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Everett W. Hall [56]J. B. Hall [50]Roland Hall [48]Ronald L. Hall [33]
Ned Hall [32]David L. Hall [26]F. W. Hall [25]Wayne Hall [21]

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Profile: Ned Hall (Harvard University)
Profile: Joshua Hall (Samford University)
Profile: Wayne Hall (State University of New York (SUNY))
Profile: James Hall (University College London)
Profile: Michael Hall (Syracuse University)
Profile: Michael Hall
Profile: Jenna Hall (University of Maryland (system-wide page))
Profile: Jamie Hall (Pomona College)
Profile: Robert Hall (University of Adelaide)
Profile: Katherine Hall (Bristol University)
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  1. Robert L. Campbell, Mark H. Bickhard, PO Box & Chandler-Ullmann Hall, Types of Constraints on Development: An Interactivist Approach.
    The interactivist approach to development generates a framework of types of constraints on what can be constructed. The four constraint types are based on: (1) what the constructed systems are about; (2) the representational relationship itself; (3) the nature of the systems being constructed; and (4) the process of construction itself. We give illustrations of each constraint type. Any developmental theory needs to acknowledge all four types of constraint; however, some current theories conflate different types of constraint, or rely on (...)
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  2. Austen Clark & Manchester Hall, Attention & Inscrutability.
    We assemble here in this time and place to discuss the thesis that conscious attention can provide knowledge of reference of perceptual demonstratives. I shall focus my commentary on what this claim means, and on the main argument for it found in the first five chapters of Reference and Consciousness. The middle term of that argument is an account of what attention does: what its job or function is. There is much that is admirable in this account, and I am (...)
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  3. Austen Clark & Manchester Hall, March 2004.
    We assemble here in this time and place to discuss the thesis that conscious attention can provide knowledge of reference of perceptual demonstratives. I shall focus my commentary on what this claim means, and on the main argument for it found in the first five chapters of Reference and Consciousness. The middle term of that argument is an account of what attention does: what its job or function is. There is much that is admirable in this account, and I am (...)
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  4. Austen Clark & Manchester Hall, Vicissitudes of Consciousness, Varieties of Correlates.
    If, as Ned Block has argued, consciousness is a mongrel concept, then this collection resembles nothing so much as a visit to a dog pound, where one can hear all the varieties baying, at full volume. The experience is one of immersion in a voluminous excited cacophony, with much yipping and barking, some deep-throated growling, and other voices that can only be characterized as howling at the moon. What a time to be conscious! What a time to be conscious of (...)
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  5. Michael G. Dyer & Boelter Hall, Computationalism, Neural Networks and Minds, Analog or Otherwise.
    A working hypothesis of computationalism is that Mind arises, not from the intrinsic nature of the causal properties of particular forms of matter, but from the organization of matter. If this hypothesis is correct, then a wide range of physical systems (e.g. optical, chemical, various hybrids, etc.) should support Mind, especially computers, since they have the capability to create/manipulate organizations of bits of arbitrarily complexity and dynamics. In any particular computer, these bit patterns are quite physical, but their particular physicality (...)
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  6. Jacob K. Goeree, Charles A. Holt & Rouss Hall, Ten Little Treasures of Game Theory and ten Intuitive Contradictions.
    This paper reports laboratory data for games that are played only once. These games span the standard categories: static and dynamic games with complete and incomplete information. For each game, the treasure is a treatment in which behavior conforms nicely to predictions of the Nash equilibrium or relevant refinement. In each case, however, a change in the payoff structure produces a large inconsistency between theoretical predictions and observed behavior. These contradictions are generally consistent with simple intuition based on the interaction (...)
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  7. Angell Hall, Functions, Creatures, Learning, Emotion.
    I propose a conceptual framework for emotions according to which they are best understood as the feedback mechanism a creature possesses in virtue of its function to learn. More specifically, emotions can be neatly modeled as a measure of harmony in a certain kind of constraint satisfaction problem. This measure can be used as error for weight adjustment (learning) in an unsupervised connectionist network.
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  8. David Hall & Christopher D. Manning, Labeled LDA: A Supervised Topic Model for Credit Attribution in Multi-Labeled Corpora.
    A significant portion of the world’s text is tagged by readers on social bookmarking websites. Credit attribution is an inherent problem in these corpora because most pages have multiple tags, but the tags do not always apply with equal specificity across the whole document. Solving the credit attribution problem requires associating each word in a document with the most appropriate tags and vice versa. This paper introduces Labeled LDA, a topic model that constrains Latent Dirichlet Allocation by defining a one-to-one (...)
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  9. David Hall & Christopher D. Manning, Studying the History of Ideas Using Topic Models.
    How can the development of ideas in a scientific field be studied over time? We apply unsupervised topic modeling to the ACL Anthology to analyze historical trends in the field of Computational Linguistics from 1978 to 2006. We induce topic clusters using Latent Dirichlet Allocation, and examine the strength of each topic over time. Our methods find trends in the field including the rise of probabilistic methods starting in 1988, a steady increase in applications, and a sharp decline of research (...)
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  10. David Hall, Christopher D. Manning, Daniel Cer & Chloe Kiddon, Learning Alignments and Leveraging Natural Logic.
    We describe an approach to textual inference that improves alignments at both the typed dependency level and at a deeper semantic level. We present a machine learning approach to alignment scoring, a stochastic search procedure, and a new tool that finds deeper semantic alignments, allowing rapid development of semantic features over the aligned graphs. Further, we describe a complementary semantic component based on natural logic, which shows an added gain of 3.13% accuracy on the RTE3 test set.
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  11. Goldwin Smith Hall, Adjectives in Context.
    0. Abstract In this paper, I argue that although the behavior of adjectives in context poses a serious challenge to the principle of compositionality of content, in the end such considerations do not defeat the principle. The first two sections are devoted to the precise statement of the challenge; the rest of the paper presents a semantic analysis of a large class of adjectives that provides a satisfactory answer to it. In section 1, I formulate the context thesis, according to (...)
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  12. Goldwin Smith Hall, John Heil, Nicholas Jolley, Norman Kretzmann & Lisa Shapiro, Locke On Supposing a Substratum.
    It is an old charge against Locke that his commitment to a common substratum for the observable qualities of particular objects and his empiricist theory about the origin of ideas are inconsistent with one another. How could we have an idea of something in which observable qualities inhere if all our ideas are constructed from ideas of observable qualities? In this paper, I propose an interpretation of the crucial passages in Locke, according to which the idea of substratum is formed (...)
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  13. Katherine Hall & Vivien Holmes, The Power of Rationalization to Influence Lawyers' Decisions to Act Unethically.
    This article explores the psychological literature on rationalization and connects it with contemporary questions about the role of in-house lawyers in ethical dilemmas. Using the case study of AWB Ltd, the exclusive marketer of Australian wheat exports overseas, it suggests that rationalizations were influential in the perpetuation by in-house lawyers of AWB's payment of kickbacks to the Iraqi regime. The article explores how lawyers' professional rationalizations can work together with commercial imperatives to prevent in-house lawyers from seeing ethical issues as (...)
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  14. Louis Marx Hall, The Ethics of Using Genetic Engineering for Sex Selection.
    It is quite probable that one will soon be able to use genetic engineering to select the gender of one’s child by directly manipulating the sex of an embryo. Some might think that this method would be a more ethical method of sex selection than present technologies such as preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), since, unlike PGD, it does not need to create and destroy “wrong-gendered” embryos. This paper argues that those who object to present technologies on the ground that the (...)
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  15. Morrill Hall, In Defense of Common Content.
    Sentences are often used by speakers to communicate thoughts about particular items. Call this de re communication. If a listener is to understand these uses, she must form interpretations of them that are sufficiently similar to the thoughts they express. This similarity between the thoughts on both sides should be anchored in some principled fashion in the content of the utterances. In this essay, I critically discuss a theory of de re communication and utterance content that Anne Bezuidenhout has recently (...)
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  16. Morrill Hall, What Do You Have In Mind?
    Consider the difference between reaching over to the desk to grab your copy of Kant’s first Critique and reaching over to grab some book or other. This is the difference between an action directed on a specific thing and an action directed on something, but no one thing in particular. In the first case, you will be successful only if you grab your copy of Kant—only one book will do; in the second, you will be successful if you grab a (...)
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  17. Ned Hall & Alan Hájek, Induction and Probability.
    Arguably, Hume's greatest single contribution to contemporary philosophy of science has been the problem of induction (1739). Before attempting its statement, we need to spend a few words identifying the subject matter of this corner of epistemology. At a first pass, induction concerns ampliative inferences drawn on the basis of evidence (presumably, evidence acquired more or less directly from experience)—that is, inferences whose conclusions are not (validly) entailed by the premises. Philosophers have historically drawn further distinctions, often appropriating the term (...)
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  18. Phillips Hall, Are Judges Morally Obligated to Apply the Law?
    As a conscientious moral agent, a judge in a court of law often finds herself in a difficult position. She is confident that the law requires a certain result in the case before her, but she is at least as confident that this legally required result is unjust or otherwise morally objectionable. Consider some examples of cases in which a reasonable judge might consider herself to be in this position: ▪ The law of landlord and tenant can require a judge (...)
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  19. Phillips Hall, Book Proposal.
    When judges decide cases in courts of law, are they ethically obligated to apply the law correctly? Many people who think about legal systems believe so. The conviction that judges are “bound” by the law is common among lawyers, judges, legal scholars, and members of the general public. One of the most severe accusations one can make against a public official is that she has deviated from the law in her official capacity. The principle of judicial fidelity figures centrally in (...)
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  20. Phillips Hall, Legal Formalism, Stage-Neutrality, and Comparative Justice.
    Several writers have argued recently that optimal rules of law authorize morally suboptimal decisions in certain cases.1 Larry Alexander calls these “gap cases.”2 Should judges in gap cases defer to legal rules or deviate from them? Philosophers known as “formalists” favor deference, “particularists” favor deviation.
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  21. Phillips Hall, Rules That Bend Without Breaking.
    In the State of Bernstein, operating a motor vehicle on a suspended license is a misdemeanor, punishable by permanent loss of one’s license. Officer Krupke arrests everyone who does this, as Tony has. But Tony says, “Gee, Officer Krupke, can’t you bend the rules? I went to your high school, you know.” Tony’s using a euphemism. He’s really asking Krupke to break the rules. Is there, however, a non-euphemistic way to bend a rule of law, without breaking it? More (...)
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  22. Phillips Hall, Transcending the Debate Between Inclusive and Exclusive Legal Positivists.
    According to the standard positivist picture of law, each legal system contains a master rule that specifies criteria of legality for primary rules.1 A central debate in legal philosophy during the past twenty-five years has concerned the content of the master rule. Exclusive positivists (“exclusivists”) insist that the master rule can only make reference to social facts or sources: “pedigree” criteria.2 As Ronald Dworkin emphasizes, however, some rulings can’t be justified exclusively by reference to pedigreed legal norms.3 Judges sometimes (...)
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  23. Prentice Hall, Indeterminacy.
    It is well known that, for example, the Continuum Hypothesis can’t be proved or disproved from the standard axioms of set theory or their familiar extensions (unless those axiom systems are themselves inconsistent). Some think it follows that CH has no determinate truth value; others insist that this conclusion is false, not because there is some objective world of sets in which CH is either true or false, but on logical grounds. Claims of indeterminacy have also been made on the (...)
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  24. Steinway Hall, And the Truth Shall Make You Free: A Speech on the Principles of Social Freedom (1871).
    When a deed is done for Freedom, through the broad earthÂ’s aching breast Runs a thrill of joy prophetic, trembling on from East to West, And the slave, whereÂ’er he cowers, feels the soul within him climb To the awful verge of manhood, as the energy sublime Of a century bursts full-blossomed on the thorny stem of Time.
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  25. Tydings Hall, Honors 229F The Problem of Time: Puzzles About Time in Philosophy, Literature, and Film TuTh 11-12:15.
    In this course we will examine several philosophical puzzles concerning time. We all seem to experience time in a very fundamental and direct way. Yet once we begin to reflect on what time really is, it is easy to feel as puzzled as St Augustine was, who wrote: “If no one asks me, I know what [time] is. If I wish to explain it to him who asks me, I do not know.” The first set of issues we will discuss (...)
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  26. Wescoe Hall, Truth and the Past.
    The essays in this book exhibit a commendably high level of scholarship. They are written by an accomplished group of thinkers (some of them well-known and well-established and some of them relatively new and worth keeping in view). All the essays are new to this book (except the two on rights). The book is well produced (I noted only a dropped note superscript in Gaus’s chapter and a missing ‘not’ on p.
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  27. Williams Hall & Lucas Champollion, Binding Theory in LTAG.
    This paper provides a unification-based implementation of Binding Theory (BT) for the English language in the framework of feature-based lexicalized tree-adjoining grammar (LTAG). The grammar presented here does not actually coindex any noun phrases, it merely outputs a set of constraints on co- and contraindexation that may later be processed by a separate anaphora resolution module. It improves on previous work by implementing the full BT rather than just Condition A. The main technical innovation consists in allowing lists to appear (...)
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  28. Adam Leite & Sycamore Hall, Aleite@Indiana.Edu.
    In Knowledge and Its Limits, Timothy Williamson argues that knowledge is a purely mental state, that is, that it is never a complex state or condition comprising mental factors and non-mental, environmental factors. Three of his arguments are evaluated: arguments from (1) the non-analyzability of the concept of knowledge, (2) the “primeness” of knowledge, and (3) the (alleged) inability to satisfactorily specify the “internal” element involved in knowledge. None of these arguments succeeds. Moreover, consideration of the third argument points the (...)
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  29. Bang Nguyen Pham, Wayne Hall, Peter S. Hill & Chalapati Rao, Analysis of Socio-Political and Health Practices Influencing Sex Ratio at Birth in Viet Nam.
    Viet Nam has experienced rapid social change over the last decade, with a remarkable decline in fertility to just below replacement level. The combination of fertility decline, son preference, antenatal sex determination using ultrasound and sex selective abortion are key factors driving increased sex ratios at birth in favour of boys in some Asian countries. Whether or not this is taking place in Viet Nam as well is the subject of heightened debate. In this paper, we analyse the nature and (...)
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  30. Kelly C. Smith & Hardin Hall, Scientific Contribution.
      What exactly is a genetic disease? For a phrase one hears on a daily basis, there has been surprisingly little analysis of the underlying concept. Medical doctors seem perfectly willing to admit that the etiology of disease is typically complex, with a great many factors interacting to bring about a given condition. On such a view, descriptions of diseases like cancer as genetic seem at best highly simplistic, and at worst philosophically indefensible. On the other hand, there is (...)
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  31. S. H. Vollmer & N. S. Hall, Guide and Case Studies.
    The goal of this small book and accompanying DVD is to help you to have a better experience in your laboratory by getting you to step back and take a global look at what is involved in making progress in the laboratory.
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  32. Caldwell Hall & Chapel Hill, Is the 'Trade-Off Hypothesis' Worth Trading For?†.
    Edouard Machery's paper, ‘The Folk Concept of Intentional Action: Philosophical and Psychological Issues,’ puts forth an intriguing new hypothesis concerning recent work in experimental philosophy on the concept of intentional action. As opposed to other hypotheses in the literature, Machery's 'trade-off hypothesis' claims not to rely on moral considerations in explaining folk uses of the concept. In this paper, we critique Machery's hypothesis and offer empirical evidence to reject it. Finally, (...) we evaluate the current state of the debate concerning the concept of intentional action, and motivate skepticism toward the plausibility of any parsimonious account of the relevant data. (shrink)
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  33. Ned Hall, Humean Reductionism About Laws of Nature.
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  34. Elizabeth S. Spelke & William James Hall, Number-Space Mapping in Human Infants.
    Mature representations of number are built on a core system of numerical representation that connects to spatial representations in the form of a ‘mental number line’. The core number system is functional in early infancy, but little is known about the origins of the mapping of numbers onto space. Here we show that preverbal infants transfer the discrimination of an ordered series of numerosities to the discrimination of an ordered series of line lengths. Moreover, infants construct relationships between individual numbers (...)
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  35. Daniel Steel & S. Kedzie Hall, Inductive Rules, Background Knowledge, and Skepticism.
    This essay defends the view that inductive reasoning involves following inductive rules against objections that inductive rules are undesirable because they ignore background knowledge and unnecessary because Bayesianism is not an inductive rule. I propose that inductive rules be understood as sets of functions from data to hypotheses that are intended as solutions to inductive problems. According to this proposal, background knowledge is important in the application of inductive rules and Bayesianism qualifies as an inductive rule. Finally, I consider a (...)
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  36. Valerie Tiberius & Alicia Hall, Normative Theory and Psychological Research: Hedonism, Eudaimonism and Why It Matters.
    This paper is a contribution to the debate about eudaimonism started by Kashdan, Biswas-Diener, King, and Waterman in a previous issue of The Journal of Positive Psychology. We point out that one thing that is missing from this debate is an understanding of the problems with subjective theories of well-being that motivate a turn to objective theories. A better understanding of the rationale for objective theories helps us to see what is needed from a theory of well-being. We then argue (...)
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  37. Nancy Berlinger, Pauline W. Chen, Rebecca Dresser, Nancy Neveloff Dubler, Anne Lederman Flamm, Susan Gilbert, Mark A. Hall & Lisa H. Harris (forthcoming). Elizabeth Mitchell Armstrong is Asso. Hastings Center Report.
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  38. Daniel Callahan, Lydia S. Dugdale & Mark A. Hall (forthcoming). Adrienne M. Martin is Assistant. Hastings Center Report.
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  39. A. Carter & W. Hall (forthcoming). Addiction and Autonomy: What Can Neuroscience Tell Us. 11th Annual Conference of the Australasian Bioethics Association.
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  40. Neil Cohen, Westminster Hall, Eighth Annual Honors, Kevin Kardona, Brune Room, Jeffrey Dunoff, Minton Environmental, Livable Communities, Philadelphia Alumni & BalIaFd Spahr Andrews (forthcoming). Stay in Touch! Legal Theory.
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  41. Laura Dean, William E. Hall & John L. Martin (forthcoming). Chronic and Intermittent AIDS: Related Bereavement in a Panel of Homosexual Men in New York City. Journal of Palliative Care.
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  42. Rony E. Duncan, Annette C. Hall & Ann Knowles (forthcoming). Ethical Dilemmas of Confidentiality with Adolescent Clients: Case Studies From Psychologists. Ethics and Behavior:140611103417005.
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  43. E. Eve Esslinger, Charles P. Schade, Cynthia K. Sun, Ying Hua Sun, Jill Manna, Bethany Knowles Hall, Shanen Wright, Karen L. Hannah & Janet R. Lynch (forthcoming). Exploratory Analysis of the Relationship Between Home Health Agency Engagement in a National Campaign and Reduction in Acute Care Hospitalization in US Home Care Patients. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice:n/a-n/a.
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  44. Michael A. Flatt & Mark A. Hall (forthcoming). Timothy Stoltzfus Jost Holds The. Hastings Center Report.
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  45. A. Rupert Hall (forthcoming). Merton Revisited Or. History of Science.
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  46. A. Rupert Hall (forthcoming). Science, Technology and Utopia in the Seventeenth Century. Science and Society.
     
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  47. Andrew J. Hall (forthcoming). Public Health Trials in West Africa: Logistics and Ethics. Irb.
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  48. D. G. Hall, S. R. Waxman, S. Bredart & A. C. Nicolay (forthcoming). Young Children's Understanding of Proper Names and Descriptions. Cognition.
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  49. Dobo Hall & Mark Cunningham (forthcoming). Subscribe|. The Harvard Review of Philosophy.
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  50. E. M. Hall (forthcoming). The Geography of Euripides' Iphigeneia Among the Taurians. American Journal of Philology.
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