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  1. Johan van Benthem, Hans van Ditmarsch & Jan van Eijck, Logica in Actie.
    Meer informatie over de uitgaven van Sdu Uitgevers en Academic Service kunt u verkrijgen bij: Sdu Klantenservice Postbus 20014 2500 EA Den Haag tel.: (070) 378 98 80 www.sdu.nl/service..
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  2. Hans van Ditmarsch & Jan van Eijck, One Hundred Prisoners and a Lightbulb — the Logic.
    We model the ‘100 prisoners and a lightbulb’ puzzle in an epistemic logic incorporating dynamic operators for the effects of information changing events. Such events include both informative actions, where agents become more informed about the non-changing state of the world, and factual changes, wherein the world and the facts describing it change themselves as well. We specify the underlying nondeterministic protocol and verify its postconditions in a recent extension of the model checker DEMO with factual change. We also present (...)
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  3. Hans van Ditmarsch & Jan van Eijck, One Hundred Prisoners and a Lightbulb — Logic and Computation.
    This is a case-study in knowledge representation. We analyze the ‘one hundred prisoners and a lightbulb’ puzzle. In this puzzle it is relevant what the agents (prisoners) know, how their knowledge changes due to observations, and how they affect the state of the world by changing facts, i.e., by their actions. These actions depend on the history of previous actions and observations. Part of its interest is that all actions are local, i.e. not publicly observable, and part of the problem (...)
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  4. Hans van Ditmarsch, Jan van Eijck & Yanjing Wang, On the Logic of Lying.
    We look at lying as an act of communication, where (i) the proposition that is communicated is not true, (ii) the utterer of the lie knows that what she communicates is not true, and (iii) the utterer of the lie intends the lie to be taken as truth. Rather than dwell on the moral issues, we provide a sketch of what goes on logically when a lie is communicated. We present a complete logic of manipulative updating, to analyse the effects (...)
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  5. Hans van Ditmarsch (forthcoming). Johan van Benthem, Modal Logic for Open Minds, CSLI Lecture Notes, Stanford University, 2010, Pp. 350. ISBN: 9781575865997 (Hardcover) US 70.00,ISBN:9781575865980(Paperback)US 30.00. [REVIEW] Studia Logica.
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  6. Hans van Ditmarsch & Tim French (2014). Semantics for Knowledge and Change of Awareness. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 23 (2):169-195.
    We examine various logics that combine knowledge, awareness, and change of awareness. An agent can become aware of propositional propositions but also of other agents or of herself. The dual operation to becoming aware, forgetting, can also be modelled. Our proposals are based on a novel notion of structural similarity that we call awareness bisimulation, the obvious notion of modal similarity for structures encoding knowledge and awareness.
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  7. Giacomo Bonanno, Hans van Ditmarsch & Wiebe van der Hoek (2013). Editorial Introduction to the Special Issue LOFT Sevilla. Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (6):795-798.
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  8. Andrés Cordón Franco, Hans van Ditmarsch & Angel Nepomuceno (2013). Dynamic Consequence and Public Announcement. Review of Symbolic Logic 6 (4):659-679.
    In van Benthem (2008), van Benthem proposes a dynamic consequence relation defined as \$$\psi _1}, \ldots ,{\psi _n}{ \models ^d}\phi \,{\rm{iff}}{ \models ^{pa}}[{\psi _1}] \ldots [{\psi _n}]\phi \$$ where the latter denotes consequence in public announcement logic, a dynamic epistemic logic. In this paper we investigate the structural properties of a conditional dynamic consequence relation \$$models _{\rm{\Gamma }}^\$$ extending van Benthem, inspired by Makinson (2003) wherein Makinson calls this reasoning a set Γ. In the presence of common knowledge, conditional dynamic (...)
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  9. Hans van Ditmarsch (2013). Dynamics of Lying. Synthese 191 (5):1-33.
    We propose a dynamic logic of lying, wherein a ‘lie that $\varphi $ ’ (where $\varphi $ is a formula in the logic) is an action in the sense of dynamic modal logic, that is interpreted as a state transformer relative to the formula $\varphi $ . The states that are being transformed are pointed Kripke models encoding the uncertainty of agents about their beliefs. Lies can be about factual propositions but also about modal formulas, such as the beliefs of (...)
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  10. Hans van Ditmarsch (2013). Revocable Belief Revision. Studia Logica 101 (6):1185-1214.
    Krister Segerberg proposed irrevocable belief revision, to be contrasted with standard belief revision, in a setting wherein belief of propositional formulas is modelled explicitly. This suggests that in standard belief revision is revocable: one should be able to unmake (‘revoke’) the fresh belief in the revision formula, given yet further information that contradicts it. In a dynamic epistemic logical setting for belief revision, for multiple agents, we investigate what the requirements are for revocable belief revision. By this we not merely (...)
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  11. Hans van Ditmarsch & Jérôme Lang (2013). Editorial Introduction to the Special Issue LORI Guangzhou. Synthese 190 (1):1-4.
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  12. Hans van Ditmarsch, Andreas Herzig & Tiago De Lima (2012). Public Announcements, Public Assignments and the Complexity of Their Logic. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 22 (3):249-273.
    We study the extension of public announcement logic PAL by public assignments, which we call PALA. Just as in the case of PAL, the standard procedure for deciding PALA validity, i.e. the use of so-called reduction axioms to translate PALA formulae into formulae in epistemic logic EL, may lead to exponential growth. In this paper, we show that such a price is not mandatory, for we provide a polynomial translation of PALA into EL. This is based on abbreviations of subformulae (...)
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  13. Thomas Ågotnes, Johan van Benthem, Hans van Ditmarsch & Stefan Minica (2011). Question–Answer Games. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 21 (3-4):265-288.
    We propose strategic games wherein the strategies consist of players asking each other questions and answering those questions. We study simplifications of such games wherein two players simultaneously ask each other a question that the opponent is then obliged to answer. The motivation for our research is to model conversation including the dynamics of questions and answers, to provide new links between game theory and dynamic logics of information, and to exploit the dynamic/strategic structure that, we think, lies implicitly inside (...)
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  14. Thomas Ågotnes & Hans van Ditmarsch (2011). What Will They Say?—Public Announcement Games. Synthese 179 (1):57-85.
    Dynamic epistemic logic describes the possible information-changing actions available to individual agents, and their knowledge pre- and post conditions. For example, public announcement logic describes actions in the form of public, truthful announcements. However, little research so far has considered describing and analysing rational choice between such actions, i.e., predicting what rational self-interested agents actually will or should do. Since the outcome of information exchange ultimately depends on the actions chosen by all the agents in the system, and assuming that (...)
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  15. Bengt Hansson, Hans van Ditmarsch, Pascal Engel, Sven Ove Hansson, Vincent Hendricks, Søren Holm, Pauline Jacobson, Anthonie Meijers, Henry S. Richardson & Hans Rott (2011). A Theoria Round Table on Philosophy Publishing. Theoria 77 (2):104-116.
    As part of the conference commemorating Theoria's 75th anniversary, a round table discussion on philosophy publishing was held in Bergendal, Sollentuna, Sweden, on 1 October 2010. Bengt Hansson was the chair, and the other participants were eight editors-in-chief of philosophy journals: Hans van Ditmarsch (Journal of Philosophical Logic), Pascal Engel (Dialectica), Sven Ove Hansson (Theoria), Vincent Hendricks (Synthese), Søren Holm (Journal of Medical Ethics), Pauline Jacobson (Linguistics and Philosophy), Anthonie Meijers (Philosophical Explorations), Henry S. Richardson (Ethics) and Hans Rott (Erkenntnis).
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  16. Hans van Ditmarsch, Rohit Parikh & Ramaswamy Ramanujam (2011). Logic in India—Editorial Introduction. Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (5):557-561.
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  17. Hans van Ditmarsch, Wiebe van der Hoek & Petar Iliev (2011). Everything is Knowable – How to Get to Know Whether a Proposition is True. Theoria 78 (2):93-114.
    Fitch showed that not every true proposition can be known in due time; in other words, that not every proposition is knowable. Moore showed that certain propositions cannot be consistently believed. A more recent dynamic phrasing of Moore-sentences is that not all propositions are known after their announcement, i.e., not every proposition is successful. Fitch's and Moore's results are related, as they equally apply to standard notions of knowledge and belief (S 5 and KD45, respectively). If we interpret ‘successful’ as (...)
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  18. Hans van Ditmarsch (2010). New Essays on the Knowability Paradox – Edited by Joe Salerno. Theoria 76 (3):270-273.
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  19. Hans van Ditmarsch & Jan van Eijck (2010). Verifying One Hundred Prisoners and a Lightbulb. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 20 (3):173-191.
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  20. Hans van Ditmarsch, Andreas Herzig, Jérôme Lang & Pierre Marquis (2009). Introspective Forgetting. Synthese 169 (2):405-423.
    We model the forgetting of propositional variables in a modal logical context where agents become ignorant and are aware of each others’ or their own resulting ignorance. The resulting logic is sound and complete. It can be compared to variable-forgetting as abstraction from information, wherein agents become unaware of certain variables: by employing elementary results for bisimulation, it follows that beliefs not involving the forgotten atom(s) remain true.
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  21. Hans van Ditmarsch, Brian Hill & Ondrej Majer (2009). Logic of Change, Change of Logic. Synthese 171 (2):227-234.
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  22. Hans van Ditmarsch & Lawrence S. Moss (2009). Special Issue on the Occasion of Johan Van Benthem's 60th Birthday—Editorial. Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (6):587-588.
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  23. Philippe Balbiani, Alexandru Baltag, Hans van Ditmarsch, Andreas Herzig, Tomohiro Hoshi & Tiago de Lima (2008). Knowable' as 'Known After an Announcement. Review of Symbolic Logic 1 (3):305-334.
    Public announcement logic is an extension of multiagent epistemic logic with dynamic operators to model the informational consequences of announcements to the entire group of agents. We propose an extension of public announcement logic with a dynamic modal operator that expresses what is true after any announcement: after which , does it hold that Kφ? We give various semantic results and show completeness for a Hilbert-style axiomatization of this logic. There is a natural generalization to a logic for arbitrary events.
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  24. van Ditmarsch, Hans & Kooi, Barteld, Semantic Results for Ontic and Epistemic Change.
    Hans van Ditmarsch and Barteld Kooi (2008). Semantic results for ontic and epistemic change. In: G. Bonanno, W. van der Hoek and M. Wooldridge (editors). Logic and the Foundations of Game and Decision Theory (LOFT 7). Texts in Logic and Games 3, pp. 87-117, Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam.
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  25. Hans P. van Ditmarsch (2007). Comments to 'Logics of Public Communications'. Synthese 158 (2):181-187.
    Take your average publication on the dynamics of knowledge. In one of its first paragraphs you will probably encounter a phrase like “a logic of public announcements was first proposed by Plaza in 1989 (Plaza 1989).” Tracking down this publication seems easy, because googling its title ‘Logics of Public Communications’ takes you straight to Jan Plaza’s website where it is online available in the author’s own version, including, on that page, very helpful and full bibliographic references to the proceedings in (...)
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  26. Hans Van Ditmarsch & Andreas Herzig (2007). Foreword. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 17 (2):125-128.
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  27. Hans van Ditmarsch & Willem Labuschagne (2007). Changing Minds: The Role of Beliefs in Cognitive Dynamics. Synthese 155 (1).
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  28. Hans van Ditmarsch & Willem Labuschagne (2007). My Beliefs About Your Beliefs: A Case Study in Theory of Mind and Epistemic Logic. Synthese 155 (2):191-209.
    We model three examples of beliefs that agents may have about other agents’ beliefs, and provide motivation for this conceptualization from the theory of mind literature. We assume a modal logical framework for modelling degrees of belief by partially ordered preference relations. In this setting, we describe that agents believe that other agents do not distinguish among their beliefs (‘no preferences’), that agents believe that the beliefs of other agents are in part as their own (‘my preferences’), and the special (...)
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  29. Hans P. Van Ditmarsch (2006). The Logic of Pit. Synthese 149 (2):343-374.
    Pit is a multi-player card game that simulates the commodities trading market, and where actions consist of bidding and of swapping cards. We present a formal description of the knowledge and change of knowledge in that game. The description is in a standard language for dynamic epistemics expanded with assignment. Assignment is necessary to describe that cards change hands. The formal description is a prerequisite to model Pit in game theory. The main contribution of this paper should be seen as (...)
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  30. Hans Van Ditmarsch & Barteld Kooi (2006). The Secret of My Success. Synthese 151 (2):201-232.
    In an information state where various agents have both factual knowledge and knowledge about each other, announcements can be made that change the state of information. Such informative announcements can have the curious property that they become false because they are announced. The most typical example of that is ‘fact p is true and you don’t know that’, after which you know that p, which entails the negation of the announcement formula. The announcement of such a formula in a given (...)
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  31. Hans P. Van Ditmarsch (2005). Prolegomena to Dynamic Logic for Belief Revision. Synthese 147 (2):229-275.
    In ‘belief revision’ a theory is revised with a formula φ resulting in a revised theory . Typically, is in , one has to give up belief in by a process of retraction, and φ is in . We propose to model belief revision in a dynamic epistemic logic. In this setting, we typically have an information state (pointed Kripke model) for the theory wherein the agent believes the negation of the revision formula, i.e., wherein is true. The revision with (...)
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  32. Hans P. van Ditmarsch (2005). The Case of the Hidden Hand. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 15 (4):437-452.
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  33. Hans van Ditmarsch & Barteld Kooi (2005). Een Analyse van de Hangman Paradox in Dynamische Epistemische Logica. Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Wijsbegeerte 97:16-30.
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  34. Hans van Ditmarsch (2004). 2004 Annual Conference of the Australasian Association for Logic, Dunedin, New Zealand January 17-18, 2004. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 10 (3):447-451.
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  35. Hans van Ditmarsch & С Ross Brady (2004). Dunedin, New Zealand January 17–18, 2004. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 10 (3).
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  36. Hans van Ditmarsch (2003). The Russian Cards Problem. Studia Logica 75 (1):31-62.
    Suppose we have a stack of cards that is divided over some players. For certain distributions of cards it is possible to communicate your hand of cards to another player by public announcements, without yet another player learning any of your cards. A solution to this problem consists of some sequence of announcements and is called an exchange. It is called a direct exchange if it consists of (the minimum of) two announcements only. The announcements in an exchange have a (...)
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  37. Hans P. van Ditmarsch (2002). Descriptions of Game Actions. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 11 (3):349-365.
    To describe simultaneous knowledge updates for different subgroups we propose anepistemic language with dynamic operators for actions. The language is interpreted onequivalence states (S5 states). The actions are interpreted as state transformers. Two crucial action constructors are learning and local choice. Learning isthe dynamic equivalent of common knowledge. Local choice aids in constraining theinterpretation of an action to a functional interpretation (state transformer).Bisimilarity is preserved under execution of actions. The language is applied todescribe various actions in card games.
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  38. Hans P. van Ditmarsch & Barteld P. Kooi (2002). Spelen met verandering en onzekerheid. Rationele-keuzetheorie en logica. Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Wijsbegeerte 94 (1).
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