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  1. Harold Kincaid & Jacqueline Anne Sullivan (2014). Classifying Psychopathology: Mental Kinds and Natural Kinds. In Harold Kincaid & Jacqueline Anne Sullivan (eds.), Classifying Psychopathology: Mental Kinds and Natural Kinds. MIT 1-10.
    In this volume, leading philosophers of psychiatry examine psychiatric classification systems, including the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), asking whether current systems are sufficient for effective diagnosis, treatment, and research. Doing so, they take up the question of whether mental disorders are natural kinds, grounded in something in the outside world. Psychiatric categories based on natural kinds should group phenomena in such a way that they are subject to the same type of causal explanations and respond similarly (...)
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  2.  96
    Harold Kincaid, John Dupré & Alison Wylie (eds.) (2007). Value-Free Science?: Ideals and Illusions. Oxford University Press.
    It has long been thought that science is our best hope for realizing objective knowledge, but that, to deliver on this promise, it must be value free. Things are not so simple, however, as recent work in science studies makes clear. The contributors to this volume investigate where and how values are involved in science, and examine the implications of this involvement for ideals of objectivity.
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  3. Don Ross, James Ladyman & Harold Kincaid (eds.) (2015). Scientific Metaphysics. Oxford University Press Uk.
    Original essays by leading philosophers of science explore the question of whether metaphysics can and should be naturalized--conducted as part of natural science. They engage with a range of approaches and disciplines to argue that if metaphysics is to be capable of identifying objective truths, it must be continuous with and inspired by science.
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  4.  40
    Harold Kincaid (1996). Philosophical Foundations of the Social Sciences: Analyzing Controversies in Social Research. Cambridge University Press.
    This book defends the prospects for a science of society. It argues that behind the diverse methods of the natural sciences lies a common core of scientific rationality that the social sciences can and sometimes do achieve. It also argues that good social science must be in part about large-scale social structures and processes and thus that methodological individualism is misguided. These theses are supported by a detailed discussion of actual social research, including theories of agrarian revolution, organizational ecology, social (...)
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  5. Timothy Day & Harold Kincaid (1994). Putting Inference to the Best Explanation in its Place. Synthese 98 (2):271-295.
    This paper discusses the nature and the status of inference to the best explanation. We outline the foundational role given IBE by its defenders and the arguments of critics who deny it any place at all ; argue that, on the two main conceptions of explanation, IBE cannot be a foundational inference rule ; sketch an account of IBE that makes it contextual and dependent on substantive empirical assumptions, much as simplicity seems to be ; show how that account avoids (...)
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  6.  50
    Don Ross, James Ladyman & Harold Kincaid (eds.) (2013). Scientific Metaphysics. Oxford University Press.
    Original essays by leading philosophers of science explore the question of whether metaphysics can and should be naturalized--conducted as part of natural science.
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  7. Harold Kincaid (1986). Reduction, Explanation, and Individualism. Philosophy of Science 53 (4):492-513.
    This paper contributes to the recently renewed debate over methodological individualism (MI) by carefully sorting out various individualist claims and by making use of recent work on reduction and explanation outside the social sciences. My major focus is on individualist claims about reduction and explanation. I argue that reductionist versions of MI fail for much the same reasons that mental predicates cannot be reduced to physical predicates and that attempts to establish reducibility by weakening the requirements for reduction also fail. (...)
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  8.  30
    Harold Kincaid (ed.) (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Social Science. Oxford University Press.
    This Handbook is a major, comprehensive look at the key ideas in the field, is guided by several principles.
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  9.  47
    Harold Kincaid & Don Ross (eds.) (2009). The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Economics. Oxford University Press.
    The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Economics is a cutting-edge reference work to philosophical issues in the practice of economics. It is motivated by the view that there is more to economics than general equilibrium theory, and that the philosophy of economics should reflect the diversity of activities and topics that currently occupy economists. Contributions in the Handbook are thus closely tied to ongoing theoretical and empirical concerns in economics. Contributors include both philosophers of science and economists. Chapters fall into (...)
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  10.  10
    Harold Kincaid (2011). Causal Modeling, Mechanism, and Probability in Epidemiology. In Phyllis McKay Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson (eds.), Causality in the Sciences. Oxford University Press 170--190.
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  11.  34
    Harold Kincaid & Jacqueline Anne Sullivan (2010). Medical Models of Addiction. In Kincaid Ross (ed.), What is Addiction?
    Biomedical science has been remarkably successful in explaining illness by categorizing diseases and then by identifying localizable lesions such as a virus and neoplasm in the body that cause those diseases. Not surprisingly, researchers have aspired to apply this powerful paradigm to addiction. So, for example, in a review of the neuroscience of addiction literature, Hyman and Malenka (2001, p. 695) acknowledge a general consensus among addiction researchers that “[a]ddiction can appropriately be considered as a chronic medical illness.” Like other (...)
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  12. Harold Kincaid (1990). Defending Laws in the Social Sciences. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 20 (1):56?83.
    This article defends laws in the social sciences. Arguments against social laws are considered and rejected based on the "open" nature of social theory, the multiple realizability of social predicates, the macro and/or teleological nature of social laws, and the inadequacies of belief-desire psychology. The more serious problem that social laws are usually qualified ceteris paribus is then considered. How the natural sciences handle ceteris paribus laws is discussed and it is argued that such procedures are possible in the social (...)
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  13. Harold Kincaid (2008). Structural Realism and the Social Sciences. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):720-731.
    After sorting different structuralist claims, I argue that structural realist ideas are instantiated in the social sciences, providing both clarification of social science research and support for some components of structural realism. My main focus is on three distinct ways that the social sciences can be about structural relations—exemplified by claims about social structure, reduced form structures in causal modeling, and equilibrium explanations—and on the implication of structuralist ideas for thinking about issues concerning causal explanation and nonreductive pictures of the (...)
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  14.  6
    David Spurrett, Don Ross, Harold Kincaid & Lynn Stephens (eds.) (2007). Distributed Cognition and the Will: Individual Volition and Social Context. MIT Press.
    Philosophers and behavioral scientists discuss what, if anything, of the traditionalconcept of individual conscious will can survive recent scientific discoveries that humandecision-making is distributed across different brain processes and ...
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  15.  51
    Don Ross, Harold Kincaid & David Spurrett (eds.) (2010). What Is Addiction? The MIT Press.
    Leading addiction researchers survey the latest findings in addiction science, countering the simplistic cultural stereotypes of the addict.
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  16.  7
    Harold Kincaid (2012). Some Issues Concerning the Nature of Economic Explanation. In Uskali Mäki, Dov M. Gabbay, Paul Thagard & John Woods (eds.), Philosophy of Economics. North Holland 137.
  17.  28
    Harold Kincaid (1990). Molecular Biology and the Unity of Science. Philosophy of Science 57 (4):575-593.
    Advances in molecular biology have generally been taken to support the claim that biology is reducible to chemistry. I argue against that claim by looking in detail at a number of central results from molecular biology and showing that none of them supports reduction because (1) their basic predicates have multiple realizations, (2) their chemical realization is context-sensitive and (3) their explanations often presuppose biological facts rather than eliminate them. I then consider the heuristic and confirmational implications of irreducibility and (...)
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  18.  35
    Harold Kincaid (2008). Do We Need Theory to Study Disease?: Lessons From Cancer Research and Their Implications for Mental Illness. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 51 (3):367-378.
  19.  63
    Harold Kincaid (2004). There Are Laws in the Social Sciences. In Christopher Hitchcock (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Science. Blackwell Publishing 168--186.
  20.  74
    Harold Kincaid (2004). Contextualism, Explanation and the Social Sciences. Philosophical Explorations 7 (3):201 – 218.
    Debates about explanation in the social sciences often proceed without any clear idea what an 'account' of explanation should do. In this paper I take a stance - what I will call contextualism - that denies there are purely formal and conceptual constraints on explanation and takes standards of explanation to be substantive empirical claims, paradigmatically claims about causation. I then use this standpoint to argue for position on issues in the philosophy of social science concerning reduction, idealized models, social (...)
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  21.  54
    Harold Kincaid (1988). Supervenience and Explanation. Synthese 77 (November):251-81.
    This paper explores the explanatory adequacy of lower-level theories when their higher-level counterparts are irreducible. If some state or entity described by a high-level theory supervenes upon and is realized in events, entities, etc. described by the relevant lower-level theory, does the latter fully explain the higher-level event even if the higher-level theory is irreducible? While the autonomy of the special sciences and the success of various eliminativist programs depends in large part on how we answer this question, neither the (...)
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  22.  6
    Harold Kincaid (2012). Mechanisms, Causal Modeling, and the Limitations of Traditional Multiple Regression. In The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Social Science. Oxford University Press 46.
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  23. Harold Kincaid (2004). Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Science. Blackwell Publishing.
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  24.  21
    Harold Kincaid (1987). Supervenience Doesn't Entail Reducibility. Southern Journal of Philosophy 25 (3):343-56.
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  25.  70
    Harold Kincaid (2012). How Should Philosophy of Social Science Proceed? Metascience 21 (2):391-394.
    How should philosophy of social science proceed? Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-4 DOI 10.1007/s11016-011-9592-7 Authors Harold Kincaid, Department of Philosophy, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 900 13th Street South, Birmingham, AL 35294-1260, USA Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  26. Harold Kincaid & Jennifer McKitrick (eds.) (2007). Establishing Medical Reality: Methodological and Metaphysical Issues in Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Publishing Company.
  27.  9
    Harold Kincaid & Jennifer McKitrick (eds.) (2007). Establishing Medical Reality: Essays in the Metaphysics and Epistemology of Biomedical Science. Spinger.
    This volume approaches the philosophy of medicine from the broad naturalist perspective that holds that philosophy must be continuous with, constrained by, and ...
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  28.  13
    Don Ross, David Spurrett, Harold Kincaid & G. Lynn Stephens (eds.) (2007). Distributed Cognition and the Will: Individual Volition and Social Context. MIT Press.
    Philosophers and behavioral scientists discuss what, if anything, of the traditional concept of individual conscious will can survive recent scientific ...
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  29. Harold Kincaid (1986). LEVELS OF EXPLANATION AND THE UNIT OF SELECTION: A Review of Genes, Organisms, and Populations, Edited by Robert Brandon and Richard Burian. MIT Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1984. Behaviorism 14 (1):69-76.
     
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  30.  50
    Harold Kincaid (1990). Eliminativism and Methodological Individualism. Philosophy of Science 57 (1):141-148.
    Tuomela (this issue, pp. 96-103) raises several objections to the analysis and critique of methodological individualism in my (1986). In what follows I reply to those criticisms, arguing, among other things, that: (1) the alleged reductions provided by Tuomela and others fail, because they either presuppose rather than eliminate social predicates or do not avoid the problem of multiple realizations; (2) supervenience does not guarantee that the social sciences are reducible, because merely describing supervenieence bases leaves numerous questions unanswered, and (...)
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  31.  22
    Harold Kincaid (2000). Formal Rationality and its Pernicious Effects on the Social Sciences. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 30 (1):67-88.
    This article argues that a particular notion of rationality, more exactly a specific notion of legitimate inference, is presupposed by much work in the social sciences to their detriment. The author describes the notion of rationality he has in mind, explains why it is misguided, identifies where and how it affects social research, and illustrates why that research is weaker as a result. The notion of legitimate inference the author has in mind is one that believes inferences are guided by (...)
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  32.  36
    Harold Kincaid (1990). Assessing Functional Explanations in the Social Sciences. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:341-354.
    Functionalism is a dominant but widely criticized perspective in social theory; my goal in this paper is to help clarify what functionalists claim, identify what would count as evidence for those claims and evaluate some standard criticisms. Functionalism relies essentially on functional explanations of the form "A exists in order to B." I point out problems with previous accounts of such explanations, offer an improved account, and discuss in detail evidence that might confirm such explanations and its difficulties. I argue (...)
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  33.  2
    Harold Kincaid (2016). Debating the Reality of Social Classes. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 46 (2):189-209.
    This article first surveys a significant set of issues that are intertwined in asking whether social classes are real. It distinguishes two different notions of class: class as organized social entities and class as types of individuals based on individual characteristics. There is good evidence for some classes as social entities—ruling classes and underclasses in some societies—but other classes in contemporary society are sometimes best thought of in terms of types, not social entities. Implications are drawn for pluralist accounts of (...)
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  34.  3
    Harold Kincaid (2015). Open Empirical and Methodological Issues in the Individualism-Holism Debate. Philosophy of Science 82 (5):1127-1138.
    I first briefly argue that some issues in the individualism-holism debate have been fairly clearly settled and others are still plagued by unclarity. The main argument of the article is that there is a set of clear empirical issues around the holism-individualism debate that are central problems in current social science research. Those include questions about when we can be holist and how individualist we can be in social explanation.
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  35.  12
    Harold Kincaid (2004). 15 Methodological Individualism and Economics. In John Bryan Davis & Alain Marciano (eds.), The Elgar Companion to Economics and Philosophy. Edward Elgar Pub. 299.
  36.  26
    Harold Kincaid (1993). The Empirical Nature of the Individualism-Holism Dispute. Synthese 97 (2):229 - 247.
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  37.  17
    Harold Kincaid (1988). Confirmation, Complexity and Social Laws. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:299-307.
    I defend the prospect of good science in the social sciences by looking at the obstacles to social laws. I criticize traditional approaches, which rule for or against social laws on primarily conceptual grounds, and argue that only a close analysis of actual empirical research can decide the issue. To that end, I focus on problems caused by the ceteris paribus nature of social generalizations, outline a variety of ways those problems might be handled, and then examine in detail the (...)
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  38.  40
    Harold Kincaid (2007). Review of Jon Elster, Explaining Social Behavior: More Nuts and Bolts for the Social Sciences. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2007 (11).
  39.  11
    Harold Kincaid (2002). Functionalist Successes and Excesses in the Social Sciences. Analyse & Kritik 24 (1):60-71.
    This paper presents a model of functional explanations as a species of ordinary causal explanation and argues that they are widespread for understandable reasons in the social sciences. The remainder of the paper then looks at specific functional explanations in the social research and examines the prospects and problems for those accounts.
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  40. Harold Kincaid, Functional Explanation and Evolutionary Social Science.
    From their conception to the present, the social sciences have invoked a kind of explanation that looks suspect by the standards of the natural sciences. They explain why social practices exist by reference to the purpose or needs they serve. Yet the purposes invoked are generally not the explicit purposes or needs of any individual but of society or social groups. For example, Durkheim claimed that the division of labor in society exists in order to promote social solidarity and Marx (...)
     
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  41.  13
    Harold Kincaid (1995). The Empirical Presuppositions of Metaphysical Explanations in Economics. The Monist 78 (3):368-385.
  42.  7
    Harold Kincaid (2012). Introduction: Doing Philosophy of Social Science. In The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Social Science. Oxford University Press 1.
  43.  13
    Harold Kincaid (2011). Making Philosophy of Economics Relevant. Journal of Economic Methodology 18 (01):79-81.
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  44.  6
    Harold Kincaid (2012). Naturalism and the Nature of Economic Evidence. In Uskali Mäki, Dov M. Gabbay, Paul Thagard & John Woods (eds.), Philosophy of Economics. North Holland 115.
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  45.  20
    Harold Kincaid (2003). The Dappled World: A Study of the Boundaries of Science, Nancy Cartwright. Cambridge University Press, 1999, IX + 240 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 19 (1):167-170.
  46.  7
    Harold Kincaid & Jennifer McKitrick, Introduction to Establishing Medical Reality: Essays in the Metaphysics and Epistemology of Biomedical Science.
    Medicine has been a very fruitful source of significant issues for philosophy over the last 30 years. The vast majority of the issues discussed have been normative—they have been problems in morality and political philosophy that now make up the field called bioethics. However, biomedical science presents many other philosophical questions that have gotten relatively little attention, particularly topics in metaphysics, epistemology and philosophy of science. This volume focuses on problems in these areas as they surface in biomedical science. Important (...)
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  47.  16
    Harold Kincaid (2009). A More Sophisticated Merton. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 39 (2):266-271.
    An alternative account of Merton to that provided by Turner is sketched. It shows strong similarities to some quite plausible contemporary understandings of science in general. Given this reading, it would seem that Merton did not drastically change his position nor does it suffer from the ambiguities that Turner describes. Key Words: theory • naturalism • causation • functional explanation.
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  48.  7
    Harold Kincaid (1991). Hegel on External Relations and Partial Understanding. Idealistic Studies 21 (1):29-47.
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  49.  10
    Harold Kincaid (1996). Can Neoclassical Economics Be Defended on Grounds of Explanatory Power? Southern Journal of Philosophy 34 (S1):155-177.
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  50.  12
    Harold Kincaid (2006). Evolutionary Social Science Beyond Culture. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):356-356.
    Mesoudi et al.'s case can be improved by expanding to compelling selectionist explanations elsewhere in the social sciences and by seeing that natural selection is an instance of general selectionist process. Obstacles include the common use of extreme idealizations and optimality evidence, the copresence of nonselectionist social processes, and the fact that selectionist explanations often presuppose other kinds of social explanations. (Published Online November 9 2006).
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