Soit Π une théorie complète de corps pseudo-finis. L'objet de cet article est de montrer que, dans le langage des anneaux augmenté d'un symbole de prédicat unaire (pour le petit corps), la théorie des paires élémentaires non triviales de modèles de Π admet 2n0 complétions, soit le maximum envisageable. /// Let Π be a complete theorie of pseudo-finite fields. In this article we prove that, in the langage of fields to which we add a unary predicate for a substructure, the (...) theory of non trivial elementary pairs of models of Π has 2 ℵ 0 completions, that is, the maximum that could exist. (shrink)
De auteur van dit artikel argumenteert dat het verschil tussen de continentale en de analytische traditie niet kan worden afgeleid uit het werk zelf van de filosofen, maar dat 'continentale filosofie' en 'analytische filosofie' een stempel is dat er van buitenaf wordt opgedrukt.
A comprehensive excursion, into anthropology, ethnography, linguistics, social and political science lead me to the conclusion that human societies are ruled by systems of shared concepts, and that these systems of thought function as a kind of public or external mind, which produces and maintain the social forms of life. Taking into account the fact that philosophy originally - in ancient Greece - was a ‘public affair’, I came up with the idea that philosophy should try to map the public (...) mind. In other words, the idea that philosophers should draw up a project for making what I call philosophical maps, i.e. maps of public thought. In what follows, I will give a brief account of this idea in the hope that other philosophers may draw inspiration from it. Of course, all this involves speculation, but it does not interfere with regular philosophy. It simply adds something to it from the outside as it were, that is from a descriptive point of view. As I will make clear, this idea is consistent with the efforts of Wittgenstein to achieve a radical descriptive philosophy. (shrink)
Experts identified water quality, manure, good handling practices (including personal hygiene and equipment sanitation), and traceability as critical farm problem areas that, if addressed, are likely to decrease risk associated with microbial contamination of fresh produce from all scales of agriculture. However, the diverse nature of production strategies used by produce farmers presents multiple options for addressing foodborne illness issues while simultaneously creating potential complications. We use a mental models methodology to enhance our understanding of the underlying factors and assumptions (...) of small, medium, and large produce growers that influence their decision-making processes for contamination prevention and control. This empirical evidence demonstrates how challenges and opportunities to food safety are related to the scale of production and marketing strategies. We believe that refining the development of standards and existing extension and outreach food safety programs are important to both consumer protection and supporting agricultural communities. Additionally, this approach will help develop and refine food safety programs that will result in empirically grounded recommendations based on identified grower information needs. (shrink)
Lorsqu’il fait référence, dans les traités 31 (V,8) et 48 (III,3) à la beauté d’Hélène, Plotin reprend un topos de la littérature grecque antique. Après avoir rappelé les différentes interprétations de cette figure controversée, on examine ici la façon dont Plotin, tout en rejoignant certaines de ces interprétations, retravaille ce topos (dans le cadre de sa polémique contre les Gnostiques) pour lui donner un sens nouveau.
In May 1933 the historian of chemistry Hélène Metzger addressed a letter to the renowned historian and philosopher of science Émile Meyerson, a cri de coeur against Meyerson's patronizing attitude toward her. This recently discovered letter is published and translated here because it is an exceptional human document reflecting the gender power structure of our discipline in interwar France. At the age of forty-three, and with five books to her credit, Metzger was still a junior scholar in the exclusively (...) male community of French historians and philosophers of science. We sketch the institutional setting of higher learning in France at the time, noting the limited openings it offered to would-be femmes savantes, and situate Metzger in this context. We also describe the philosophical differences between Metzger and Meyerson. Though Metzger never managed to obtain a post of her own, in her letter to Meyerson she forcefully lays claim, at least, to a mind of her own. (shrink)
In this article, I examine the historiographical ideas of the historian of chemistry Helene Metzger (1886-1944) against the background of the ideas of the members of the groups and institutions in which she worked, including Alexandre Koyre, Gaston Bachelard, Abel Rey, Henri Berr and Lucien Febrve. This article is on two interdependent levels: that of particular institutions and groups in which she worked (the Centre de Synthese, the International Committee for History of Science, the Institut d'Histoire des Sciences et Techniques (...) (Sorbonne) and the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes) and that of historiographical ideas. I individuate two particular theoretical aspirations pursued by the historians in Metzger's milieu: the ideal of total history and the study of the human mind. These two objectives were seen by Metzger and many others as implicating each other. Moreover, Metzger and other historians wanted to integrate the practice of commentary of texts in the realisations of those ideals. I argue, however, that these objectives proved very difficult to realise at the same time. One tradition which stemmed out of these discussions, exemplified by Bachelard, Canguilhem and Foucault, focused on the mind and knowledge, and renounced commentary of texts and total history as it was understood by the historians of the Centre de Synthese. The latter, however, did not really pursue the study of the mind. Moreover, historians like Metzger and Koyre who practised an attentive analysis of texts could not realise total history. (shrink)
This article engages with the philosophical reflections of the French historian of science Hélène Metzger (1886–1944) in order to develop a vocabulary for understanding the rise of non-reductive Continental naturalism in the contemporary humanities. The bibliography of current naturalist approaches in the arts and the human sciences is still in the making, but it is altogether clear that the trend is not scientist or historicist or relativist. This epistemological diagnosis refers us to Metzger, who found herself surrounded with the (...) logical positivism of the Wiener Kreis, on the one hand, and the historicism of her French colleagues, on the other, as well as with the infiltration of the history of science by a chronological empiricism. In this article I will take the most recent book of Vicki Kirby – Quantum Anthropologies: Life at Large from 2011 – as an exemplary case of non-reductive Continental naturalist scholarship in the humanities today and by reading it through the concepts of Metzger, I will demonstrate how this type of research leads to refreshing insights in what constitutes positive humanities knowledge and what is the role of the a priori in the field. (shrink)
In this essay I examine Hélène Cixous's readings and figurings of women in colonial and decolonizing cultural spaces and slippages between universalized Western metaphors and metonyms and their colonial and orientalist significance. These readings, figurings, and slippages provide a supplementary framing of Cixous's utopian model of intersubjective exchange, her representation of the relation between materiality and textuality, and her universalization of the singular transcendental subject.
Pour accompagner l’exposition Mélancolie, génie et folie en Occident, la Réunion des musées nationaux fait paraître une histoire de la mélancolie rédigée par l’historienne de l’art Hélène Prigent, sorte de catalogue condensé des œuvres présentées au public entre la fin de l’année 2005 et le début de 2006, qui reprend d’ailleurs le découpage thématique et chronologique retenu par Jean Clair. Le projet est ambitieux puisqu’il s’agit de rendre compte de la persistance de ce thème depuis l’Antiqu..
Hélène Cixous has written a substantial body of writings about art. This article borrows Derrida's conception of the countersignature to explore the relationship she envisages in them between the plastic arts and writing. It argues that the works to which Cixous is drawn, many of which involve copying words, are driven by the desire to capture what is essentially uncapturable in the artist's idiom. Recognizing in them a displacement of her own concerns, Cixous suggests in these texts that all (...) art speaks a common language in so far as it represents the same attempt to pass beyond its own limits, visual or verbal. Writing and painting are thus as much translations of each other as one language is of another. In particular, their status as translations or copies profoundly troubles the possibility of determining the signatory of the text. (shrink)
This essay argues that Hélène Cixous's writings on theatre demonstrate an ongoing concern with the non-theorizable as a fundamental element of her experience of theatre. This creates a tension between Cixous's role as a theorist and her role as a creative writer, and this essay explores how this tension manifests itself in her reflections on theatre. It looks at the strategies Cixous adopts to allow the non-theoretical to inflect her critical and creative writing, focusing on her denial of specialist (...) knowledge about theatre, her conception of the theatre text in opposition to meditation and philosophical reflection, and on her attempts to model her own playwriting process on the practical work of actors and director Ariane Mnouchkine. Cixous's attraction to the non-theorizable, it is suggested, leads to a more poetic mode of criticism about the medium that draws both on embodied theatrical practice and the self/other relationships that structure theatre making. (shrink)
RÉSUMÉ Hélène Cixous a écrit de nombreux essais, consacrés pour la plupart à l?écriture, la sienne et celle d?autres auteurs. Pourtant la place que le genre de l?essai occupe dans l??uvre de l?auteure est loin d?être claire. Face aux fictions cixousiennes appréciées comme étant les véritables ?essais? au sens montaignien du terme, se trouvent les essais en question, souvent écrits à la suite d?une demande extérieure. L?essai même constitue-t-il un genre cixousien à part entière? Une analyse diachronique, qui nous (...) mènera des grands textes qu?Hélène Cixous a écrits en réponse aux urgences de son époque aux textes plus récents dédiés à l?intimité du processus de l?écriture, situera l?essai et son évolution à l?intérieur du développement de son ?uvre. (shrink)