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  1. Gyula Klima, Logic Without Truth: John Buridan on the Liar.
  2. Gyula Klima, Singularity by Similarity Vs. Causality in Aquinas, Ockham and Buridan.
  3. Gyula Klima, Via Antiqua Vs. Via Moderna Semantics: Two Ways of Constructing Semantic Theory.
    1st GPMR Workshop on Logic and Semantics: Medieval Logic and Modern Applied Logic, Reinische Friedrich Wilhelms Universität Bonn, Germany, 2007.
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  4. Gyula Klima, Intentionality, Cognition and Mental Representation in Medieval Philosophy.
    It is supposed to be common knowledge about the history of ideas that one of the few medieval philosophical contributions preserved in modern philosophical thought is the idea that mental phenomena are distinguished from physical phenomena by their intentionality, their directedness toward some object. As is usually the case with such commonplaces about the history of ideas, this claim is not quite true. Medieval philosophers routinely described ordinary physical phenomena, such as reflections in mirrors or sounds in the air, as (...)
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  5. Gyula Klima, PHRU 1000-006/010 Philosophy of Human Nature.
    This course covers paradigmatic accounts of human nature in ancient, medieval, and early modern philosophy, through a careful reading of selected primary texts and contemporary commentary. Major topics will include knowledge and opinion; body and soul; immortality, rationality, and freedom of the will; created being and goodness as emanations of divine perfection. The main focus of the discussions will be on the metaphysical foundations of moral value in the pre-modern tradition, and the conceptual changes shaking these metaphysical foundations with the (...)
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  6. Gyula Klima, Approaching Natural Language Via Mediaeval Logic.
    (Appeared in: J. Bernard-J. Kelemen: Zeichen, Denken, Praxis , Institut fur Sozio-Semiotische Studien: Vienna, 1990, pp. 249-267. To print the published version, click here.).
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  7. Gyula Klima, Aquinas on Mind , by Anthony Kenny. New York: Routledge, 1995, Pp. 182. $13.95 (Paper).
    Anthony Kenny's book is one of the best of its genre, exemplifying the kind of introduction into (some field of) Aquinas's thought that endeavors to make his ideas accessible to the philosophically interested contemporary reader in terms of such philosophical, scientific and everyday concepts with which the reader can safely be assumed to be familiar. Indeed, Kenny's book provides us with such a good example of this genre that it brings into sharp focus the problems of the genre itself. Therefore, (...)
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  8. Gyula Klima, ABSTRACT: The Identity of Knower and Known.
    One often hears extravagant claims made for the Aristotelian doctrine that "what understands and what is understood are the same" De anima iii.4; 430a4). This identity between knower and what is known, or between percipient and what is perceived, is often said to offer a way out of the familiar skeptical arguments against the possibility of our having knowledge of the external world. Typically such claims are made by students of Thomas Aquinas, who in this way seek to render Aquinas's (...)
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  9. Gyula Klima, Ancilla Theologiae Vs. Domina Philosophorum: St. Thomas Aquinas, Latin Averroism and the Autonomy of Philosophy.
    ex opposito, any methodological doctrine that separates theological dogma from philosophical inquiry increases the autonomy of philosophical inquiry. But the Latin Averroist methodological doctrine of veritas duplex (rather improperly, but not entirely unreasonably called so) separated theological dogma from philosophical inquiry. Therefore, the Latin Averroist methodological doctrine of veritas duplex increased the autonomy of philosophical inquiry.
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  10. Gyula Klima, Aquinas Vs. Buridan on Essence and Existence.
    5th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Arts and Humanities, January 15, 2007, Honolulu, HI.
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  11. Gyula Klima, Buridan's Logic and the Ontology of Modes.
    Summary: The aim of this paper is to explore the relationships between Buridan’s logic and the ontology of modes modi). Modes, not considered to be really distinct from absolute entities, could serve to reduce the ontological commitment of the theory of the categories, and thus they were to become ubiquitous in this role in late medieval and early modern philosophy. After a brief analysis of the most basic argument for the real distinction between entities of several categories (“the argument from (...)
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  12. Gyula Klima, Contemporary "Essentialism" Vs. Aristotelian Essentialism.
    Contemporary "essentialism", if we want to provide a succinct, yet sufficiently rigorous characterization, may be summarized in the thesis that some common terms are rigid designators. [1] By the quotation marks I intend to indicate that I regard this as a somewhat improper (though, of course, permitted) usage of the term (after all, nomina significant ad placitum [2]). In contrast to this, essentialism, properly so-called, is the Aristotelian doctrine summarizable in the thesis--as we shall see, no less rigorous in its (...)
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  13. Gyula Klima, Existence and Reference in Medieval Logic.
    “The expression ‘free logic’ is an abbreviation for the phrase ‘free of existence assumptions with respect to its terms, general and singular’.”1 Classical quantification theory is not a free logic in this sense, as its standard formulations commonly assume that every singular term in every model is assigned a referent, an element of the universe of discourse. Indeed, since singular terms include not only singular constants, but also variables2, standard quantification theory may be regarded as involving even the assumption of (...)
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  14. Gyula Klima, Ens Multipliciter Dicitur: The Semantics and Metaphysics of Being in St. Thomas Aquinas.
    This paper examines the multiple semantic functions Aquinas attributes to the verb ‘est’, ranging from signifying the essence of God to acting as a copula of categorical propositions to expressing identity. A case will be made that all these apparently radically diverse functions are unified under Aquinas’s conception of the analogy of being, treating all predications as predications of being with or without some qualification (secundum quid or simpliciter). This understanding of the multiplicity of the semantic functions of this verb (...)
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  15. Gyula Klima, G. Klima: Nulla Virtus Cognoscitiva Circa Proprium Obiectum Decipitur.
    Robert Pasnau’s paper presents a strong thesis, which it does not manage to substantiate. The thesis in question is that the Aristotelian doctrine of the identity of the knower and the known, as interpreted by St. Thomas, cannot possibly be used to fend off skepticism.
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  16. Gyula Klima, Is Ockham Off the Hook?
    In his admirably clear, beautifully argued study, Claude Panaccio has provided an able defense of Ockham’s position in response to an argument I presented against Ockham in a discussion with Peter King eight years ago at a meeting in Pittsburgh.1 But after eight years, and even after Claude’s book, I still stand by that argument. So, in these comments I will attempt to explain why I think Ockham may still not be off the hook.
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  17. Gyula Klima, Intentional Transfer in Averroes, Indifference of Nature in Avicenna, and the Issue of the Representationalism of Aquinas.
    Is Aquinas a representationalist or a direct realist? Max Herrera’s (and, for that matter, Claude Panaccio’s) qualified answers to each alternative show that the real significance of the question is not that if we answer it, then we can finally learn under which classification Aquinas should fall, but rather that upon considering it we can learn something about the intricacies of the question itself. In these comments I will first argue that the Averroistic notion of “intentional transfer”, combined with the (...)
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  18. Gyula Klima, Introduction: The “Three Myths”.
    After Brentano, intentionality is often characterized as “the mark of the mental”. In Brentano‟s view, intentionality “is characteristic exclusively of mental phenomena. No physical phenomenon manifests anything like it”. 2 After Meinong, it is also generally believed that intentionality, as this characteristic mental phenomenon, concerns a specific type of objects, namely, intentional objects, having intentional inexistence, as opposed to ordinary physical objects, having real existence. Thus, intentional objects are supposed to constitute a mysterious ontological realm, the dwelling place of the (...)
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  19. Gyula Klima, Natural Necessity and Eucharistic Theology in the Late 13th Century.
    cannot, cover the broad topic indicated in the title. Rather, it will concern itself only with some preliminary ideas leading the way to a larger project, which, however, should eventually bear an even broader title. As a matter of fact, here I will consider at some length only two authors from the beginning of the period indicated in the title, namely, Aquinas and Siger of Brabant. (Or perhaps three authors, provided the anonymous author of the..
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  20. Gyula Klima, Ontological Alternatives Vs Alternative Semantics in Mediaeval Philosophy.
    `Realism', `conceptualism' and `nominalism' are terms that one is most likely to come across in history of philosophy textbooks, presented as ones labeling three major ontological alternatives provided by mediaeval philosophy. The general inadequacy of these labels is perhaps best shown by the desperate efforts to provide further, modified labels , the well-known `moderate' and `extreme' or `exaggerated' versions of the above, in hopes of implying at least a lesser amount of falsehood in hanging..
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  21. Gyula Klima, On Whether Id Quo Nihil Maius Cogitari Potest is in the Understanding.
    In order to make this point, in the next section I will present a very simple, intuitive reconstruction of Anselm’s argument. Then, in the third section, I will show that since the argument thus reconstructed is obviously valid, and it would be foolish to challenge any other of its premises except the assumption that God does not exist in reality, it is a sound proof of God’s existence. Nevertheless, in the fourth section, I will argue further that despite its soundness, (...)
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  22. Gyula Klima, Philosophy Among the Artistae: A Late-Medieval Picture of the Limits of Rational Inquiry.
    It is a commonplace in the historiography of medieval philosophy that theology represents philosophy's culmination in the later Middle Ages, and specifically, that it is in the work of theologians and theologically-trained Arts Masters that we find philosophy in its purest and most advanced form. By comparison, the philosophy produced by thinkers who worked exclusively or primarily in the Faculty of Arts is seen as inferior -- by which is usually meant that it is shallow, unsophisticated, immature, and driven by (...)
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  23. Gyula Klima, Quine, Wyman, and Buridan: Three Approaches to Ontological Commitment.
    This paper provides a comparison of three fundamentally different approaches to the issue of ontological commitment. It argues that despite superficial similarities on either side, Buridan’s approach provides an intriguing third alternative to the two commonly recognized modern approaches. Keywords: ontological commitment, existence, meaning, reference..
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  24. Gyula Klima, Semantics and Ontology: Comments on Jack Zupko's Talk.
    "This question, and others, asking about the number of predicates, or of the predicables, or of the categories, or of natural principles, or the elements, etc. are rather difficult and tedious, especially for youngsters, for whom one should explain the logical and sophistic cavils which the more advanced students [need] no longer care about. Therefore, for the sake of freshmen, I posit some easy and [somewhat] facetious conclusions". (p. 183, ll. 2203-2209.).
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  25. Gyula Klima, Saint Anselm's Proof: A Problem of Reference, Intentional Identity and Mutual Understanding.
    Saint Anselm’s proof for God’s existence in his Proslogion, as the label “ontological” retrospectively hung on it indicates, is usually treated as involving some sophisticated problem of, or a much less sophisticated tampering with, the concept of existence. In this paper I intend to approach Saint Anselm’s reasoning from a somewhat different angle.
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  26. Gyula Klima, Semantic Complexity and Syntactic Simplicity in Ockham's Mental Language.
    In these comments I am going to argue that Yiwei Zheng's paper, by postulating an imaginary mental language in a proposed new interpretation of Ockham's conception of mental language, provides us with an imaginary solution to what turns out to be an imaginary problem. Having said this, however, I hasten to add that the paper has undeniable merits in pointing us in the right direction for revealing the imaginary character of the problem.
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  27. Gyula Klima, The Distinction of Substance and Accident and the Analogy of Being.
    Of those that exist, some are said of a subject, but are in no subject: as man is said of some subject, namely of some man, but is in no subject. Others, however, are in a subject, but are said of no subject. And I say that to be in a subject which, while it is in something not as a part, cannot exist apart from the thing in which it is. For example, some particular literacy is in a subject, (...)
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  28. Gyula Klima, The “Grammar” of 'God' and 'Being': Making Sense of Talking About the One True God in Different Metaphysical Traditions.
    Is there a grammar of the name ‘God’? In an obvious and trivial sense there certainly is. This term, being a part of the English language, has to obey the grammatical rules of that language. So, for example, by consulting the relevant textbooks and dictionaries we can establish that ‘God’ is a noun, so it can function as the subject or predicate of simple categorical sentences, but it cannot, for example, function as a verb or a preposition.
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  29. Gyula Klima, Thomas of Sutton on the Nature of the Intellective Soul and the Thomistic Theory of Being.
    Thomas of Sutton was one of the earliest, and by all measures one of the most astute defenders of St. Thomas Aquinas’ characteristic theological and philosophical doctrines. As usual with medieval thinkers, we have little information regarding Sutton’s life..
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  30. Gyula Klima, What Can a Scholastic Do in the 21st Century?
    "What can a scholastic do in the 20 th century?" - asks Katalin Vidrányi in the title of her article written in 1970. [1] If her characteristically systematic and pithy analysis can be summarized in a single sentence, the author's answer is this: many things, but not too much.
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  31. Gyula Klima, Yale Lectures.
    The lectures presented here are the by-product of my teaching in Yale's Directed Studies program from 1991 through 1993 (hence the title, for want of a better). In fact, being what they are, lecture notes for an introductory philosophy course, they present rather elementary material. Yet, I flatter myself, they do not lack certain originality in the treatment of some of the basic questions of traditional metaphysics and epistemology. In any case, over the past couple of years they proved to (...)
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  32. Gyula Klima (2013). Three Myths of Intentionality Versus Some Medieval Philosophers. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 21 (3):359-376.
  33. Gyula Klima (2012). Ontological Reduction by Logical Analysis and the Primitive Vocabulary of Mentalese. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 86 (3):403-414.
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  34. Gyula Klima (2011). John Buridan. In. In H. Lagerlund (ed.), Encyclopedia of Medieval Philosophy. Springer. 597--603.
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  35. Gyula Klima (2011). Theory of Language. In Brian Davies & Eleonore Stump (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Aquinas. Oxford University Press.
  36. Gyula Klima (2011). Thomas of Sutton. In. In H. Lagerlund (ed.), Encyclopedia of Medieval Philosophy. Springer. 1294--1294.
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  37. Gyula Klima (2010). Indifference Vs. Universality of Mental Representation in Ockham, Buridan, and Aquinas. Quaestio 10 (1):99-110.
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  38. Gyula Klima (2010). The Anti-Skepticism of John Buridan and Thomas Aquinas: Putting Skeptics in Their Place Versus Stopping Them in Their Tracks. In Henrik Lagerlund (ed.), Rethinking the History of Skepticism: The Missing Medieval Background. Brill. 103--145.
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  39. Gyula Klima (2009). Aquinas on the Materiality of the Human Soul and the Immateriality of the Human Intellect. Philosophical Investigations 32 (2):163-182.
    This paper argues that Aquinas's conception of the human soul and intellect offers a consistent alternative to the dilemma of materialism and post-Cartesian dualism. It also argues that in their own theoretical context, Aquinas' arguments for the materiality of the human soul and immateriality of the intellect provide a strong justification of his position. However, that theoretical context is rather "alien" to ours in contemporary philosophy. The conclusion of the paper will point in the direction of what can be done (...)
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  40. Gyula Klima (2009). John Buridan. Oxford University Press.
    Buridan's life, works, and influence -- Buridan's logic and the medieval logical tradition -- The primacy of mental language -- The various kinds of concepts and the idea of a mental language -- Natural language and the idea of a formal syntax in Buridan -- Existential import and the square of opposition -- Ontological commitment -- The properties of terms (proprietates terminorum) -- The semantics of propositions -- Logical validity in a token-based, semantically closed logic -- The possibility of scientific (...)
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  41. Gyula Klima (2009). Teleology, Intentionality, Naturalism. Filozofia 64 (2):114-122.
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  42. Gyula Klima (2009). William Ockham. In Graham Robert Oppy & Nick Trakakis (eds.), The History of Western Philosophy of Religion. Oxford University Press. 3--195.
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  43. Gyula Klima, The Medieval Problem of Universals. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    “The problem of universals” in general is a historically variable bundle of several closely related, yet in different conceptual frameworks rather differently articulated metaphysical, logical, and epistemological questions, ultimately all connected to the issue of how universal cognition of singular things is possible. How do we know, for example, that the Pythagorean theorem holds universally, for all possible right triangles? Indeed, how can we have any awareness of a potential infinity of all possible right triangles, given that we could only (...)
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  44. Gyula Klima (2007). Thomistic “Monism” Vs. Cartesian “Dualism”. Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy 10:92-112.
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  45. Gyula Klima, Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.) (2007). Medieval Philosophy: Essential Readings with Commentary. Blackwell Pub..
    This collection of readings with extensive editorial commentary brings together key texts of the most influential philosophers of the medieval era to provide a comprehensive introduction for students of philosophy. Features the writings of Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, Boethius, John Duns Scotus and other leading medieval thinkers Features several new translations of key thinkers of the medieval era, including John Buridan and Averroes Readings are accompanied by expert commentary from the editors, who are leading scholars in the field.
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  46. Gyula Klima (2005). The Essentialist Nominalism of John Burdian. Review of Metaphysics 58 (4):739 - 754.
    To many contemporary philosophers, the phrase “essentialist nominalism” may appear to be an oxymoron. After all, essentialism is the doctrine that things come in natural kinds characterized by their essential properties, on account of some common nature or essence they share. But nominalism is precisely the denial of the existence, indeed, the very possibility of such shared essences. Nevertheless, despite the intuitions of such contemporary philosophers,2 John Buridan was not only a thoroughgoing nominalist, as is well-known, but also a staunch (...)
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  47. Gyula Klima (2004). Consequences of a Closed, Token-Based Semantics: The Case of John Buridan. History and Philosophy of Logic 25 (2):95-110.
    This paper argues for two principal conclusions about natural language semantics based on John Buridan's considerations concerning the notion of formal consequence, that is, formally valid inference. (1) Natural languages are essentially semantically closed, yet they do not have to be on that account inconsistent. (2) Natural language semantics has to be token based, as a matter of principle. The paper investigates the Buridanian considerations leading to these conclusions, and considers some obviously emerging objections to the Buridanian approach.
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  48. Gyula Klima (2004). On Kenny on Aquinas on Being. International Philosophical Quarterly 44 (4):567-580.
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  49. Gyula Klima (2003). Conceptual Closure in Anselm's Proof: Reply to Tony Roark. History and Philosophy of Logic 24 (2):131-134.
    Let me begin my reply to Professor Roark’s objections in good old scholastic fashion, by a distinction. Philosophical objections can be good in two senses. In the first, trivial sense, a good objection is one that convincingly shows the presence of a genuine error in a position or reasoning. Such objections are useful, but uninspiring. In the second, non-trivial sense, a good philosophical objection broadens and deepens our understanding of the problems at issue, whether or not they manage to refute (...)
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  50. Gyula Klima (2003). Essay Review. History and Philosophy of Logic 24 (2):135-140.
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