We investigate Kerr–Newman black holes in which a rotating charged ring-shaped singularity induces a region which contains closed timelike curves (CTCs). Contrary to popular belief, it turns out that the time orientation of the CTC is oppo- site to the direction in which the singularity or the ergosphere rotates. In this sense, CTCs “counter-rotate” against the rotating black hole. We have similar results for all spacetimes sufficiently familiar to us in which rotation induces CTCs. This motivates our conjecture that perhaps (...) this counter-rotation is not an accidental oddity particular to Kerr–Newman spacetimes, but instead there may be a general and intuitively comprehensible reason for this. (shrink)
We present a streamlined axiom system of special relativity in firs-order logic. From this axiom system we ``derive'' an axiom system of general relativity in two natural steps. We will also see how the axioms of special relativity transform into those of general relativity. This way we hope to make general relativity more accessible for the non-specialist.
A part of relativistic dynamics is axiomatized by simple and purely geometrical axioms formulated within first-order logic. A geometrical proof of the formula connecting relativistic and rest masses of bodies is presented, leading up to a geometric explanation of Einstein’s famous E = mc 2. The connection of our geometrical axioms and the usual axioms on the conservation of mass, momentum and four-momentum is also investigated.
In 1941, Tarski published an abstract, finitely axiomatized version of the theory of binary relations, called the theory of relation algebras, He asked whether every model of his abstract theory could be represented as a concrete algebra of binary relations. He and Jonsson obtained some initial, positive results for special classes of abstract relation algebras. But Lyndon showed, in 1950, that in general the answer to Tarski's question is negative. Monk proved later that the answer remains negative even if one (...) adjoins finitely many new axioms to Tarski's system. In this paper we describe a far-reaching generalization of the positive results of Jonsson and Tarski, as well as of some later, related results of Maddux. We construct a class of concrete models of Tarski's axioms-called coset relation algebras-that are very close in spirit to algebras of binary relations, but are built using systems of groups and cosets instead of elements of a base set. The models include all algebras of binary relations, and many non-representable relation algebras as well, We prove that every atomic relation algebra satisfying a certain measurability condition-a condition generalizing the conditions imposed by Jonsson and Tarski-is essentially isomorphic to a coset relation algebra. The theorem raises the possibility of providing a positive solution to Tarski's problem by using coset relation algebras instead of the standard algebras of binary relations. (shrink)
We shall show that certain natural and interesting intervals in the lattice of varieties of representable relation algebras embed the lattice of all subsets of the natural numbers, and therefore must have a very complicated lattice-theoretic structure.
The problem of whether Lambek Calculus is complete with respect to (w.r.t.) relational semantics, has been raised several times, cf. van Benthem (1989a) and van Benthem (1991). In this paper, we show that the answer is in the affirmative. More precisely, we will prove that that version of the Lambek Calculus which does not use the empty sequence is strongly complete w.r.t. those relational Kripke-models where the set of possible worlds,W, is a transitive binary relation, while that version of the (...) Lambek Calculus where we admit the empty sequence as the antecedent of a sequent is strongly complete w.r.t. those relational models whereW=U×U for some setU. We will also look into extendability of this completeness result to various fragments of Girard's Linear Logic as suggested in van Benthem (1991), p. 235, and investigate the connection between the Lambek Calculus and language models. (shrink)