, is (...)
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  3. Steffen Ducheyne (2006). The Argument(s) for Universal Gravitation. Foundations of Science 11 (4):419-447.score: 24.0
    In this paper an analysis of Newton’s argument for universal gravitation is provided. In the past, the complexity of the argument has not been fully appreciated. Recent authors like George E. Smith and William L. Harper have done a far better job. Nevertheless, a thorough account of the argument is still lacking. Both authors seem to stress the importance of only one methodological component. Smith stresses the procedure of approximative deductions backed-up by the laws of motion. Harper stresses “systematic (...)
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  4. Charles Goethe Kuper & Asher Peres (eds.) (1971). Relativity and Gravitation. New York,Gordon and Breach Science Publishers.score: 24.0
  5. J. M. C. Montanus (2005). Flat Space Gravitation. Foundations of Physics 35 (9):1543-1562.score: 22.0
    A new description of gravitational motion will be proposed. It is part of the proper time formulation of physics as presented on the IARD 2000 conference. According to this formulation the proper time of an object is taken as its fourth coordinate. As a consequence, one obtains a circular space–time diagram where distances are measured with the Euclidean metric. The relativistic factor turns out to be of simple goniometric origin. It further follows that the Lagrangian for gravitational dynamics does not (...)
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  6. Arthur Stanley Eddington (1920/1966). Space, Time, and Gravitation: An Outline of the General Relativity Theory. Cambridge [Eng.]University Press.score: 21.0
    The aim of this book is to give an account of Einstein's work without introducing anything very technical in the way of mathematics, physics, or philosophy.
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  7. Arthur Stanley Eddington (1959). Space, Time, and Gravitation. New York, Harper.score: 21.0
  8. Peter Gabriel Bergmann (1969). The Riddle of Gravitation. London, J. Murray.score: 21.0
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  9. V. A. Fok (1964). The Theory of Space, Time and Gravitation. New York, Macmillan.score: 21.0
     
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  10. Tauno Mannila (1973). Planetary Gravitation and History. Distributor, Akateeminen Kirjaksuppa.score: 21.0
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  11. A. R. Marlow (ed.) (1980). Quantum Theory and Gravitation. Academic Press.score: 21.0
     
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  12. Steven Weinberg (1972). Gravitation and Cosmology: Principles and Applications of the General Theory of Relativity. New York,Wiley.score: 21.0
  13. Scott Tanona (2000). The Anticipation of Necessity: Kant on Kepler's Laws and Universal Gravitation. Philosophy of Science 67 (3):421-443.score: 18.0
    Kant's views on the epistemological status of physical science provide an important example of how a philosophical system can be applied to understand the foundation of scientific theories. Michael Friedman has made considerable progress towards elucidating Kant's philosophy of science; in particular, he has argued that Kant viewed Newton's law of universal gravitation as necessary for the possibility of experiencing what Kant called true motion, which is more than the mere relative motion of appearances but is different from Newton's (...)
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  14. J. P. Kobus (1974). Cosmological Implications of a New Law of Gravitation. Foundations of Physics 4 (1):53-64.score: 18.0
    Utilizing a geometric interpretation of gravitation within the framework of Einstein's general relativity, it is found that only expanding, spatially isotropic universes are allowed. The law of gravitation is taken in the formR 44=0 whereR 44 is the component of the contracted Riemann-Christoffel (Ricci) tensor representing the curvature of time. All that is required in addition toR 44=0 is that the Gaussian curvatureRbe nowhere infinite.
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  15. H.-H. V. Borzeszkowski & T. Chrobok (2003). Are There Thermodynamical Degrees of Freedom of Gravitation? Foundations of Physics 33 (3):529-539.score: 18.0
    In discussing fundamentals of general-relativistic irreversible continuum thermodynamics, this theory is shown to be characterized by the feature that no thermodynamical degrees of freedom are ascribed to gravitation. However, accepting that black hole thermodynamics seems to oppose this harmlessness of gravitation one is called on to consider other approaches. Therefore, in brief some gravitational and thermodynamical alternatives are reviewed.
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  16. J. Brian Pitts & W. C. Schieve (1999). On the Form of Parametrized Gravitation in Flat Spacetime. Foundations of Physics 29 (12):1977-1985.score: 18.0
    In a framework describing manifestly covariant relativistic evolution using a scalar time τ, consistency demands that τ-dependent fields be used. In recent work by the authors, general features of a classical parametrized theory of gravitation, paralleling general relativity where possible, were outlined. The existence of a preferred “time” coordinate τ changes the theory significantly. In particular, the Hamiltonian constraint for τ is removed From the Euler-Lagrange equations. Instead of the 5-dimensional stress-energy tensor, a tensor comprised of 4-momentum density mid (...)
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  17. A. Nairz (1996). A Class of Metric Theories of Gravitation on Minkowski Spacetime. Foundations of Physics 26 (3):369-389.score: 18.0
    A class of metric theories of gravitation on Minkowski spacetime is considered, which is—provided that certain assumptions (staying close to the original ideas of Einstein) are made—the almost most general one that can be considered. In addition to the Minkowskian metric G a dynamical metric H (called the Einstein metric)is defined by means of a second-rank tensor field S (referred to as gravitational potential).The theory is defined by a Lagrangian ℒ, from which the field equations as well as, e.g., (...)
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  18. Lawrence Sklar (1976). Inertia, Gravitation and Metaphysics. Philosophy of Science 43 (1):1-23.score: 18.0
    Several variant "Newtonian" theories of inertia and gravitation are described, and their scientific usefulness discussed. An examination of these theories is used to throw light on traditional epistemological and metaphysical questions about space and time. Finally these results are examined in the light of the changes induced by the transition from "Newtonian" to general relativistic spacetime.
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  19. D. Pandres Jr (1977). Gravitation and Electromagnetism. Foundations of Physics 7 (5-6):421-430.score: 18.0
    We obtain a general relativistic unification of gravitation and electromagnetism by simply(1) restricting the metric so that it admits an orthonormal tetrad representation in which the spacelike vectors are curl-free, and(2) identifying the timelike vector as the potential for an electromagnetic field whose only sources are singularities. It follows that: (A) The energy density is everywhere nonnegative, (B) the space is flat if and only if the electromagnetic field vanishes, (C) the vector potential (through which all curvature enters) admits (...)
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  20. Fritz Rohrlich (1989). The Logic of Reduction: The Case of Gravitation. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 19 (10):1151-1170.score: 18.0
    The reduction from Einstein's to Newton's gravitation theories (and intermediate steps) is used to exemplify reduction in physical theories. Both dimensionless and dimensional reduction are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are pointed out. It is concluded that neither a completely reductionist nor a completely antireductionist view can be maintained. Only the mathematical structure is strictly reducible. The interpretation (the model, the central concepts) of the superseded theory T′ can at best only partially be derived directly from (...)
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  21. Dennis Dieks (1987). Gravitation as a Universal Force. Synthese 73 (2):381 - 397.score: 18.0
    In his book Philosophie der Raum-Zeit-Lehre (1928) Reichenbach introduced the concept of universal force. Reichenbach's use of this concept was later severely criticized by Grünbaum. In this article it is argued that although Grünbaum's criticism is correct in an important respect, it misses part of Reichenbach's intentions. An attempt is made to clarify and defend Reichenbach's position, and to show that universal force is a useful notion in the physically important case of gravitation.
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  22. John W. Moffat (1984). Generalized Theory of Gravitation. Foundations of Physics 14 (12):1217-1252.score: 18.0
    The mathematical formulation of the nonsymmetric gravitation theory (NGT) as a geometrical structure is developed in a higher-dimensional space. The reduction of the geometrical scheme to a dynamical theory of gravitation in four-dimensional space-time is investigated and the basic physical laws of the theory are reviewed in detail.
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  23. Donald Greenspan (1974). Discrete Newtonian Gravitation and the Three-Body Problem. Foundations of Physics 4 (2):299-310.score: 18.0
    Newtonian gravitation is studied from a discrete point of view, in that the dynamical equation is an energy-conserving difference equation. Application is made to planetary-type, nondegenerate three-body problems and several computer examples of perturbed orbits are given.
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  24. G. Zet, C. Pasnicu & M. Agop (1991). Gravitation Theory in the spacetimeR×S 3. Foundations of Physics 21 (4):473-481.score: 18.0
    A geometric formulation of the gravitation theory in the spacetime R × S 3 is given. A linear connection is introduced on the tangent bundle T(R × S 3 ) and then the connection coefficients and the Riemann curvature tensor are calculated. It is shown that their expressions differ from those of Carmeli and Malin [Found. Phys.17, 407 (1987)] by supplementary terms due to the noncommutativity of derivatives used on the spacetime R × S 3 . The Einstein field (...)
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  25. M. Carmeli & S. Malin (1987). Field Theory onR×S 3 Topology. VI: Gravitation. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 17 (4):407-417.score: 18.0
    We extend to curved space-time the field theory on R×S3 topology in which field equations were obtained for scalar particles, spin one-half particles, the electromagnetic field of magnetic moments, an SU2 gauge theory, and a Schrödinger-type equation, as compared to ordinary field equations that are formulated on a Minkowskian metric. The theory obtained is an angular-momentum representation of gravitation. Gravitational field equations are presented and compared to the Einstein field equations, and the mathematical and physical similarity and differences between (...)
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  26. Jon Pérez Laraudogoitia (2001). Indeterminism, Classical Gravitation and Non-Collision Singularities. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 15 (3):269 – 274.score: 18.0
    Until the present, the Newtonian theory of gravitation has only been studied in any detail through the usual, presupposed ontology of point particles. This paper shows that changing our ontology into one which makes use of continuous bodies (non-point particles) allows us to obtain in a simple way two important results relevant to the theory: (a) The Newtonian theory of gravitation is indeterministic in a way apparently unparalleled when non-point particle models of it are used. (b) In the (...)
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  27. John D. Norton (2007). Einstein, Nordstrom, and the Early Demise of Scalar, Lorentz Covariant Theories of Gravitation. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 250 (3).score: 18.0
    The advent of the special theory of relativity in 1905 brought many problems for the physics community. One, it seemed, would not be a great source of trouble. It was the problem of reconciling Newtonian gravitation theory with the new theory of space and time. Indeed it seemed that Newtonian theory could be rendered compatible with special relativity by any number of small modifications, each of which would be unlikely to lead to any significant deviations from the empirically (...)
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  28. Steffen Ducheyne, Testing Universal Gravitation in the Laboratory, or the Significance of Research on the Mean Density of the Earth and Big G, 1798-1898: Changing Pursuits and Long-Term Methodological-Experimental Continuity. [REVIEW]score: 18.0
    This paper seeks to provide a historically well-informed analysis of an important post-Newtonian area of research in experimental physics between 1798 and 1898, namely the determination of the mean density of the earth and, by the end of the nineteenth century, the gravitational constant. Traditionally, research on these matters is seen as a case of ‘puzzle solving.’ In this paper, I show that such focus does not do justice to the evidential significance of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century experimental research on the (...)
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  29. N. Ben-Amots (2007). Relativistic Exponential Gravitation and Exponential Potential of Electric Charge. Foundations of Physics 37 (4-5):773-787.score: 18.0
    We present theories of gravitation and electric potentials with exponential dependence on the reciprocal distance. In the context of this kind of electric potential we investigate the dynamics of a relativistic electron interacting with a proton.
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  30. Thibault Damour (1984). Strong-Field Effects and Time Asymmetry in General Relativity and in Bimetric Gravitation Theory. Foundations of Physics 14 (10):987-995.score: 18.0
    The concepts underlying our present theoretical understanding of the radiative two-condensed-body problem in general relativity and in bimetric gravitation theory are critically reviewed. The relevance of the 1935 Einstein-Rosen “bridge” article is emphasized. The possibility (first suggested by N. Rosen, for the linearized approximation) of extending to gravity the Wheeler-Feynman time-symmetric approach is questioned.
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  31. A. A. Logunov & M. A. Mestvirishvili (1986). Relativistic Theory of Gravitation. Foundations of Physics 16 (1):1-26.score: 18.0
    In the present paper a relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) is unambiguously constructed on the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle. In this a gravitational field is treated as the Faraday-Maxwell spin-2 and spin-0 physical field possessing energy and momentum. The source of a gravitational field is the total conserved energy-momentum tensor of matter and of a gravitational field in Minkowski space. In the RTG the conservation laws are strictly filfilled for the energy-momentum and for the angular (...)
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  32. Mark Israelit & Nathan Rosen (1983). A Gauge-Covariant Bimetric Theory of Gravitation and Electromagnetism. Foundations of Physics 13 (10):1023-1045.score: 18.0
    The Weyl theory of gravitation and electromagnetism, as modified by Dirac, contains a gauge-covariant scalar β which has no geometric significance. This is a flaw if one is looking for a geometric description of gravitation and electromagnetism. A bimetric formalism is therefore introduced which enables one to replace β by a geometric quantity. The formalism can be simplified by the use of a gauge-invariant physical metric. The resulting theory agrees with the general relativity for phenomena in the solar (...)
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  33. J. P. Kobus (1973). A Strictly Geometric Interpretation of Gravitation in General Relativity. Foundations of Physics 3 (1):45-51.score: 18.0
    A geometric interpretation of gravitation is given using general relativity. The law of gravitation is taken in the formR 44=0, whereR 44is the component of the contracted Riemann-Christoffel (Ricci) tensor representing the curvature of time. The remaining curvature components of the contracted Riemann-Christoffel tensor may or may not vanish. All that is required in addition toR 44=0 is that the Gaussian curvatureR be nowhere infinite. The conditionR 44=0 yields a nonlinear wave equation. One of the static degenerate solutions (...)
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  34. Hans-Jürgen Treder (1976). Gravitation and Universal Fermi Coupling in General Relativity. Foundations of Physics 6 (5):527-538.score: 18.0
    The generally covariant Lagrangian densityG = ℛ + 2K ℒmatter of the Hamiltonian principle in general relativity, formulated by Einstein and Hilbert, can be interpreted as a functional of the potentialsg ikand φ of the gravitational and matter fields. In this general relativistic interpretation, the Riemann-Christoffel form Γ kl i = kl i for the coefficients г kl i of the affine connections is postulated a priori. Alternatively, we can interpret the LagrangianG as a functional of φ, gik, and the (...)
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  35. P. F. Browne (1977). Complementary Aspects of Gravitation and Electromagnetism. Foundations of Physics 7 (3-4):165-183.score: 18.0
    A convention with regard to geometry, accepting nonholonomic aether motion and coordinate-dependent units, is always valid as an alternative to Einstein's convention. Choosing flat spacetime, Newtonian gravitation is extended, step by step, until equations closely analogous to those of Einstein's theory are obtained. The first step, demanded by considerations of inertia, is the introduction of a vector potential. Treating the electromagnetic and gravitational fields as real and imaginary components of a complex field (gravitational mass being treated as imaginary charge), (...)
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  36. W. Drechsler (1992). Quantized Fiber Dynamics for Extended Elementary Objects Involving Gravitation. Foundations of Physics 22 (8):1041-1077.score: 18.0
    The geometro-stochastic quantization of a gauge theory for extended objects based on the (4, 1)-de Sitter group is used for the description of quantized matter in interaction with gravitation. In this context a Hilbert bundle ℋ over curved space-time B is introduced, possessing the standard fiber ℋ $_{\bar \eta }^{(\rho )} $ , being a resolution kernel Hilbert space (with resolution generator $\tilde \eta $ and generalized coherent state basis) carrying a spin-zero phase space representation of G=SO(4, 1) belonging (...)
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  37. Mark Israelit (1989). A Gauge-Covariant Bimetric Tetrad Theory of Gravitation and Electromagnetism. Foundations of Physics 19 (1):33-55.score: 18.0
    In order to get to a geometrically based theory of gravitation and electromagnetism, a gauge covariant bimetric tetrad space-time is introduced. The Weylian connection vector is derived from the tetrads and it is identified with the electromagnetic potential vector. The formalism is simplified by the use of gauge-invariant quantities. The theory contains a contorsion tensor that is connected with spinning properties of matter. The electromagnetic field may be induced by conventional sources and by spinning matter. In absence of spinning (...)
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  38. Arthur Komar (1980). Concerning Canonical Quantization or Gravitation Tiieory. In A. R. Marlow (ed.), Quantum Theory and Gravitation. Academic Press. 127.score: 18.0
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  39. J. P. Laraudogoitia (2003). An Infinite System with Gravitation. Synthese 135 (3):339 - 346.score: 16.0
    The paper shows a new example of nonuniqueness of the solutionto Newtonian equations of motion for infinite gravitational systems. Unlike otherexamples, the gravitational field presents no singularity, nor are the non-gravitational forcesintroduced in the model singular (in particular, there are no collisions). The result is also ofinterest because it points to an interesting limitation of the elementary (Newtonian) formulationof classical mechanics.
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  40. M. W. Evans (1996). Unification of Gravitation and Electromagnetism with B(3). Foundations of Physics 26 (9):1243-1261.score: 16.0
    The experimentally supported existence of the Evans Vigier field.B (3),in vacuo implies that the gravitational and electromagnetic fields can be unified within the same Ricci tensor, being respectively its symmetric and antisymmetric components in vacuo. The fundamental equations of motion of vacuum electromagnetism are developed in this framework.
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  41. Jerzy Rayski (1971). Limitations of the Concept of Free Fields in Einstein's Theory of Gravitation. Foundations of Physics 1 (3):203-209.score: 16.0
    It is shown explicitly that the linearized theory does not constitute any approximation to the exact solutions in the case of free fields. The only regular solution satisfying, as boundary condition, the requirement of a sufficiently rapid decrease at infinity is a flat space. The problem of conservation laws is discussed anew. The continuity equation satisfied by Einstein's pseudotensor does not guarantee the existence of global conservation laws. Solutions violating the energy conservation are interpretable as representing gravitational radiation absorbed or (...)
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  42. Waldyr A. Rodrigues Jr, Quintino A. G. De Souza & Yuri Bozhkov (1995). The Mathematical Structure of Newtonian Spacetime: Classical Dynamics and Gravitation. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 25 (6):871-924.score: 16.0
    We give a precise and modern mathematical characterization of the Newtonian spacetime structure (ℕ). Our formulation clarifies the concepts of absolute space, Newton's relative spaces, and absolute time. The concept of reference frames (which are “timelike” vector fields on ℕ) plays a fundamental role in our approach, and the classification of all possible reference frames on ℕ is investigated in detail. We succeed in identifying a Lorentzian structure on ℕ and we study the classical electrodynamics of Maxwell and Lorentz relative (...)
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  43. L. M. Stephenson (1976). A Dynamical Model for Gravitation. Foundations of Physics 6 (2):143-155.score: 16.0
    A gravitational model is proposed that relates the terrestrially measured value of the gravitational constantG directly to the density and angular velocity of the galaxy. The model indicates a constant scalar value forG within most regions of our galaxy, but predicts thatG will be different in other galaxies and zero in intergalactic space. The model offers explanations for galactic cluster stability, discrepancies in terrestrial measurements ofG, and atomic particle stability. The model also provides a causal relationship between strong, electromagnetic, weak, (...)
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  44. Richard Schlegel (1982). Gravitation and Mass Decrease. Foundations of Physics 12 (8):781-795.score: 16.0
    Consequences in physical theory of assuming the general relativistic time transformation for the de Broglie frequencies of matter, v = E/h = mc2/h, are investigated in this paper. Experimentally it is known that electromagnetic waves from a source in a gravitational field are decreased in frequency, in accordance with the Einstein general relativity time transformation. An extension to de Broglie frequencies implies mass decrease in a gravitational field. Such a decrease gives an otherwise missing energy conservation for some processes; also, (...)
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  45. C. Lanczos (1975). Gravitation and Riemannian Space. Foundations of Physics 5 (1):9-18.score: 16.0
    The field equations of the quadratic action principle of relativity are solved, assuming a weak perturbation of the basic structure, which is a highly agitated Riemannian lattice field of a very small lattice constant. A field emerges which can be interpreted as the weak gravitational field of an apparently Minkowskian space. This field does not coincide with Einstein's theory of weak gravitational fields. Whereas the redshift remains unchanged, the light deflection becomes reduced by11.1% of the value predicted by Einstein.
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  46. H. F. M. Goenner (1984). Theories of Gravitation with Nonminimal Coupling of Matter and the Gravitational Field. Foundations of Physics 14 (9):865-881.score: 16.0
    The foundations of a theory of nonminimal coupling of matter and the gravitational field in the framework of Riemannian (or Riemann-Cartan) geometry are presented. In the absence of matter, the Einstein vacuum field equations hold. In order to allow for a Newtonian limit, the theory contains a new parameter l0 of dimension length. For systems with finite total mass, l0 is set equal to the Schwarzschild radius.
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  47. Richard Schlegel (1976). Interaction, Not Gravitation. Foundations of Physics 6 (4):435-438.score: 16.0
    Cannon and Jensen assert that data from different national time laboratories give a test of the interaction interpretation of special relativity theory. That interpretation is to be applied, however, to clocks in relative uniform motion, and therefore is not tested by the time-rate effects associated with different terrestrial locations of clocks. Those effects are described by the general theory of relativity, and arise with differences in gravitational potential and state of circular motion of the clocks. An argument by the authors (...)
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  48. Jacob D. Bekenstein (1986). Gravitation and Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking. Foundations of Physics 16 (5):409-422.score: 16.0
    It is pointed out that the Higgs field may be supplanted by an ordinary Klein-Gordon field conformally coupled to the space-time curvature, and with very small, real, rest mass. Provided there is a bare cosmological constant of order of its square mass, this field can induce spontaneous symmetry breaking with a mass scale that can be as large as the Planck-Wheeler mass, but may be smaller. It can thus play a natural role in grand unified theories. In the theory presented (...)
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  49. K. A. Brading & T. A. Ryckman (2008). Hilbert's 'Foundations of Physics': Gravitation and Electromagnetism Within the Axiomatic Method. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 39 (1):102-153.score: 15.0
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  50. David B. Malament (2012). Topics in the Foundations of General Relativity and Newtonian Gravitation Theory. Chicago.score: 15.0
    1.1 Manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Tangent Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (...)
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