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  1. Anton Amann & Harald Atmanspacher, Pref a Ce.
    In June 1998 Hans Primas turned 70 y ears old. Although he himself is not fond of jubilees and although he lik es to play the decimal system of numb ers do wn as contingent, this is nev ertheless a suitable o ccasion to re ect on the professional work of one of the rare distinguished contemp orary scientists who attach equal imp ortance to exp erimen tal and theoretical and conceptual lines of researc h. Hans Primas' in terests ha (...)
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  2. Harald Atmanspacher, Book Review Toward an Information Theoretical Implementation of Contextual Conditions for Consciousness. [REVIEW]
    A major driving force behind the attention that cognitive neuroscience has received in recent decades is the deep mystery of how consciousness is related to brain activity. Many scientists have been fascinated by the wealth of empirical data for individual neurons, neural assemblies, brain areas, and related psychological and behavioral features, and by progressively powerful computational tools to simulate corresponding cortical networks. At the same time, the interested public has been attracted by fancy illustrations of brain activity (e.g., from imaging (...)
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  3. Harald Atmanspacher, Contextual Emergence of Mental States From Neurodynamics.
    The emergence of mental states from neural states by partitioning the neural phase space is analyzed in terms of symbolic dynamics. Well-defined mental states provide contexts inducing a criterion of structural stability for the neurodynamics that can be implemented by particular partitions. This leads to distinguished subshifts of finite type that are either cyclic or irreducible. Cyclic shifts correspond to asymptotically stable fixed points or limit tori whereas irreducible shifts are obtained from generating partitions of mixing hyperbolic systems. These stability (...)
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  4. Harald Atmanspacher, Mind and Matter as Asymptotically Disjoint, Inequivalent Representations with Broken.
    Many philosophical and scientific discussions of topics of mind-matter research make implicit assumptions, in various guises, about the distinction between mind and matter. Currently predominant positions are based on either reduction or emergence, providing either monistic or dualistic scenarios. A more-involved framework of thinking, which can be traced back to Spinoza and Leibniz, combines the two scenarios, dualistic (with mind and matter separated) and monistic (with mind and matter unseparated), in one single picture. Based on such a picture, the transition (...)
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  5. Harald Atmanspacher & Robert C. Bishop, Stability Conditions in Contextual Emergence.
    The concept of contextual emergence is proposed as a non-reductive, yet welldefined relation between different levels of description of physical and other systems. It is illustrated for the transition from statistical mechanics to thermodynamical properties such as temperature. Stability conditions are crucial for a rigorous implementation of contingent contexts that are required to understand temperature as an emergent property. It is proposed that such stability conditions are meaningful for contextual emergence beyond physics as well.
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  6. Harald Atmanspacher & Jack Martin, An Authentic Life for Process Thinking.
    Jason Brown started his career as a neurologist specializing in language disorders, perceptive illusions, and impaired action. But beyond his activity as a physician he is a man of genuinely theoretical appetite. As satisfying as it is to help improve the situation of sick fellow humans, this alone does not characterize him well. Those who know him closer know his insistent urge to find a philosophical framework for his clinical practice and research, together with his desire for a more humane (...)
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  7. Harald Atmanspacher, A Semiotic Approach to Complex Systems.
    A key topic in the work of Burghard Rieger is the notion of meaning. To explore this notion, he and his collaborators developed a most sophisticated approach combining theoretical ideas and concepts of semiotics with empirical and numerical tools of computational linguistics (see [31] for a most recent comprehensive account). In the present contribution, relations of Rieger’s achievements to some issues of interest in the physics and philosophy of complex systems will be addressed.
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  8. Harald Atmanspacher, Brussels-Austin Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics: Large Poincar´E Systems and Rigged Hilbert Space.
    The fundamental problem on which Ilya Prigogine and the Brussels- Austin Group have focused can be stated briefly as follows. Our observations indicate that there is an arrow of time in our experience of the world (e.g., decay of unstable radioactive atoms like Uranium, or the mixing of cream in coffee). Most of the fundamental equations of physics are time reversible, however, presenting an apparent conflict between our theoretical descriptions and experimental observations. Many have thought that the observed arrow of (...)
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  9. Harald Atmanspacher, Complexity and Non-Commutativity of Learning Operations on Graphs.
    We present results from numerical studies of supervised learning operations in recurrent networks considered as graphs, leading from a given set of input conditions to predetermined outputs. Graphs that have optimized their output for particular inputs with respect to predetermined outputs are asymptotically stable and can be characterized by attractors which form a representation space for an associative multiplicative structure of input operations. As the mapping from a series of inputs onto a series of such attractors generally depends on the (...)
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  10. Harald Atmanspacher, Complementarity in Bistable Perception.
    The idea of complementarity already appears in William James’ (1890a, p. 206) Principles of Psychology in the chapter on “the relations of minds to other things”. Later, in 1927, Niels Bohr introduced complementarity as a fundamental concept in quantum mechanics. It refers to properties (observables) that a system cannot have simultaneously, and which cannot be simultaneously measured with arbitrarily high accuracy. Yet, in the context of classical physics they would both be needed for an exhaustive description of the system.
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  11. Harald Atmanspacher, Correlates of Perceptive Instabilities in Event-Related Potentials.
    The study of instabilities in perception has attracted much interest in recent decades. The presented investigations focus on electrophysiological correlates of orientation reversals of both ambiguous visual stimuli and alternating non-ambiguous stimuli, representing the two options of the ambiguous version. Based on a refined experimental setup, significant features in the event-related potentials associated with the perception of orientation reversal were found in both cases. Their occipital location, their early occurence (200–250 ms), and their latency difference (50 ms) offer interesting perspectives (...)
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  12. Harald Atmanspacher, Characterizing Spontaneous Irregular Behavior in Coupled Map Lattices.
    Two-dimensional coupled map lattices display, in a specific parameter range, a stable phase (quasi-) periodic in both space and time. With small changes to the model parameters, this stable phase develops spontaneous eruptions of nonperiodic behavior. Although this behavior itself appears irregular, it can be characterized in a systematic fashion. In particular, parameter-independent features of the spontaneous eruptions may allow useful empirical characterizations of other phenomena that are intrinsically hard to predict and reproduce. Specific features of the distributions of lifetimes (...)
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  13. Harald Atmanspacher, Extrinsic and Intrinsic Irreversibility in Probabilistic Dynamical Laws.
    Two distinct conceptions for the relation between reversible, time-reversal invariant laws of nature and the irreversible behavior of physical systems are outlined. The standard, extrinsic concept of irreversibility is based on the notion of an open system interacting with its environment. An alternative, intrinsic concept of irreversibility does not explicitly refer to any environment at all. Basic aspects of the two concepts are presented and compared with each other. The significance of the terms extrinsic and intrinsic is discussed.
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  14. Harald Atmanspacher, Extending the Philosophical Significance of the Idea of Complementarity.
    Summary. We discuss a specific way in which the notion of complementarity can be based on the dynamics of the system considered. This approach rests on an epistemic representation of system states, reflecting our knowledge about a system in terms of coarse grainings (partitions) of its phase space. Within such an epistemic quantization of classical systems, compatible, comparable, commensurable, and complementary descriptions can be precisely characterized and distinguished from each other. Some tentative examples are indicated that, we suppose, would have (...)
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  15. Harald Atmanspacher, Information Flow Between Weakly Interacting Lattices of Coupled Maps.
    Weakly interacting lattices of coupled maps can be modeled as ordinary coupled map lattices separated from each other by boundary regions with small coupling parameters. We demonstrate that such weakly interacting lattices can nevertheless have unexpected and striking effects on each other. Under specific conditions, particular stability properties of the lattices are significantly influenced by their weak mutual interaction. This observation is tantamount to an efficacious information flow across the boundary.
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  16. Harald Atmanspacher, Inherent Global Stabilization of Unstable Local Behavior in Coupled Map Lattices.
    The behavior of two-dimensional coupled map lattices is studied with respect to the global stabilization of unstable local fixed points without external control. It is numerically shown under which circumstances such inherent global stabilization can be achieved for both synchronous and asynchronous updating. Two necessary conditions for inherent global stabilization are derived analytically.
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  17. Harald Atmanspacher, Mind and Matter as Asymptotically Disjoint, Inequivalent Representations with Broken Time-Reversal Symmetry.
    body. While the latter areas are discussed mainly in fields such as the philosophy of mind, cognitive Many philosophical and scientific discussions of top-.
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  18. Harald Atmanspacher, Mental States as Macrostates Emerging From Brain Electrical Dynamics.
    Psychophysiological correlations form the basis for different medical and scientific disciplines, but the nature of this relation has not yet been fully understood. One conceptual option is to understand the mental as “emerging” from neural processes in the specific sense that psychology and physiology provide two different descriptions of the same system. Stating these descriptions in terms of coarser- and finer-grained system states macro- and microstates , the two descriptions may be equally adequate if the coarse-graining preserves the possibility to (...)
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  19. Harald Atmanspacher, Ontic and Epistemic Descriptions of Chaotic Systems.
    Traditional philosophical discourse draws a distinction between ontology and epistemology and generally enforces this distinction by keeping the two subject areas separated and unrelated. In addition, the relationship between the two areas is of central importance to physics and philosophy of physics. For instance, all kinds of measurement-related problems force us to consider both our knowledge of the states and observables of a system (epistemic perspective) and its states and observables independent of such knowledge (ontic perspective). This applies to quantum (...)
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  20. Harald Atmanspacher, Observer-Dependence of Chaos Under Lorentz and Rindler Transformations.
    The behavior of Lyapunov exponents λ and dynamical entropies h, whose positivity characterizes chaotic motion, under Lorentz and Rindler transformations is studied. Under Lorentz transformations, λ and h are changed, but their positivity is preserved..
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  21. Harald Atmanspacher, Preface.
    The machine sculpture “Klamauk” (English: hubbub) by the Swiss artist Jean Tinguely (1925–1991), featured on the cover, looks like a perfect example of a deterministic process, but it also looks as if thrown together “by chance”. This tension between determinism and chance has been of longstanding concern in the sciences and the humanities. And nowhere is this tension stronger than in debates about free will and our place in the world, where determinism seems bound to crowd freedom out of the (...)
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  22. Harald Atmanspacher, Problems of Reproducibility in Complex Mind-Matter Systems.
    Systems exhibiting relationships between mental states and material states, briefly mind-matter systems, offer epistemological and methodological problems exceeding those of systems with mental states or material states alone. Some of these problems can be addressed by proceeding from standard firstorder approaches to more sophisticated second-order approaches. These can illuminate questions of reference and validity, and their ramifications for the topic of reproducibility. For various situations in complex systems it is shown that second-order approaches need to be employed. Considering mind-matter systems (...)
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  23. Harald Atmanspacher, Quantenphilosophie.
    “Man klagt zu Unrecht, dass unsere Zeit keine Philosophen mehr habe”, pflegte der Theologe und Wissenschaftsorganisator von Harnack zu sagen, “sie sitzen nur jetzt in der anderen Fakult¨ at, und ihre Namen sind Planck und Einstein.” Mit beiden sind die Anf¨.
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  24. Harald Atmanspacher, 12 Springer.
    Please find attached the final pdf file of your contribution, which can be viewed using the Acrobat Reader, version 3.0 or higher. We would kindly like to draw your attention to the fact that copyright law is also valid for electronic products. This means especially that.
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  25. Harald Atmanspacher, Scientific Research Between Orthodoxy and Anomaly.
    Scientific research takes place in the field of tension between accepted coherent knowledge and not understood, not integrated fragments: between orthodoxy and anomaly. Orthodox knowledge is characterized by laws and norms which can be conceived formally (deterministic or statistical laws), methodologically (criteria for scientific work), or conceptually (frameworks of thinking, regulative principles). I propose to classify anomalies according to their feasibility of being systematically connected with accepted knowledge. In this way, one can distinguish anomalies at the frontier of our knowledge, (...)
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  26. Harald Atmanspacher, The Significance of Causally Coupled, Stable Neuronal Assemblies for the Psychological Time Arrow.
    Stable neuronal assemblies are generally regarded as neural correlates of mental representations. Their temporal sequence corresponds to the experience of a direction of time, sometimes called the psychological time arrow. We show that the stability of particular, biophysically motivated models of neuronal assemblies, called coupled map lattices, is supported by causal interactions among neurons and obstructed by non-causal or anti-causal interactions among neurons. This surprising relation between causality and stability suggests that those neuronal assemblies that are stable due to causal (...)
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  27. Harald Atmanspacher, Vi. Reflections on Process and Persons.
    This contribution reflects on Nicholas Rescher's discussion of “process and persons” in his book Process Metaphysics. Its main purposes are to offer conceptual commentary on some of Rescher's terms, and to suggest some options for process thinking more radical than Rescher's, partly motivated by recent developments in science and philosophy. First, a brief analysis of the relation between process and time is presented, emphasizing irreversibility and temporal holism as crucial for a processual worldview. Second, instability and transiency are introduced as (...)
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  28. Harald Atmanspacher, Zusammenfassung.
    ungster Zeit tritt allerdings im Selbstverst¨ andnis mancher Wissenschaftsbereiche die Rolle theoretischer Arbeit zunehmend zugunsten von anderen, zum Teil sachfremden Erw¨ agungen (wie etwa Aufmerksamkeit seitens von Medien und Wirtschaft) in den Hintergrund. Theoretische Arbeit wird in solchen F¨.
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  29. Adam Barrett & Harald Atmanspacher, Stability Criteria for the Contextual Emergence of Macrostates in Neural Networks.
    More than thirty years ago, Amari and colleagues proposed a statistical framework for identifying structurally stable macrostates of neural networks from observations of their microstates. We compare their stochastic stability criterion with a deterministic stability criterion based on the ergodic theory of dynamical systems, recently proposed for the scheme of contextual emergence and applied to particular inter-level relations in neuroscience. Stochastic and deterministic..
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  30. Harald Atmanspacher (2013). Appreciating a Hiley Respected Colleague. Foundations of Physics 43 (4):412-414.
  31. Harald Atmanspacher (2013). At Home in the Quantum World. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (3):276 - 277.
    One among many misleading quotations about the alleged mysteries of quantum theory is from Feynman (1965): Today we know that quantum theory describes many aspects of our world in a fully intelligible fashion. Pothos & Busemeyer (P&B) propose ways in which this may include psychology and cognitive science.
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  32. Harald Atmanspacher & Thomas Filk (2013). The Necker–Zeno Model for Bistable Perception. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (4):800-817.
    A novel conceptual framework for theoretical psychology is presented and illustrated for the example of bistable perception. A basic formal feature of this framework is the non-commutativity of operations acting on mental states. A corresponding model for the bistable perception of ambiguous stimuli, the Necker–Zeno model, is sketched and some empirical evidence for it so far is described. It is discussed how a temporal non-locality of mental states, predicted by the model, can be understood and tested.
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  33. Wolfgang Fach, Harald Atmanspacher, Karin Landolt, Thomas Wyss & Wulf Rössler (2013). A Comparative Study of Exceptional Experiences in Advice-Seeking Clients and in Ordinary Population. Frontiers in Psychology 1.
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  34. Zheng Wang, Jerome R. Busemeyer, Harald Atmanspacher & Emmanuel M. Pothos (2013). The Potential of Using Quantum Theory to Build Models of Cognition. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (4):672-688.
    Quantum cognition research applies abstract, mathematical principles of quantum theory to inquiries in cognitive science. It differs fundamentally from alternative speculations about quantum brain processes. This topic presents new developments within this research program. In the introduction to this topic, we try to answer three questions: Why apply quantum concepts to human cognition? How is quantum cognitive modeling different from traditional cognitive modeling? What cognitive processes have been modeled using a quantum account? In addition, a brief introduction to quantum probability (...)
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  35. Harald Atmanspacher (2012). Dual-Aspect Monism À la Pauli and Jung. Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (9-10):9-10.
    Dual-aspect monism and neutral monism offer interesting alternatives to mainstream positions concerning the mind-matter problem. Both assume a domain underlying the mind-matter distinction, but they also differ in definitive ways. In the twentieth century, variants of both positions have been advanced by a number of protagonists. One of these variants, the dual-aspect monism due toWolfgang Pauli and Carl Gustav Jung, will be described and commented on in detail. As a unique feature in the Pauli-Jung conception, the duality of mental and (...)
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  36. Harald Atmanspacher & Thomas Filk (2012). Contra Classical Causality Violating Temporal Bell Inequalities in Mental Systems. Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (5-6):5-6.
    Temporally non-local measurements -- single measurements yielding information about the state of a system at different instances-- may provide a way to observe non-classical behaviour in mental systems. The signature for such behaviour is a violation of temporal Bell inequalities. We present such inequalities applicable to scenarios with two alternating mental states, such as in the perception of ambiguous figures. We indicate empirical options for testing temporal Bell inequalities, and speculate about possible explanations in case these inequalities are indeed violated.
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  37. Harald Atmanspacher & Thomas Filk (2012). Determinism, Causation, Prediction, and the Affine Time Group. Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (5-6):5-6.
    This contribution addresses major distinctions between the notions of determinism, causation, and prediction, as they are typically used in the sciences. Formally, this can be elegantly achieved by two ingredients: (i) the distinction of ontic and epistemic states of a system, and (ii) temporal symmetry breakings based on the mathematical concept of the affine time group. Key aspects of the theory of deterministically chaotic systems together with historical quotations from Laplace, Maxwell, and Poincare provide significant illustrations. An important point of (...)
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  38. Jens Harbecke & Harald Atmanspacher (2012). Horizontal and Vertical Determination of Mental and Neural States. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 32 (3):161-179.
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  39. J. Scott Jordan, Harald Atmanspacher & Robert C. Bishop (2012). Varieties of Causation in Consciousness Studies. Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (5-6):5-6.
  40. Harald Atmanspacher (2011). Coincidentia Oppositorum An Interview with Jeffrey J. Kripal. Mind and Matter 9 (2):205-210.
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  41. Harald Atmanspacher & Stefan Rotter (2011). On Determinacy or its Absence in the Brain. In Richard Swinburne (ed.), Free Will and Modern Science. Oup/British Academy.
  42. Harald Atmanspacher (2010). Acategorial States in a Representational Theory of Mental Processes. Journal of Consciousness Studies 17 (5-6):5 - 6.
    We propose a distinction between precategorial, acategorial and categorial states within a scientifically oriented understanding of mental processes. This distinction can be specified by approaches developed in cognitive neuroscience and the analytical philosophy of mind. On the basis of a representational theory of mental processes, acategoriality refers to a form of knowledge that presumes fully developed categorial mental representations, yet refers to nonconceptual experiences in mental states beyond categorial states. It relies on a simultaneous experience of potential individual representations and (...)
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  43. Harald Atmanspacher (2007). Contextual Emergence From Physics to Cognitive Neuroscience. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (1-2):18-36.
    The concept of contextual emergence has been proposed as a non-reductive, yet well- defined relation between different levels of description of physical and other systems. It is illustrated for the transition from statistical mechanics to thermodynamical properties such as temperature. Stability conditions are shown to be crucial for a rigorous implementation of contingent contexts that are required to understand temperature as an emergent property. Are such stability conditions meaningful for contextual emergence beyond physics as well? An affirmative example from cognitive (...)
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  44. Harald Atmanspacher (2007). Editorial. Mind and Matter 5 (1):3-6.
    Dual-aspect approaches (or double-aspect approaches)consider mental and material domains of reality as aspects, or manifestations, of one underlying, unseparated reality. In such a framework, the distinction between mind and matter can be regarded as a basic tool for achieving epistemic access to, i.e. gather knowledge about, both the separated do- mains and the underlying reality. In this sense, the status of the underlying, psychophysically neutral domain is ontic relative to the mind-matter distinction.
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  45. Harald Atmanspacher (2006). Consciousness: A Mathematical Treatment of the Global Neuronal Workspace Model. Acta Biotheoretica 54 (2).
  46. Harald Atmanspacher (2006). Clarifications and Specifications. A Conversation with Henry Stapp. Journal of Consciousness Studies 13 (9):67-85.
  47. Harald Atmanspacher (2006). Contextual Emergence in the Description of Properties. Foundations of Physics 36 (12):1753-1777.
    The role of contingent contexts in formulating relations between properties of systems at different descriptive levels is addressed. Based on the distinction between necessary and sufficient conditions for interlevel relations, a comprehensive classification of such relations is proposed, providing a transparent conceptual framework for discussing particular versions of reduction, emergence, and supervenience. One of these versions, contextual emergence, is demonstrated using two physical examples: molecular structure and chirality, and thermal equilibrium and temperature. The concept of stability is emphasized as a (...)
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  48. Harald Atmanspacher (2006). Complementarity in Classical Dynamical Systems. Foundations of Physics 36 (2):291-306.
    The concept of complementarity, originally defined for non-commuting observables of quantum systems with states of non-vanishing dispersion, is extended to classical dynamical systems with a partitioned phase space. Interpreting partitions in terms of ensembles of epistemic states (symbols) with corresponding classical observables, it is shown that such observables are complementary to each other with respect to particular partitions unless those partitions are generating. This explains why symbolic descriptions based on an ad hoc partition of an underlying phase space description should (...)
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  49. Harald Atmanspacher (2006). Editorial. Mind and Matter 4 (1):3-5.
    Mind and Matter is conceived as an interdisciplinary journal, aimed at an educated readership interested in all aspects of mind-matter research from the perspectives of the sciences and humanities. It is devoted to the publication of empirical, theoretical, and conceptual research and the discussion of its results. The main subject areas of the journal are -- neuroscience, cognitive science, behavioral science -- physical approaches, mathematical modeling, data analysis -- philosophy of science, philosophy of mind, applied metaphysics --cultural and social studies, (...)
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  50. Harald Atmanspacher, Quantum Approaches to Consciousness. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    It is widely accepted that consciousness or, more generally, mental activity is in some way correlated to the behavior of the material brain. Since quantum theory is the most fundamental theory of matter that is currently available, it is a legitimate question to ask whether quantum theory can help us to understand consciousness. Several approaches answering this question affirmatively, proposed in recent decades, will be surveyed. It will be pointed out that they make different epistemological assumptions, refer to different neurophysiological (...)
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