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Profile: Greg Bognar (La Trobe University)
  1. Greg Bognar (2014). Fair Innings. Bioethics 28 (8).
    In many societies, the aging of the population is becoming a major problem. This raises difficult issues for ethics and public policy. On what is known as the fair innings view, it is not impermissible to give lower priority to policies that primarily benefit the elderly. Philosophers have tried to justify this view on various grounds. In this article, I look at a consequentialist, a fairness-based, and a contractarian justification. I argue that all of them have implausible implications and fail (...)
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  2. Greg Bognar & Iwao Hirose (2014). The Ethics of Health Care Rationing: An Introduction. Routledge.
    Should organ transplants be given to patients who have waited the longest, or need it most urgently, or those whose survival prospects are the best? The rationing of health care is universal and inevitable, taking place in poor and affluent countries, in publicly funded and private health care systems. Someone must budget for as well as dispense health care whilst aging populations severely stretch the availability of resources. The Ethics of Health Care Rationing is a clear and much-needed introduction to (...)
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  3. Greg Bognar (2012). Empirical and Armchair Ethics. Utilitas 24 (04):467-482.
    In a recent paper, Michael Otsuka and Alex Voorhoeve present a novel argument against prioritarianism. The argument takes its starting point from empirical surveys on people's preferences in health care resource allocation problems. In this article, I first question whether the empirical findings support their argument, and then I make some general points about the use of ‘empirical ethics’ in ethical theory.
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  4. Greg Bognar (2012). When Philosophers Shoot Themselves in the Leg. Ethics, Policy and Environment 15 (2):222 - 224.
    Ethics, Policy & Environment, Volume 15, Issue 2, Page 222-224, June 2012.
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  5. Greg Bognar (2011). Can the Maximin Principle Serve as a Basis for Climate Change Policy? The Monist 94 (3):329-348.
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  6. Greg Bognar (2011). Health Governance Utopia. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (7):46 - 47.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 7, Page 46-47, July 2011.
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  7. Greg Bognar (2011). Impartiality and Disability Discrimination. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 21 (1):1-23.
    Cost-effectiveness analysis is the standard analytical tool for evaluating the aggregate health benefits of treatments, interventions, or health programs. It works by comparing the ratio of costs and benefits of different alternatives. The lower the ratio, the more effective the treatment, intervention, or program. The use of cost-effectiveness analysis can ensure that scarce health care resources are allocated in a way that maximizes the satisfaction of health needs. According to a common objection, however, the use of cost-effectiveness analysis for setting (...)
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  8. Greg Bognar (2011). Respect for Nature. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (2):147 - 149.
    Ethics, Policy & Environment, Volume 14, Issue 2, Page 147-149, June 2011.
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  9. Greg Bognar (2010). Authentic Happiness. Utilitas 22 (3):272-284.
    This article discusses L. W. Sumner's theory of well-being as authentic happiness. I distinguish between extreme and moderate versions of subjectivism and argue that Sumner's characterization of the conditions of authenticity leads him to an extreme subjective theory. More generally, I also criticize Sumner's argument for the subjectivity of welfare. I conclude by addressing some of the implications of my arguments for theories of well-being in philosophy and welfare measurement in the social sciences.
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  10. Greg Bognar (2010). Does Cost Effectiveness Analysis Unfairly Discriminate Against People with Disabilities? Journal of Applied Philosophy 27 (4):394-408.
    Cost effectiveness analysis is a tool for evaluating the aggregate benefits of medical treatments, health care services, and public health programs. Its opponents often claim that its use leads to unfair discrimination against people with disabilities. My aim in this paper is to clarify the conditions under which this might be so. I present some ways in which the use of cost effectiveness analysis can lead to discrimination and suggest why these forms of discrimination may be unfair. I also discuss (...)
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  11. Samuel J. Kerstein & Greg Bognar (2010). Complete Lives in the Balance. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (4):37 – 45.
    The allocation of scarce health care resources such as flu treatment or organs for transplant presents stark problems of distributive justice. Persad, Wertheimer, and Emanuel have recently proposed a novel system for such allocation. Their “complete lives system” incorporates several principles, including ones that prescribe saving the most lives, preserving the most life-years, and giving priority to persons between 15 and 40 years old. This paper argues that the system lacks adequate moral foundations. Persad and colleagues' defense of giving priority (...)
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  12. Samuel J. Kerstein & Greg Bognar (2010). Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Complete Lives in the Balance”. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (4):W3 – W5.
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  13. Greg Bognar (2008). Age-Weighting. Economics and Philosophy 24 (2):167-189.
    Some empirical findings seem to show that people value health benefits differently depending on the age of the beneficiary. Health economists and philosophers have offered justifications for these preferences on grounds of both efficiency and equity. In this paper, I examine the most prominent examples of both sorts of justification: the defence of age-weighting in the WHO's global burden of disease studies and the fair innings argument. I argue that neither sort of justification has been worked out in satisfactory form: (...)
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  14. Greg Bognar (2008). Well-Being and Health. Health Care Analysis 16 (2):97-113.
    One way of evaluating health is in terms of its impact on well-being. It has been shown, however, that evaluating health this way runs into difficulties, since health and other aspects of well-being are not separable. At the same time, the practical implications of the inseparability problem remain unclear. This paper assesses these implications by considering the relations between theories, components, and indicators of well-being.
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  15. Greg Bognar (2005). The Concept of Quality of Life. Social Theory and Practice 31 (4):561-580.
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