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  1. Gustaf Arrhenius, Future Generations: A Challenge for Moral Theory.
    FD-Diss., Uppsala: University Printers, 2000 (ix+225 pages).
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  2. Gustaf Arrhenius, Meritarian Axiologies and Distributive Justice.
    in . T. Rønnow-Rasmussen, B. Petersson, J. Josefsson & D. Egonsson (eds.) Hommage à Wlodek: Philosophical Papers Dedicated to Wlodek Rabinowicz, 2007.
     
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  3. Gustaf Arrhenius, The Boundary Problem in Democratic Theory.
     
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  4. Gustaf Arrhenius, The Moral Status of Potential People.
    It has been known for quite a while that traditional ethical theories have very counterintuitive and paradoxical implications for questions concerning procreation and our moral duties to future generations. Classical Utilitarianism, for example, seems to imply that we have a moral duty to procreate and that we should try to have as many off-springs as possible. More disturbingly, it implies Derek Parfit’s well-known Repugnant Conclusion.
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  5. Gustaf Arrhenius, Future Generations.
    For the last thirty years or so, there has been a search underway for a theory that can accommodate our intuitions in regard to moral duties to future generations. The object of this search has proved surprisingly elusive. The classical moral theories in the literature all have perplexing implications in this area. Classical Utilitarianism, for instance, implies that it could be better to expand a population even if everyone in the resulting population would be much worse off than in the (...)
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  6. Gustaf Arrhenius, The Very Repugnant Conclusion.
    Population axiology concerns how to evaluate populations in regard to their goodness, that is, how to order populations by the relations “is better than” and “is as good as”. This field has been riddled with “paradoxes” which seem to show that our considered beliefs are inconsistent in cases where the number of people and their welfare varies. Already in Derek Parfit’s seminal contribution to the topic, an informal paradox — the Mere Addition Paradox — was presented and later contributions have (...)
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  7. Gustaf Arrhenius, Desert as Fit: An Axiomatic Analysis.
    Total Utilitarianism is the view that an action is right if and only if it maximizes the sum total of people’s well-being. A common objection to Total Utilitarianism is that it is insensitive to matters of distributive justice. For example, for a given amount of well-being, Total Utilitarianism is indifferent between an equal distribution and any unequal distribution, and if there would be a tiny gain in well-being by moving from an equal distribution to an unequal, we have a duty (...)
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  8. Gustaf Arrhenius, Defining Democratic Decision Making.
    In his Populist Democracy: A Defence (1993), Torbjörn Tännsjö suggests, roughly, the following necessary and sufficient conditions for a democratic collective choice: If the majority of a given group of voters prefer A to B, then the collective choice is A rather than B; and if the majority of voters had preferred B to A, then the collective choice would have been B rather than A. Moreover, the preference of a voter is equated with the one she is showing by (...)
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  9. Gustaf Arrhenius, Life Extension, Replacement, and Comparativism.
    It has been claimed that increasing the length of existing lives with positive welfare is better than creating new lives with positive welfare although the total sum of well-being is the same in both cases, or less in the outcome with extended lives. I shall discuss an interesting suggestion --- that it makes an outcome worse if people are worse off than they otherwise could have been --- that seem to support this idea. I call this view Comparativism.
     
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  10. Gustaf Arrhenius, Litteraturkurs II: Demokrati.
    Hemtentorna är nu rättade och finns att hämta på expeditionen. Man kan diskutera hemtentorna och resultaten med mig den 16/5 kl. 11 – hör i så fall av dig via elposten. Magisterstudenter och doktorander får sitt resultat efter den muntliga tentamen. Resultat på kursen.
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  11. Gustaf Arrhenius, One More Axiological Impossibility Theorem.
    Population axiology concerns how to evaluate populations in regard to their goodness, that is, how to order populations by the relations “is better than” and “is as good as”. This field has been riddled with impossibility results which seem to show that our considered beliefs are inconsistent in cases where the number of people and their welfare varies.1 All of these results have one thing in common, however. They all involve an adequacy condition that rules out Derek Parfit’s Repugnant Conclusion: (...)
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  12. Gustaf Arrhenius, The Paradoxes of Future Generations and Normative Theory.
    As the title of this paper indicates, I’m going to discuss what we ought to do in situations where our actions affect future generations. More specifically, I shall focus on the moral problems raised by cases where our actions affect who’s going to live, their number and their well being. I’ll start, however, with population axiology. Most discussion in population ethics has concentrated on how to evaluate populations in regard to their goodness, that is, how to order populations by the (...)
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  13. Gustaf Arrhenius, What Österberg's Population Theory has in Common with Plato's.
    Jan Österberg is one of the pioneers in the field of population ethics. He started thinking about this issue already in the late 60s and he has developed one of the most original and interesting population axiologies.1 I’ve discussed the problems and drawbacks of Österberg’s theory elsewhere, and I don’t think that this is the place and time to discuss them again.2 Rather, I shall show that Österberg’s theory has a feature in common with the population axiologies of such luminaries (...)
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  14. Katy Abramson, Elizabeth S. Anderson, Erik A. Anderson, Chris Armstrong, Barbara Arneil, Richard Arneson, Gustaf Arrhenius, Marcus Arvan, Elizabeth Ashford & Michael Bacon (2013). Recognition of Reviewers. Journal of Social Philosophy 44 (4):309-312.
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  15. Gustaf Arrhenius (2013). Repugnant Conclusion. In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  16. Lucy Allais, Anita Allen, Andrew Altman, Elizabeth S. Anderson, Erik A. Anderson, David Archard, Faith Armitage, Barbara Arneil, Gustaf Arrhenius & Marcus Arvan (2012). Recognition of Reviewers. Journal of Social Philosophy 43 (4):363-366.
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  17. Gustaf Arrhenius (2012). Etica delle popolazioni e metaetica. Iride 25 (1):35-44.
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  18. Gustaf Arrhenius (2012). Population Ethics and Metaethics. Iride 25 (1):35-44.
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  19. Gustaf Arrhenius, Ingar Brinck, Kathrin Glüer-Pagin, Lena Halldenius, Anna-Sofia Maurin, Folke Tersman & Åsa Wikforss (2011). To the Editor of Theoria. Theoria 77 (3):198-198.
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  20. Anita Allen, Andrew Altman, Erik A. Anderson, David Archard, Faith Armitage, Gustaf Arrhenius, Marcus Arvan, Michael Bacon, Daniel Bar-Tal & Paul Benson (2010). Recognition of Reviewers. Journal of Social Philosophy 41 (4):399-402.
  21. Gustaf Arrhenius & Wlodek Rabinowitz (2010). Better to Be Than Not to Be? In Hans Joas (ed.), The Benefit of Broad Horizons: Intellectual and Institutional Preconditions for a Global Social Science: Festschrift for Bjorn Wittrock on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday. Brill. 65 - 85.
    Can it be better or worse for a person to be than not to be, that is, can it be better or worse to exist than not to exist at all? This old 'existential question' has been raised anew in contemporary moral philosophy. There are roughly two reasons for this renewed interest. Firstly, traditional so-called “impersonal” ethical theories, such as utilitarianism, have counter-intuitive implications in regard to questions concerning procreation and our moral duties to future, not yet existing people. Secondly, (...)
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  22. Rabinowicz Wlodek, Gustaf Arrhenius & Joas Hans (2010). Better to Be Than Not to BE? In Hans Joas (ed.), The Benefit of Broad Horizons: Intellectual and Institutional Preconditions for a Global Social Science: Festschrift for Bjorn Wittrock on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday. Brill. 399--421.
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  23. Gustaf Arrhenius (2009). Can the Person Affecting Restriction Solve the Problems in Population Ethics?. In. In M. A. Roberts & D. T. Wasserman (eds.), Harming Future Persons. Springer Verlag. 289--314.
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  24. Gustaf Arrhenius (2009). Egalitarianism and Population Change. In Axel Gosseries & Lukas H. Meyer (eds.), Intergenerational Justice. Oup Oxford.
  25. Gustaf Arrhenius (2008). Life Extension Versus Replacement. Journal of Applied Philosophy 25 (3):211-227.
    It seems to be a widespread opinion that increasing the length of existing happy lives is better than creating new happy lives although the total welfare is the same in both cases, and that it may be better even when the total welfare is lower in the outcome with extended lives. I shall discuss two interesting suggestion that seems to support this idea, or so it has been argued. Firstly, the idea there is a positive level of wellbeing above which (...)
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  26. Jesper Ryberg, Torbjörn Tännsjö & Gustaf Arrhenius (2006). The Repugnant Conclusion. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Online; Last Accessed October 4:2006.
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  27. Gustaf Arrhenius (2005). Superiority in Value. Philosophical Studies 123 (1-2):97 - 114.
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  28. Gustaf Arrhenius & Wlodek Rabinowicz (2005). Millian Superiorities. Utilitas 17 (2):127-146.
    Suppose one sets up a sequence of less and less valuable objects such that each object in the sequence is only marginally worse than its immediate predecessor. Could one in this way arrive at something that is dramatically inferior to the point of departure? It has been claimed that if there is a radical value difference between the objects at each end of the sequence, then at some point there must be a corresponding radical difference between the adjacent elements. The (...)
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  29. Gustaf Arrhenius & Wlodek Rabinowicz (2005). Value and Unacceptable Risk. Economics and Philosophy 21 (2):177-197.
    Consider a transitive value ordering of outcomes and lotteries on outcomes, which satisfies substitutivity of equivalents and obeys “continuity for easy cases,” i.e., allows compensating risks of small losses by chances of small improvements. Temkin (2001) has argued that such an ordering must also – rather counter-intuitively – allow chances of small improvements to compensate risks of huge losses. In this paper, we show that Temkin's argument is flawed but that a better proof is possible. However, it is more difficult (...)
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  30. Gustaf Arrhenius (2003). The Person-Affecting Restriction, Comparativism, and the Moral Status of Potential People. Ethical Perspectives 10 (3):185-195.
    Traditional ethical theories have paradoxical implications in regards to questions concerning procreation and our moral duties to future people. It has been suggested that the crux of the problem resides in an all too ‘impersonal’ axiology and that the problems of population axiology can be solved by adopting a ‘Person Affecting Restriction’ which in its slogan form states that an outcome can only be better than another if it is better for people. This move has been especially popular in the (...)
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  31. Gustaf Arrhenius (2003). Feldman's Desert-Adjusted Utilitarianism and Population Ethics. Utilitas 15 (02):225-.
    Fred Feldman has proposed a desert-adjusted version of utilitarianism, , as a plausible population axiology. Among other things, he claims that justicism avoids Derek Parfit's . This paper explains the theory and tries to straighten out some of its ambiguities. Moreover, it is shown that it is not clear whether justicism avoids the repugnant conclusion and that it is has other counter-intuitive implications. It is concluded that justicism is not convincing as a population axiology.
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  32. Wlodek Rabinowicz & Gustaf Arrhenius, On Millian Discontinuities.
    Suppose one sets up a sequence of less-and-less valuable objects such that each object in the sequence is only marginally worse than its immediate predecessor. Could one in this way arrive at something that is dramatically inferior to the point of departure? It has been claimed that if there is a radical value difference between the objects at each end of the sequence, then at some point there must be a corresponding radical difference between the adjacent elements. The underlying picture (...)
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  33. Gustaf Arrhenius (2000). An Impossibility Theorem for Welfarist Axiologies. Economics and Philosophy 16 (2):247-266.
    A search is under way for a theory that can accommodate our intuitions in population axiology. The object of this search has proved elusive. This is not surprising since, as we shall see, any welfarist axiology that satisfies three reasonable conditions implies at least one of three counter-intuitive conclusions. I shall start by pointing out the failures in three recent attempts to construct an acceptable population axiology. I shall then present an impossibility theorem and conclude with a short discussion of (...)
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  34. Gustaf Arrhenius (1999). An Impossibility Theorem in Population Axiology with Weak Ordering Assumptions. Philosophical Studies 49:11-21.
  35. Gustaf Arrhenius (1999). Mutual Advantage Contractarianism and Future Generations. Theoria 65 (1):25-35.
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  36. Gustaf Arrhenius & Krister Bykvist, Future Generations and Interpersonal Compensations: Moral Aspects of Energy Use.
    Several people have helped us to write this essay. Our greatest debt is to Wlodek Rabinowicz, who has been an excellent supervisor of the project. He spent a lot of time and energy reading drafts of the essay. Without his painstaking criticism and helpful comments this essay would lack in precision, relevance, and logical correctness. Earlier drafts of the essay were discussed in Sven Danielsson and Wlodek Rabinowicz's seminar at the Department of Philosophy, University of Uppsala. The participants of the (...)
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