When a hydrostatic pressure is applied to a metal containing particles or inclusions of different elastic constant, the local shear stresses which develop can be large enough to cause the interface between the particle and the metal matrix to emit dislocations. We have measured the pressure (from which we calculate the local shear stresses) at which dislocations are first generated at SiO2 and Al2O3 particles in a copper matrix at room temperature. The critical pressure, and thus shear stress, depends on (...) the particle size. The maximum shear stress at the particle surface was about G/100 for 2000 Å diameter particles, rising to G/40 for 1000 Å diameter particles, where G is the shear modulus of the metal matrix. (shrink)
Open peer commentary on the article “Homeostats for the 21st Century? Simulating Ashby Simulating the Brain” by Stefano Franchi. Upshot: Ashby’s view of the organism as an essentially passive machine is not quite as original as the target article may suggest, since it can be traced to Freud’s pleasure principle and from there back to Fechner’s ideas about different kinds of stability in deterministic systems. A modification of the author’s distinction between “simulation of real objects” and “simulation of (...) concepts” is also suggested, and it is argued that the main aim of Ashby’s simulations was to explore the possibility of high-level (structural) explanations of real phenomena, especially learning and memory. (shrink)
This paper presents an enhanced ontology formalization, combining previous work in Conceptual Structure Theory and Order-Sorted Logic. Most existing ontology formalisms place greater importance on concept types, but in this paper we focus on relation types, which are in essence predicates on concept types. We formalize the notion of ‘predicate of predicates’ as meta-relation type and introduce the new hierarchy of meta-relation types as part of the ontology definition. The new notion of closure of a relation or meta-relation type is (...) presented as a means to complete that relation or meta-relation type by transferring extra arguments and properties from other related types. The end result is an expanded ontology, called the closure of the original ontology, on which automated inference could be more easily performed. Our proposal could be viewed as a novel and improved ontology formalization within Conceptual Structure Theory and a contribution to knowledge representation and formal reasoning (e.g., to build a query-answering system for legal knowledge). (shrink)
This paper addresses the problem of the distinction between basic science and applied science. It also explores their differences with regard to technology. For this analysis, as well as a general epistemological and methodological approach, we study a particular case: information science. As the emphasis of the paper is on the category of applied science, it includes a critical analysis of Philip Kitcher's proposal. First, there is an examination of Ph. Kitcher's thought, because he has addressed this issue without (...) offering a clear distinction between the various categories. I then consider the contributions of I. Niiniluoto, which determine in a more genuine way the features that distinguish applied science from basic science. Here, I focus on the ideas of H. A Simon on the science of design, to the extent that it is an applied science. This then allows us to shed light on the disciplinary field of information science, which is characterized as an applied science of design. This is a case that shows the need to distinguish three epistemological and methodological domains: basic science, applied science and technology. (shrink)
The current paper reports on a descriptive study involving a survey of accounting educators. Survey respondents were asked to rate the extent to which certain behaviors are deemed acceptable or unacceptable. The survey identified “hypernorms” (norms reflecting a high degree of consensus of what is acceptable or unacceptable behavior). These hypernorms were used to develop example ethical standards that can be used by a professional or academic association of accountants to develop a code of ethics for accounting educators.
This study empirically examined the views of Certified Internal Auditors (CIAs) concerning the role of Code of Ethics for members of the Institute of Internal Auditors. It is a continuation of an earlier study which examined the usefulness of the Code to CIAs. Among the questions asked were what is the primary reason for the Code of Ethics, how useful is it, have you used it, should more enforcement actions be taken against members who violate the Code, and what are (...) the legal and moral responsibilities of the CIA to report serious ethical violations, e.g., environmental pollution, to outsiders when top management and the board of directors are aware of the matter but are not doing anything to correct it. The results indicate strong support for the Code, its enforcement, and use as an instrument to encourage the internal flow of ethical behavior by embers and others. (shrink)
The longstanding interest in business ethics has been given renewed emphasis by high profile scandals in the world of business and finance. At the same time, many economists--dissatisfied with the discipline's emphasis on self-interest and individualism and by the asocial nature of much economic theory--have sought to englarge the scope of economics by looking at ethical questions. In Ethics and Economic Affairs a group of interdisciplinary scholars provide contributions on international interest in this aspect of socio-economics and economic-psychology. The book (...) is divided into four parts. The first looks at Business Ethics and Management. Part Two enlivens the debate with empirical data. The third part examines the implications for economic theory and asks if the integration of ethics in the economy is possible or if they are fundamentally different systems. Part Four introduces perspectives from other disciplines, sets economics within its wider context and looks to the future. The editors have brought together a group of contributors from nine different countries and a broad range of disciplines, including: Norman E. Bowie, Monroe Burk, Amitai Etzioni, Richard H. Guerette, Ralph E. Miner, Lynne M. Rosansky, N. Craig Smith, Roberts Stallaerts, Philip Stone and John Tomer. (shrink)