69 found
Order:
See also:
Profile: Gyula Klima (Fordham University)
  1. Gyula Klima (ed.) (2001). Summulae de Dialectica. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   14 citations  
  2.  66
    Gyula Klima (2013). Three Myths of Intentionality Versus Some Medieval Philosophers. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 21 (3):359-376.
    This paper argues that three characteristic modern positions concerning intentionality – namely, (1) that intentionality is ‘the mark of the mental’; (2) that intentionality concerns a specific type of objects having intentional inexistence; and (3) that intentionality somehow defies logic – are just three ‘modern myths’ that medieval philosophers, from whom the modern notion supposedly originated, would definitely reject.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  3. Gyula Klima (2009). Aquinas on the Materiality of the Human Soul and the Immateriality of the Human Intellect. Philosophical Investigations 32 (2):163-182.
    This paper argues that Aquinas's conception of the human soul and intellect offers a consistent alternative to the dilemma of materialism and post-Cartesian dualism. It also argues that in their own theoretical context, Aquinas' arguments for the materiality of the human soul and immateriality of the intellect provide a strong justification of his position. However, that theoretical context is rather "alien" to ours in contemporary philosophy. The conclusion of the paper will point in the direction of what can be done (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  4.  25
    Gyula Klima (2008). John Buridan. Oxford University Press.
    Buridan's life, works, and influence -- Buridan's logic and the medieval logical tradition -- The primacy of mental language -- The various kinds of concepts and the idea of a mental language -- Natural language and the idea of a formal syntax in Buridan -- Existential import and the square of opposition -- Ontological commitment -- The properties of terms (proprietates terminorum) -- The semantics of propositions -- Logical validity in a token-based, semantically closed logic -- The possibility of scientific (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  5. Gyula Klima (2002). Aquinas' Theory of the Copula and the Analogy of Being. Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy 5:159-176.
    This paper primarily aims to provide a coherent interpretation of several, apparently conflicting claims made by Aquinas concerning the semantic function of the copula. The paper also argues that these claims can properly be understood only if they are interpreted as forming a coherent part of Aquinas' larger theory of the analogy of being. The Appendix sketches a model theoretical semantics for the reconstruction of Aquinas' relevant ideas, providing the technical means for setting apart the various senses of the verb (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  6.  17
    Gyula Klima (2004). Consequences of a Closed, Token-Based Semantics: The Case of John Buridan. History and Philosophy of Logic 25 (2):95-110.
    This paper argues for two principal conclusions about natural language semantics based on John Buridan's considerations concerning the notion of formal consequence, that is, formally valid inference. (1) Natural languages are essentially semantically closed, yet they do not have to be on that account inconsistent. (2) Natural language semantics has to be token based, as a matter of principle. The paper investigates the Buridanian considerations leading to these conclusions, and considers some obviously emerging objections to the Buridanian approach.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  7.  23
    Gyula Klima (2007). Thomistic “Monism” Vs. Cartesian “Dualism”. Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy 10:92-112.
    This paper contrasts the Thomistic and Cartesian interpretations of what the substantial unity of the body and mind can consist in. A detailed discussion of the Thomistic account of the substantial unity of body and soul identifies especially those principles of the presupposed hylomorphist metaphysical background of this account that Descartes abandoned. After arguing for the consistency of the Thomistic view, briefly outlines how certain developments in late-medieval scholasticism prepared the way for the abandonment of precisely these principles. Finally, the (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  8.  58
    Gyula Klima (2002). Man= Body+ Soul: Aquinas's Arithmetic of Human Nature. In Brian Davies (ed.), Thomas Aquinas: Contemporary Philosophical Perspectives. Oxford University Press 257--274.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  9.  17
    Gyula Klima (2004). On Kenny on Aquinas on Being. International Philosophical Quarterly 44 (4):567-580.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  10.  98
    Gyula Klima, Via Antiqua Vs. Via Moderna Semantics: Two Ways of Constructing Semantic Theory.
    1st GPMR Workshop on Logic and Semantics: Medieval Logic and Modern Applied Logic, Reinische Friedrich Wilhelms Universität Bonn, Germany, 2007.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  11.  47
    Gyula Klima, The Medieval Problem of Universals. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    “The problem of universals” in general is a historically variable bundle of several closely related, yet in different conceptual frameworks rather differently articulated metaphysical, logical, and epistemological questions, ultimately all connected to the issue of how universal cognition of singular things is possible. How do we know, for example, that the Pythagorean theorem holds universally, for all possible right triangles? Indeed, how can we have any awareness of a potential infinity of all possible right triangles, given that we could only (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  12.  98
    Gyula Klima (2005). Quine, Wyman, and Buridan: Three Approaches to Ontological Commitment. Korean Journal of Logic 8:1-22.
    This paper provides a comparison of three fundamentally different approaches to the issue of ontological commitment. It argues that despite superficial similarities on either side, Buridan’s approach provides an intriguing third alternative to the two commonly recognized modern approaches. Keywords: ontological commitment, existence, meaning, reference..
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  13.  97
    Gyula Klima, Contemporary "Essentialism" Vs. Aristotelian Essentialism.
    Contemporary "essentialism", if we want to provide a succinct, yet sufficiently rigorous characterization, may be summarized in the thesis that some common terms are rigid designators. [1] By the quotation marks I intend to indicate that I regard this as a somewhat improper (though, of course, permitted) usage of the term (after all, nomina significant ad placitum [2]). In contrast to this, essentialism, properly so-called, is the Aristotelian doctrine summarizable in the thesis--as we shall see, no less rigorous in its (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  14.  52
    Gyula Klima (2005). The Essentialist Nominalism of John Buridan. Review of Metaphysics 58 (4):739 - 754.
    To many contemporary philosophers, the phrase “essentialist nominalism” may appear to be an oxymoron. After all, essentialism is the doctrine that things come in natural kinds characterized by their essential properties, on account of some common nature or essence they share. But nominalism is precisely the denial of the existence, indeed, the very possibility of such shared essences. Nevertheless, despite the intuitions of such contemporary philosophers,2 John Buridan was not only a thoroughgoing nominalist, as is well-known, but also a staunch (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  15. Gyula Klima (1996). The Semantic Principles Underlying Saint Thomas Aquinas's Metaphysics of Being. Medieval Philosophy and Theology 5 (1):87-141.
  16.  80
    Gyula Klima (2013). Three Myths of Intentionality Versus Some Medieval Philosophers. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 21 (3):359-376.
    After Brentano, intentionality is often characterized as “the mark of the mental”. In Brentano‟s view, intentionality “is characteristic exclusively of mental phenomena. No physical phenomenon manifests anything like it”. 2 After Meinong, it is also generally believed that intentionality, as this characteristic mental phenomenon, concerns a specific type of objects, namely, intentional objects, having intentional inexistence, as opposed to ordinary physical objects, having real existence. Thus, intentional objects are supposed to constitute a mysterious ontological realm, the dwelling place of the (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  17.  16
    Gyula Klima (2015). Geach's Three Most Inspiring Errors Concerning Medieval Logic. Philosophical Investigations 38 (1-2):34-51.
    This paper analyses the import of three claims extracted from Geach's works concerning theories of predication and the reference of common terms, the notions of being or existence, and the force/content distinction and theories of valid inference, respectively. The paper highlights the theoretical and historical errors involved in these claims as well as their enormous influence and inspiration in the field of the philosophical study of medieval logic and metaphysics.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  18.  68
    Gyula Klima, Ens Multipliciter Dicitur: The Semantics and Metaphysics of Being in St. Thomas Aquinas.
    This paper examines the multiple semantic functions Aquinas attributes to the verb ‘est’, ranging from signifying the essence of God to acting as a copula of categorical propositions to expressing identity. A case will be made that all these apparently radically diverse functions are unified under Aquinas’s conception of the analogy of being, treating all predications as predications of being with or without some qualification (secundum quid or simpliciter). This understanding of the multiplicity of the semantic functions of this verb (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  19.  21
    Gyula Klima, G. Klima: Nulla Virtus Cognoscitiva Circa Proprium Obiectum Decipitur.
    Robert Pasnau’s paper presents a strong thesis, which it does not manage to substantiate. The thesis in question is that the Aristotelian doctrine of the identity of the knower and the known, as interpreted by St. Thomas, cannot possibly be used to fend off skepticism.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  20.  59
    Gyula Klima, Existence and Reference in Medieval Logic.
    “The expression ‘free logic’ is an abbreviation for the phrase ‘free of existence assumptions with respect to its terms, general and singular’.”1 Classical quantification theory is not a free logic in this sense, as its standard formulations commonly assume that every singular term in every model is assigned a referent, an element of the universe of discourse. Indeed, since singular terms include not only singular constants, but also variables2, standard quantification theory may be regarded as involving even the assumption of (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  21.  28
    Gyula Klima (1993). The Changing Role Ofentia Rationis in Mediaeval Semantics and Ontology: A Comparative Study with a Reconstruction. Synthese 96 (1):25 - 58.
  22.  60
    Gyula Klima (2010). Indifference Vs. Universality of Mental Representation in Ockham, Buridan, and Aquinas. Questio. Yearbook of the History of Metaphysics 10 (1):99-110.
    This paper argues in the first place that nominalists are right in insisting against ontological realists that semantic universality does not require commitment to universal entities. However, Ockham, in his zeal to get rid of Scotus’s universal entities, swept under the carpet the issue of universal representational content of genuinely universal symbols, conflating it with the mere indifference of the information content of non-distinctive singular representations. Buridan did come up with an abstractionist theory of the formation of genuinely universal representational (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  23.  60
    Gyula Klima (2008). Logic Without Truth: Buridan on the Liar. In Shahid Rahman (ed.), Unity, Truth and the Liar: The Modern Relevance of Medieval Solutions to the Liar Paradox. Springer 87-112.
  24.  60
    Gyula Klima (2013). Aquinas Vs. Buridan on Essence and Existence. In Charles Bolyard & Rondo Keele (eds.), Later Medieval Metaphysics: Ontology, Language, and Logic. Fordham University Press 30-44.
  25.  15
    Gyula Klima (1984). Libellus Pro Sapiente. New Scholasticism 58 (2):207-219.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  26.  51
    Gyula Klima, Saint Anselm's Proof: A Problem of Reference, Intentional Identity and Mutual Understanding.
    Saint Anselm’s proof for God’s existence in his Proslogion, as the label “ontological” retrospectively hung on it indicates, is usually treated as involving some sophisticated problem of, or a much less sophisticated tampering with, the concept of existence. In this paper I intend to approach Saint Anselm’s reasoning from a somewhat different angle.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  27.  51
    Gyula Klima (2000). Aquinas on One and Many. Documenti E Studi Sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale 11:195-215.
    Lo studio intende mettere in evidenza l'ambiguità della nozione di unità, intesa come entità numerica, con la nozione di unità quale sinonimo di essere. Sul primo concetto verte la parte iniziale dello studio, alla quale segue l'esame del significato ontologico di «uno». Le considerazioni fatte guidano l'A. a valutare i rapporti di relazione fra le nozioni di essere e uno, e quelle di sostanzialità, identità e semplicità in Tommaso. La gerarchia ontologica che ha al vertice l'essere assoluto e l'assoluta unità (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  28.  48
    Gyula Klima, The Distinction of Substance and Accident and the Analogy of Being.
    Of those that exist, some are said of a subject, but are in no subject: as man is said of some subject, namely of some man, but is in no subject. Others, however, are in a subject, but are said of no subject. And I say that to be in a subject which, while it is in something not as a part, cannot exist apart from the thing in which it is. For example, some particular literacy is in a subject, (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  29.  12
    Gyula Klima (1998). Aquinas on Mind. Faith and Philosophy 15 (1):113-117.
  30.  6
    Gyula Klima (1999). Ockham's Semantics and Ontology of the Categories. In P. V. Spade (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Ockham. Cambridge 118--42.
  31.  41
    Gyula Klima, PHRU 1000-006/010 Philosophy of Human Nature.
    This course covers paradigmatic accounts of human nature in ancient, medieval, and early modern philosophy, through a careful reading of selected primary texts and contemporary commentary. Major topics will include knowledge and opinion; body and soul; immortality, rationality, and freedom of the will; created being and goodness as emanations of divine perfection. The main focus of the discussions will be on the metaphysical foundations of moral value in the pre-modern tradition, and the conceptual changes shaking these metaphysical foundations with the (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  32.  37
    Gyula Klima, Is Ockham Off the Hook?
    In his admirably clear, beautifully argued study, Claude Panaccio has provided an able defense of Ockham’s position in response to an argument I presented against Ockham in a discussion with Peter King eight years ago at a meeting in Pittsburgh.1 But after eight years, and even after Claude’s book, I still stand by that argument. So, in these comments I will attempt to explain why I think Ockham may still not be off the hook.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  33.  37
    Gyula Klima, Intentional Transfer in Averroes, Indifference of Nature in Avicenna, and the Issue of the Representationalism of Aquinas.
    Is Aquinas a representationalist or a direct realist? Max Herrera’s (and, for that matter, Claude Panaccio’s) qualified answers to each alternative show that the real significance of the question is not that if we answer it, then we can finally learn under which classification Aquinas should fall, but rather that upon considering it we can learn something about the intricacies of the question itself. In these comments I will first argue that the Averroistic notion of “intentional transfer”, combined with the (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  34.  7
    Gyula Klima (2012). Ontological Reduction by Logical Analysis and the Primitive Vocabulary of Mentalese. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 86 (3):403-414.
    This paper confronts a certain modern view of the relation between semantics and ontology with that of the late-medieval nominalist philosophers, William Ockham and John Buridan. The modern view in question is characterized in terms of what is called here “the thesis of onto-semantic parallelism,” which states that the primitive categorematic concepts of our semantics mark out the primary entities in reality. The paper argues that, despite some apparently plausible misinterpretations to the contrary, the late-medieval nominalist program of “ontological reduction” (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  35.  35
    Gyula Klima, Semantic Complexity and Syntactic Simplicity in Ockham's Mental Language.
    In these comments I am going to argue that Yiwei Zheng's paper, by postulating an imaginary mental language in a proposed new interpretation of Ockham's conception of mental language, provides us with an imaginary solution to what turns out to be an imaginary problem. Having said this, however, I hasten to add that the paper has undeniable merits in pointing us in the right direction for revealing the imaginary character of the problem.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  36.  29
    Gyula Klima, The “Grammar” of 'God' and 'Being': Making Sense of Talking About the One True God in Different Metaphysical Traditions.
    Is there a grammar of the name ‘God’? In an obvious and trivial sense there certainly is. This term, being a part of the English language, has to obey the grammatical rules of that language. So, for example, by consulting the relevant textbooks and dictionaries we can establish that ‘God’ is a noun, so it can function as the subject or predicate of simple categorical sentences, but it cannot, for example, function as a verb or a preposition.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  37.  31
    Gyula Klima, Ancilla Theologiae Vs. Domina Philosophorum: St. Thomas Aquinas, Latin Averroism and the Autonomy of Philosophy.
    ex opposito, any methodological doctrine that separates theological dogma from philosophical inquiry increases the autonomy of philosophical inquiry. But the Latin Averroist methodological doctrine of veritas duplex (rather improperly, but not entirely unreasonably called so) separated theological dogma from philosophical inquiry. Therefore, the Latin Averroist methodological doctrine of veritas duplex increased the autonomy of philosophical inquiry.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  38.  29
    Gyula Klima, ABSTRACT: The Identity of Knower and Known.
    One often hears extravagant claims made for the Aristotelian doctrine that "what understands and what is understood are the same" De anima iii.4; 430a4). This identity between knower and what is known, or between percipient and what is perceived, is often said to offer a way out of the familiar skeptical arguments against the possibility of our having knowledge of the external world. Typically such claims are made by students of Thomas Aquinas, who in this way seek to render Aquinas's (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  39.  26
    Gyula Klima (1999). Buridan's Logic and the Ontology of Modes. In Sten Ebbesen & Russsell L. Friedman (eds.), Medieval Analyses in Language and Cognition. Royal Danish Academy 473-496.
    Summary: The aim of this paper is to explore the relationships between Buridan’s logic and the ontology of modes modi). Modes, not considered to be really distinct from absolute entities, could serve to reduce the ontological commitment of the theory of the categories, and thus they were to become ubiquitous in this role in late medieval and early modern philosophy. After a brief analysis of the most basic argument for the real distinction between entities of several categories (“the argument from (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  40.  26
    Gyula Klima, Thomas of Sutton on the Nature of the Intellective Soul and the Thomistic Theory of Being.
    Thomas of Sutton was one of the earliest, and by all measures one of the most astute defenders of St. Thomas Aquinas’ characteristic theological and philosophical doctrines. As usual with medieval thinkers, we have little information regarding Sutton’s life..
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  41. Gyula Klima (1988). Ars Artium: Essays in Philosophical Semantics, Mediaeval and Modern. Institure of Philosophy, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
  42.  6
    Gyula Klima (2010). The Anti-Skepticism of John Buridan and Thomas Aquinas: Putting Skeptics in Their Place Versus Stopping Them in Their Tracks. In Henrik Lagerlund (ed.), Rethinking the History of Skepticism: The Missing Medieval Background. Brill 103--145.
  43.  15
    Gyula Klima & Gabriel Sandu (1990). Numerical Quantifiers in Game-Theoretical Semantics. Theoria 56 (3):173-192.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  44.  18
    Gyula Klima (2003). Conceptual Closure in Anselm's Proof: Reply to Tony Roark. History and Philosophy of Logic 24 (2):131-134.
    Let me begin my reply to Professor Roark’s objections in good old scholastic fashion, by a distinction. Philosophical objections can be good in two senses. In the first, trivial sense, a good objection is one that convincingly shows the presence of a genuine error in a position or reasoning. Such objections are useful, but uninspiring. In the second, non-trivial sense, a good philosophical objection broadens and deepens our understanding of the problems at issue, whether or not they manage to refute (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  45.  14
    Gyula Klima, Approaching Natural Language Via Mediaeval Logic.
    (Appeared in: J. Bernard-J. Kelemen: Zeichen, Denken, Praxis , Institut fur Sozio-Semiotische Studien: Vienna, 1990, pp. 249-267. To print the published version, click here.).
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  46.  16
    Gyula Klima (1994). The Changing Role of Entia Rationis in Mediaeval Semantics and Ontology. Synthese 98 (1):187-187.
  47.  2
    Gyula Klima (1984). Libellus Pro Sapiente: A Criticism of Allan Bäck’s Argument Against St. Thomas Aquinas’ Doctrine of the Incarnation. New Scholasticism 58 (2):207-219.
  48.  12
    Gyula Klima, Aquinas on Mind , by Anthony Kenny. New York: Routledge, 1995, Pp. 182. $13.95 (Paper).
    Anthony Kenny's book is one of the best of its genre, exemplifying the kind of introduction into (some field of) Aquinas's thought that endeavors to make his ideas accessible to the philosophically interested contemporary reader in terms of such philosophical, scientific and everyday concepts with which the reader can safely be assumed to be familiar. Indeed, Kenny's book provides us with such a good example of this genre that it brings into sharp focus the problems of the genre itself. Therefore, (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  49.  14
    Gyula Klima, Ontological Alternatives Vs Alternative Semantics in Mediaeval Philosophy.
    `Realism', `conceptualism' and `nominalism' are terms that one is most likely to come across in history of philosophy textbooks, presented as ones labeling three major ontological alternatives provided by mediaeval philosophy. The general inadequacy of these labels is perhaps best shown by the desperate efforts to provide further, modified labels , the well-known `moderate' and `extreme' or `exaggerated' versions of the above, in hopes of implying at least a lesser amount of falsehood in hanging..
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  50.  9
    Gyula Klima, Philosophy Among the Artistae: A Late-Medieval Picture of the Limits of Rational Inquiry.
    It is a commonplace in the historiography of medieval philosophy that theology represents philosophy's culmination in the later Middle Ages, and specifically, that it is in the work of theologians and theologically-trained Arts Masters that we find philosophy in its purest and most advanced form. By comparison, the philosophy produced by thinkers who worked exclusively or primarily in the Faculty of Arts is seen as inferior -- by which is usually meant that it is shallow, unsophisticated, immature, and driven by (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
1 — 50 / 69