Search results for 'Group decision-making' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Benjamin S. Wilfond, Paul Steven Miller, Carolyn Korfiatis, Douglas S. Diekema, Denise M. Dudzinski, Sara Goering & The Seattle Growth Attenuation and Ethics Working Group (forthcoming). Navigating Growth Attenuation in Children with Profound Disabilities: Children's Interests, Family Decision-Making, and Community Concerns. Hastings Center Report 40 (6):27-40.score: 1350.0
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  2. Decision Making (2012). S Hared Decision Making is Widely Accepted as an Ethical Imperative1–5 and as an Important Part of Reasoned Clinical Practice. 6 Major Texts in Decision Analysis, 7 Medical Ethics, 8 and Evidence-Based Medicine9 All Encourage Physicians to Include Patients in the Decision-Making Process. [REVIEW] In Stephen Holland (ed.), Arguing About Bioethics. Routledge. 346.score: 1080.0
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  3. Measuring Decision Making (2002). Emotion, Decision Making, and the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex. In Donald T. Stuss & Robert T. Knight (eds.), Principles of Frontal Lobe Function. Oxford University Press.score: 1080.0
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  4. Juliane E. Kämmer, Wolfgang Gaissmaier, Torsten Reimer & Carsten C. Schermuly (2014). The Adaptive Use of Recognition in Group Decision Making. Cognitive Science 38 (2):911-942.score: 540.0
    Applying the framework of ecological rationality, the authors studied the adaptivity of group decision making. In detail, they investigated whether groups apply decision strategies conditional on their composition in terms of task-relevant features. The authors focused on the recognition heuristic, so the task-relevant features were the validity of the group members' recognition and knowledge, which influenced the potential performance of group strategies. Forty-three three-member groups performed an inference task in which they had to infer which of two (...)
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  5. James J. Cappel & John C. Windsor (2000). Ethical Decision Making: A Comparison of Computer- Supported and Face-to-Face Group. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 28 (2):95 - 107.score: 522.0
    This study compares computer-supported groups, i.e., groups using group support systems (GSS), and face-to-face groups using ethical decision-making tasks. A laboratory experiment was conducted using five-person groups of information systems professionals. Face-to-face (FTF) and GSS groups were compared in terms of their decision outcomes and group members' reactions. The results revealed that computer-supported and face-to-face groups showed no significant difference in terms of the decision outcomes of choice shift and decision polarity. However, FTF groups reached their decisions (...)
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  6. P. Korhonen & J. Wallenius (1990). Supporting Individuals in Group Decision-Making. Theory and Decision 28 (3):313-329.score: 459.0
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  7. Bojana Radovanovic (2012). Individual Decision Making, Group Decision Making and Deliberation. Filozofija I Drustvo 23 (2):147-167.score: 450.0
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  8. Hiroki Sayama, Dene L. Farrell & Shelley D. Dionne (2011). The Effects of Mental Model Formation on Group Decision Making: An Agent-Based Simulation. Complexity 16 (3):49-57.score: 450.0
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  9. Erica K. Rangel (2009). Clinical Ethics and the Dynamics of Group Decision-Making: Applying the Psychological Data to Decisions Made by Ethics Committees. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 21 (2):207-228.score: 360.0
    Clinical Ethics and the Dynamics of Group Decision-Making: Applying the Psychological Data to Decisions Made by Ethics Committees Content Type Journal Article Pages 207-228 DOI 10.1007/s10730-009-9096-7 Authors Erica K. Rangel, Saint Louis University Department of Health Care Ethics 6333 North Rosebury Ave #3W St. Louis MO 63105 USA Journal HEC Forum Online ISSN 1572-8498 Print ISSN 0956-2737 Journal Volume Volume 21 Journal Issue Volume 21, Number 2.
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  10. Paul Thagard & Fred W. Kroon (2006). Emotional Consensus in Group Decision Making. Mind and Society 5 (1):85-104.score: 360.0
    This paper presents a theory and computational model of the role of emotions in group decision making. After reviewing the role of emotions in individual decision making, it describes social and psychological mechanisms by which emotional and other information is transmitted between individuals. The processes by which these mechanisms can contribute to group consensus are modeled computationally using a program, HOTCO 3, which has been used to simulate simple cases of emotion-based group decision making.
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  11. Crystal L. Hoyt & Terry L. Price (forthcoming). Ethical Decision Making and Leadership: Merging Social Role and Self-Construal Perspectives. Journal of Business Ethics.score: 300.0
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  12. Peter C. Gøtzsche (2007). Rational Diagnosis and Treatment: Evidence-Based Clinical Decision-Making. J. Wiley.score: 297.0
    Now in its fourth edition, Rational Diagnosis and Treatment: Evidence-Based Clinical Decision-Making is a unique book to look at evidence-based medicine and the difficulty of applying evidence from group studies to individual patients._ The book analyses the successive stages of the decision process and deals with topics such as the examination of the patient,_the reliability of clinical data, the logic of diagnosis, the fallacies of uncontrolled therapeutic experience and the need for randomised clinical trials and meta-analyses. It is (...)
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  13. Diego Gracia (2003). Ethical Case Deliberation and Decision Making. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 6 (3):227-233.score: 297.0
    During the last thirty years different methods have been proposed in order to manage and resolve ethical quandaries, specially in the clinical setting. Some of these methodologies are based on the principles of Decision-making theory. Others looked to other philosophical traditions, like Principlism, Hermeneutics, Narrativism, Casuistry, Pragmatism, etc. This paper defends the view that deliberation is the cornerstone of any adequate methodology. This is due to the fact that moral decisions must take into account not only principles and ideas, (...)
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  14. Alan G. Sanfey (2009). Expectations and Social Decision-Making: Biasing Effects of Prior Knowledge on Ultimatum Responses. [REVIEW] Mind and Society 8 (1):93-107.score: 297.0
    Psychological studies have long demonstrated effects of expectations on judgment, whereby the provision of information, either implicitly or explicitly, prior to an experience or decision can exert a substantial influence on the observed behavior. This study extended these expectation effects to the domain of interactive economic decision-making. Prior to playing a commonly-used bargaining task, the Ultimatum Game, participants were primed to expect offers that would be either relatively fair (a roughly equal split of an endowed amount) or unfair (an (...)
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  15. Chris Provis (2010). Virtuous Decision Making for Business Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 91 (1):3 - 16.score: 297.0
    In recent years, increasing attention has been given to virtue ethics in business. Aristotle's thought is often seen as the basis of the virtue ethics tradition. For Aristotle, the idea of phronësis, or 'practical wisdom', lies at the foundation of ethics. Confucian ethics has notable similarities to Aristotelian virtue ethics, and may embody some similar ideas of practical wisdom. This article considers how ideas of moral judgment in these traditions are consistent with modern ideas about intuition in management decision making. (...)
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  16. Heidi Albisser Schleger, Nicole R. Oehninger & Stella Reiter-Theil (2011). Avoiding Bias in Medical Ethical Decision-Making. Lessons to Be Learnt From Psychology Research. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (2):155-162.score: 297.0
    When ethical decisions have to be taken in critical, complex medical situations, they often involve decisions that set the course for or against life-sustaining treatments. Therefore the decisions have far-reaching consequences for the patients, their relatives, and often for the clinical staff. Although the rich psychology literature provides evidence that reasoning may be affected by undesired influences that may undermine the quality of the decision outcome, not much attention has been given to this phenomenon in health care or ethics consultation. (...)
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  17. Torsten Reimer & Ulrich Hoffrage (2006). The Ecological Rationality of Simple Group Heuristics: Effects of Group Member Strategies on Decision Accuracy. Theory and Decision 60 (4):403-438.score: 297.0
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  18. F. Torralba & C. Palazzi (2010). Decision-Making in Organisations, According to the Aristotelian Model. Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics 1 (1):109.score: 297.0
    One field in ethics that has been developed during recent decades is virtue ethics, represented most importantly by Alasdair MacIntyre's work After Virtue. Virtue ethics is not opposed to principle-based ethics, but rather complements its task and develops it more fully. In the field of US bioethics, this option has proved to be even more fruitful, especially in the work of Edmund Pellegrino and David Thomasma. Virtue ethics is also being reappraised in relation to the ethics of organisations and business. (...)
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  19. Klemens Keldenich & Marcus Klemm (forthcoming). Double or Nothing?! Small Groups Making Decisions Under Risk in “Quiz Taxi”. Theory and Decision:1-32.score: 279.0
    This paper investigates the behavior of contestants in the game show “Quiz Taxi” when faced with the decision whether to bet the winnings they have acquired on a final “double or nothing” question. The decision in this natural experiment is made by groups of two or three persons. This setup enables the decision-making process to be studied with regard to group and communication characteristics. The contestants show fairly risk averse behavior. There is also a significant heterogeneity in attitude (...)
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  20. Jean Laine, Michel Le Breton & Alain Trannoy (1986). Group Decision Making Under Uncertainty a Note on the Aggregation of “Ordinal Probabilities”. Theory and Decision 21 (2):155-161.score: 279.0
    This paper is a first attempt to study the problem of aggregation of individual ordinal probabilistic beliefs in an Arrowian framework. We exhibit some properties an aggregation rule must fulfil; in particular we prove the existence of a “quasi-dictator”.
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  21. Adrian Coyle, Maria Knapp & Edmond O'Dea (1996). Decision Making in HIV Testing Among a Group with Low HIV Risk. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2 (3):223-230.score: 279.0
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  22. Jean Laine, Michel Breton & Alain Trannoy (1986). Group Decision Making Under Uncertainty a Note on the Aggregation of ?Ordinal Probabilities? Theory and Decision 21 (2):155-161.score: 279.0
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  23. Amira Galin (2013). Endowment Effect in Negotiations: Group Versus Individual Decision-Making. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 75 (3):389-401.score: 276.0
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  24. J. D. Trout (2013). Democracy and Scientific Expertise: Illusions of Political and Epistemic Inclusion. Synthese 190 (7):1267-1291.score: 270.0
    Realizing the ideal of democracy requires political inclusion for citizens. A legitimate democracy must give citizens the opportunity to express their attitudes about the relative attractions of different policies, and access to political mechanisms through which they can be counted and heard. Actual governance often aims not at accurate belief, but at nonepistemic factors like achieving and maintaining institutional stability, creating the feeling of government legitimacy among citizens, or managing access to influence on policy decision-making. I examine the traditional (...)
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  25. Carl Wagner (1978). Consensus Through Respect: A Model of Rational Group Decision-Making. Philosophical Studies 34 (4):335 - 349.score: 270.0
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  26. Torsten Reimer & Konstantinos V. Katsikopoulos (2004). The Use of Recognition in Group Decision‐Making. Cognitive Science 28 (6):1009-1029.score: 270.0
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  27. Luc Bovens & Wlodek Rabinowicz, A Dutch Book for Group Decision-Making?score: 270.0
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  28. M. Hogg (2001). Social Psychology of Group Decision Making. In N. J. Smelser & B. Baltes (eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. 9--6403.score: 270.0
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  29. J. Sniezek (2001). Cognitive Psychology of Group Decision Making. In N. J. Smelser & B. Baltes (eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. 9--6399.score: 270.0
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  30. Rd Sorkin, Dj Hilton & B. Wallace (1993). Group Decision-Making-Analysis of the Ideal Group (Vol 30, Pg 484, 1992). Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 31 (1):85-85.score: 270.0
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  31. Tom Koch & Mary Rowell (1999). The Dream of Consensus: Finding Common Ground in a Bioethical Context. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 20 (3):261-273.score: 267.0
    Consensus is the holy grail of bioethics, the lynch pin of the assumption that well informed, well intentioned people may reach generally acceptable positions on ethically contentious issues. It has been especially important in bioethics, where advancing technology has assured an increasing field of complex medical dilemmas. This paper results on the use of a multicriterion decision making system (MCDM) analyzing group process in an attempt to better define hospital policy. In a pilot program at The Hospital for Sick (...)
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  32. Michael J. Miller, Jeroan J. Allison, Daniel J. Cobaugh, Midge N. Ray & Kenneth G. Saag (forthcoming). A Group-Randomized Trial of Shared Decision Making for Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Risk Awareness: Primary Results and Lessons Learned. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice:n/a-n/a.score: 261.0
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  33. Kevin D. Clark, Narda R. Quigley & Stephen A. Stumpf (2013). The Influence of Decision Frames and Vision Priming on Decision Outcomes in Work Groups: Motivating Stakeholder Considerations. Journal of Business Ethics:1-12.score: 255.0
    Organizational leaders are increasingly emphasizing a stakeholder perspective in order to address concerns about business ethics. This study examined the choices of 94 groups in the context of a business decision-making simulation to determine how specific actions and communications can facilitate the consideration of different stakeholder perspectives. In particular, we examined whether generally framing the business situation as one involving diverse stakeholders versus a primarily profit-driven operation (referred to as framing), and whether specific suggestions that participants consider the concerns (...)
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  34. John W. Sutherland (2000). Extending the Reach of Collective Decision Support Systems: Provisions for Disciplining Judgment-Driven Exercises. Theory and Decision 48 (1):1-46.score: 252.0
    The focus here is on analytical and instrumental requirements for those collective decision exercises that lend themselves to a judgment-driven resolution. These have not as yet received much concerted technical attention from either of the two main movements in the field. They remain somewhere beyond the purview of the objectively-predicated instruments that mainstream GDSS (Group Decision Support System) designs tend to favour. Yet neither are they so inherently ill-structured as the situations with which the GDNSS (Group Decision and (...)
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  35. Jeffrey Cohen, Gil B. Manzon Jr & Valentina L. Zamora (2013). Contextual and Individual Dimensions of Taxpayer Decision Making. Journal of Business Ethics:1-17.score: 243.0
    We examine whether a taxpayer’s decision to choose a taxpayer-favorable (vs. a taxpayer-unfavorable) characterization of income is associated with contextual and individual dimensions of that decision. Using a 2 × 2 factorial experimental design, we manipulate the prevailing social norm on whether there is a general belief that a specific form of income should be characterized as a capital gain (taxed at a lower tax rate and hence taxpayer favorable) or as ordinary income (taxed at a higher tax rate and (...)
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  36. David Sloan Wilson, John J. Timmel & Ralph R. Miller (2004). Cognitive Cooperation. Human Nature 15 (3):225-250.score: 237.0
    Cooperation can evolve in the context of cognitive activities such as perception, attention, memory, and decision making, in addition to physical activities such as hunting, gathering, warfare, and childcare. The social insects are well known to cooperate on both physical and cognitive tasks, but the idea of cognitive cooperation in humans has not received widespread attention or systematic study. The traditional psychological literature often gives the impression that groups are dysfunctional cognitive units, while evolutionary psychologists have so far studied cognition (...)
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  37. Myriam Lewkowicz & Manuel Zacklad (2001). Rationalisation of Decision-Making Processes in Design Teams with a New Formalism of Design Rationale. AI and Society 15 (4):396-408.score: 231.0
    More and more frequently, the organisation of design fits into a project organisation where different designers have to cooperate with flexibility and reactivity. In order to help these cooperative design processes, we have to respond to new types of needs: a relatively unformalised coordination that requires permanent mutual adjustment, the fact that members of the team are geographically distant, the difficulty of building a shared reference via design documents and technical and organisational decisions that structure the project. In order to (...)
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  38. J. Fritsch, S. Petronio, P. R. Helft & A. M. Torke (2012). Making Decisions for Hospitalized Older Adults: Ethical Factors Considered by Family Surrogates. Journal of Clinical Ethics 24 (2):125-134.score: 228.0
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  39. Jordi Honey-Rosés, Marc Le Menestrel, Daniel Arenas, Felix Rauschmayer & Julian Rode (2013). Enriching Intergenerational Decision-Making with Guided Visualization Exercises. Journal of Business Ethics:1-6.score: 228.0
    Seriously engaging with the needs, hardships, and aspirations of future generations is an emotional experience as much as an intellectual endeavor. In this essay we describe a guided visualization exercise used to overcome the emotional barriers that often prevent us from dealing effectively with intergenerational decisions. The meditation and dreaming technique was applied to a diverse group of researchers who engaged in a visualized encounter with future generations. Following the exercise, we concluded that a serious analysis of intergenerational conflict (...)
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  40. Husain Sarkar (2007). Group Rationality in Scientific Research. Cambridge University Press.score: 216.0
    Group Rationality in Scientific Research.
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  41. Gabriella Pigozzi, Collective Decision-Making Without Paradoxes: A Fusion Approach.score: 216.0
    The combination of individual judgments on logically interconnected propositions into a collective decision on the same propositions is called judgment aggregation. Literature in social choice and political theory has claimed that judgment aggregation raises serious concerns. For example, consider a set of premises and a conclusion in which the latter is logically equivalent to the former. When majority voting is applied to some propositions (the premises) it may give a different outcome than majority voting applied to another set of propositions (...)
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  42. Jan Sprenger, Carlo Martini & Stephan Hartmann (2009). Consensual Decision-Making Among Epistemic Peers. Episteme 6 (2):110-129.score: 213.0
    This paper focuses on the question of how to resolve disagreement and uses the Lehrer-Wagner model as a formal tool for investigating consensual decision-making. The main result consists in a general definition of when agents treat each other as epistemic peers (Kelly 2005; Elga 2007), and a theorem vindicating the “equal weight view” to resolve disagreement among epistemic peers. We apply our findings to an analysis of the impact of social network structures on group deliberation processes, and we (...)
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  43. Gustaf Arrhenius, Defining Democratic Decision Making.score: 213.0
    In his Populist Democracy: A Defence (1993), Torbjörn Tännsjö suggests, roughly, the following necessary and sufficient conditions for a democratic collective choice: If the majority of a given group of voters prefer A to B, then the collective choice is A rather than B; and if the majority of voters had preferred B to A, then the collective choice would have been B rather than A. Moreover, the preference of a voter is equated with the one she is showing (...)
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  44. Hugo Mercier (2011). When Experts Argue: Explaining the Best and the Worst of Reasoning. [REVIEW] Argumentation 25 (3):313-327.score: 213.0
    Expert reasoning is responsible for some of the most stunning human achievements, but also for some of the most disastrous decisions ever made. The argumentative theory of reasoning has proven very effective at explaining the pattern of reasoning’s successes and failures. In the present article, it is expanded to account for expert reasoning. The argumentative theory predicts that reasoning should display a strong confirmation bias. If argument quality is not sufficiently high in a domain, the confirmation bias will make experts (...)
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  45. Barbara A. Ritter (2006). Can Business Ethics Be Trained? A Study of the Ethical Decision-Making Process in Business Students. Journal of Business Ethics 68 (2):153 - 164.score: 213.0
    The purpose of this paper is to examine the various guidelines presented in the literature for instituting an ethics curriculum and to empirically study their effectiveness. Three questions are addressed concerning the trainability of ethics material and the proper integration and implementation of an ethics curriculum. An empirical study then tested the effect of ethics training on moral awareness and reasoning. The sample consisted of two business classes, one exposed to additional ethics curriculum (experimental), and one not exposed (control). For (...)
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  46. Rocio Garcia-Retamero & Ulrich Hoffrage (2006). How Causal Knowledge Simplifies Decision-Making. Minds and Machines 16 (3):365-380.score: 213.0
    Making decisions can be hard, but it can also be facilitated. Simple heuristics are fast and frugal but nevertheless fairly accurate decision rules that people can use to compensate for their limitations in computational capacity, time, and knowledge when they make decisions [Gigerenzer, G., Todd, P. M., & the ABC Research Group (1999). Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart. New York: Oxford University Press.]. These heuristics are effective to the extent that they can exploit the structure of information in (...)
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  47. Conor O.’Leary & Gladies Pangemanan (2007). The Effect of Groupwork on Ethical Decision-Making of Accountancy Students. Journal of Business Ethics 75 (3):215 - 228.score: 213.0
    Recent accounting scandals involving the collapse of large corporate firms have brought into question the adequacy of ethics education within accounting programs. This paper investigates the ethical decisions of accountancy students and in particular analyses the effect of group (as opposed to individual) decision-making on ethical decisions. Final year accountancy students (sample size of 165) were randomly allocated into two experimental conditions. The participants were then presented with five (5) ethical vignettes. One experimental condition involved completing the ethical (...)
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  48. Michael K. Miller (2008). Judgment Aggregation and Subjective Decision-Making. Economics and Philosophy 24 (2):205-231.score: 213.0
    I present an original model in judgment aggregation theory that demonstrates the general impossibility of consistently describing decision-making purely at the group level. Only a type of unanimity rule can guarantee a group decision is consistent with supporting reasons, and even this possibility is limited to a small class of reasoning methods. The key innovation is that this result holds when individuals can reason in different ways, an allowance not previously considered in the literature. This generalizes judgment (...)
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  49. Jane Macoubrie (2003). Logical Argument Structures in Decision-Making. Argumentation 17 (3):291-313.score: 213.0
    Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca's practical reasoning theory has attracted a great deal of interest since its publication in 1969. Their most important assertion, however, that argument is the logical basis for practical decision-making, has been under-utilized, primarily because it was not sufficiently operationalized for research purposes. This essay presents an operationalization of practical reasoning for use in analyzing argument logics that emerge through group interaction. Particular elements of discourse and argument are identified as responding to principles put forward by (...)
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  50. Steven M. Dunphy (2004). Demonstrating the Value of Diversity for Improved Decision Making: The “Wuzzle-Puzzle” Exercise. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 53 (4):325-331.score: 213.0
    The wuzzle-puzzle exercisé requires small groups of individuals to initially explore their diversity, explicate this diversity to the class, solve a wuzzle-puzzle series of anagrams on their own, and then solve a similar series in a diversified group. The improvement concomitant with a diverse group of individuals in the second, wuzzle-puzzle condition demonstrates that diversity may indeed improve decision-making. This demonstration may be of special interest to business educators and ethicists as they encourage group work. Further, (...)
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