According to Tyes PANIC theory of consciousness, perceptualstates of creatures which are related to a disjunction ofexternal contents will fail to represent sensorily, andthereby fail to be conscious states. In this paper I arguethat heat perception, a form of perception neglected in therecent literature, serves as a counterexample to Tyesradical externalist claim. Having laid out Tyes `absentqualia scenario, the PANIC theory from which it derivesand the case of heat perception as a counterexample, Idefend the putative counterexample against three (...) possibleresponses: (1) that heat perception represents general(i.e. non-disjunctive) intrinsic properties of objects,(2) that heat perception represents the non-specific heatenergy that is transferred between a subjects body andanother body and (3) that heat perception exclusivelyrepresents heat properties of the subjects own body. (shrink)
Our experiences of heat and cold are usually thought to represent states of things: their hotness and coldness. I propose a novel account according to which their contents are not states of things but processes, more specifically, the opposite processes of thermal energy being transmitted to and from the body, respectively. I call this account the Heat Exchange Model of heat perception. Having set out the evidence in support of the proposal, I conclude by showing how it (...) provides a new perspective on some old problems. (shrink)
How do models give us knowledge? The case of Carnot’s ideal heat engine Content Type Journal Article Category Original paper in Philosophy of Science Pages 309-334 DOI 10.1007/s13194-011-0029-3 Authors Tarja Knuuttila, Theoretical Philosophy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 24, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland Mieke Boon, Department of Philosophy, University of Twente, Postbox 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands Journal European Journal for Philosophy of Science Online ISSN 1879-4920 Print ISSN 1879-4912 Journal Volume Volume 1 Journal Issue Volume 1, Number 3.
The reduction of the concept of heat to that of molecular kinetic energy is recurrently presented as lending analogical support to the project of reduction of phenomenal concepts to physical concepts. The claimed analogy draws on the way the use of the concept of heat is attached to the experience in first person of a certain sensation. The reduction of this concept seems to prove the possibility to reduce discourse involving phenomenal concepts to a scientific description of neural (...) activity. But is this analogy really justified? We will show that if there is an analogy, far from speaking for a reduction of phenomenal concepts, it rather stresses the necessity to integrate phenomenal reports in the scientific study of experience. (shrink)
This book offers an original new account of one of Aristotle's central doctrines. Freudenthal He recreates from Aristotle's writings a more complete theory of material substance which is able to explain the problematical areas of the way matter organizes itself and the persistence of matter, to show that the hitherto ignored concept of vital heat is as central in explaining material substance as soul or form.
I began this study with Laudan's argument from the pessimistic induction and I promised to show that the caloric theory of heat cannot be used to support the premisses of the meta-induction on past scientific theories. I tried to show that the laws of experimental calorimetry, adiabatic change and Carnot's theory of the motive power of heat were (i) independent of the assumption that heat is a material substance, (ii) approximately true, (iii) deducible and accounted for within (...) thermodynamics. I stressed that results (i) and (ii) were known to most theorists of the caloric theory and that result (iii) was put forward by the founders of the new thermodynamics. In other words, the truth-content of the caloric theory was located, selected carefully, and preserved by the founders of thermodynamics. However, the reader might think that even if I have succeeded in showing that laudan is wrong about the caloric theory, I have not shown how the strategy followed in this paper can be generalised against the pessimistic meta-induction. I think that the general strategy against Laudan's argument suggested in this paper is this: the empirical success of a mature scientific theory suggests that there are respects and degrees in which this theory is true. The difficulty for -- and and real challenge to -- philosophers of science is to suggest ways in which this truth-content can be located and shown to be preserved -- if at all -- to subsequent theories. In particular, the empirical success of a theory does not, automatically, suggest that all theoretical terms of the theory refer. On the contrary, judgments of referential success depend on which theoretical claims are well-supported by the evidence. This is a matter of specific investigation. Generally, one would expect that claims about theoretical entities which are not strongly supported by the evidence or turn out to be independent of the evidence at hand, are not compelling. For simply, if the evidence does not make it likely that our beliefs about putative theoretical entities are approximately correct, a belief in those entities would be ill-founded and unjustified. Theoretical extrapolations in science are indespensable , but they are not arbitrary. If the evidence does not warrant them I do not see why someone should commit herself to them. In a sense, the problem with empricist philisophers is not that they demand that theoretical beliefs must be warranted by evidence. Rather, it is that they claim that no evidence can warrant theorretical beliefs. A realist philosopher of science would not disagree on the first, but she has good grounds to deny the second. I argued that claims about theoretical entities which are not strongly supported by the evidence must not be taken as belief-worthy. But can one sustaon the more ambitious view that loosely supported parts of a theory tend to be just those that include non-referring terms? There is an obvious excess risk in such a generalisation. For there are well-known cases in which a theoretical claim was initially weakly supported by the evidence. (shrink)
In scientific realist eyes we are only warranted to assert that a theory is true or approximately true if that theory enjoys considerable explanatory and predictive success. The most well known challenge to this claim, the pessimistic meta-induction, holds that the history of science is replete with successful theories that are now considered false. In effect, this challenge raises doubts about the reliability of inferences from explanatory and predictive success to (approximate) truth. The main realist reaction has been to argue (...) that upon closer scrutiny the historical record can be reconciled with scientific realism. When a successful theory is abandoned, not all of its components are discarded but only those that are inessential or idle for the theory’s success. Their abandonment is thus inconsequential for the realist. In this talk I consider what the modern kinetic theory of heat managed to salvage from the outdated caloric theory and whether the inter-theoretic relations between the two theories support a realist view of science. (shrink)
The energy transport in one-dimensional nonlinear systems is discussed. By numerically studying a model system, we verify the Fourier heat law on purely dynamical grounds and we compute the coefficient of thermal conductivity K. The same value ofK is independently obtained by use of the Green-Kubo formalism.
Brillouin sees order as generated by tapping negentropy sources existing upstream, while Prigogine sees it as generated by dumping entropy downstream. Joining both ideas yields a picture of the computer closely paralleling that of Carnot's heat engine. The difference is that the one delivers information and the other, work. In either case the irretrievable (that is, by definition) loss occurs at the last step. Bennett and Landauer very rightly emphasize this, but their fixation on the condenser blinds them to (...) the necessity of the furnace; thus they are led to believe in the possibility of “perpetual duplication of the second kind,” which Brillouin explicitly denies. (shrink)
Victorian bodies in heat Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11016-010-9489-x Authors Bruce Clarke, Department of English, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-3091, USA Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
An attempt is made to clarify a thought experiment introduced by P. T. Landsberg concerning the relativistic heat flow between bodies in relative motion. It is shown that if the problem is analyzed within the covariant thermodynamics developed by R. Balescu, supplemented by the second law of thermodynamics as proposed here, then such heat flow considerations do not fix the transformation of temperature as Landsberg contends. Instead, the transformation of temperature is left as being purely a matter of (...) definition. (shrink)
This paper explores the conditions under which scientists are warranted in adding the one-dimensional heat equation to their theories and then using the equation to describe particular physical situations. Summarizing these derivation and application conditions motivates an account of idealized scientiﬁc representation that relates the use of mathematics in science to interpretative questions about scientiﬁc theories.
Heat sensitive pit organs in different species of snakes show various shapes. The relation between form characters and functions were analysed by means of two different research programs. This paper presents the methodological steps involved in these research programs. The first approach is called a qualitative explanation because it connects experimental data by means of qualitative statements in order to give a functional morphological explanation for the construction of the pits in respect to the behaviour of the snake. The (...) second approach is called a quantitative explanation because the core of the explanation is a mathematical model which in its consequences explaines the construction of the pits in respect to image formation. (shrink)
Heat capacities of pure silicon and germanium have been measured between 2.5° and 300°K. The estimated accuracies of the measurements are ±0.5% for 10° 20°K. The results for silicon were anomalous in the region T <7°K; it is suggested that this behaviour resulted from adsorption and desorption of exchange gas in the calorimeter vessel. No anomalies were observed in the measurements on germanium; their accuracy at the lowest temperatures is estimated to be ±2%. The results for both substances are (...) significantly different from previously published values. The temperature variation of ΘD of both silicon and germanium below about T= ΘD/3 is consistent with general harmonic theory, but at high temperatures ΘD decreases with increasing temperature. This appears to be a clearly marked anharmonic effect of a type that cannot be explained by change of volume alone. The results for T < ΘD/3 are therefore extrapolated to high temperatures to give a heat capacity consistent with harmonic theory at all temperatures. From this, propertios of an effective harmonic spectrum are derived; these include the low frequency expansion and a number of positive and negative moments. The apparent anharmonic contribution δCv =[Cv-Cv (harmonic)] is found for both elements to be approximately a linear function of the temperature in the region between ΘD/3 and room temperature. The possible significance of this result is discussed in the light of anharmonic theory. The results are compared where possible with vibrational properties determined from other experiments and the agreement is very satisfactory. (shrink)
This work presents an hydrodynamical model of heat stroke, which is a physiopathological state of stress, due to an exposure of animals to an ambient temperature of approximatively 40°C during two hours. The evolution of body temperature during this stress process is characterised by three phases. A first phase of increase is followed by a plateau which occurs before a second phase of increase which can be lethal. The model is based on the analogy of a boat progressively caught (...) in a whirlpool. The evolution of the degree of freedom lost by the boat is mathematically analysed and this study leads to the same three phases. The theoretical curves calculated during this study are well in agreement with the experimental curves obtained with animals. This analogy is compared to a previous one which has been made during another experiment with animals constrained by chemical intoxications. It seems that stress can be considered as a vital vorticity and that hydrodynamic models are powerful tools in understanding this physiopathological state. (shrink)
Chipman (1979) proves that for an expected utility maximizer choosing from a domain of normal distributions with mean μ and variance σ2 the induced preference functionV(μ, σ) satisfies a differential equation known as the heat equation. The purpose of this note is to provide a generalization and simple proof of this result which does not depend on the normality assumption.
Thermal properties of few-fermion systems are investigated. The dependence of the heat capacity on the topology and shape of the cavity containing the particles is analysed. It is found that the maximum of the heat capacity, occuring at low discussed recently by Toutounji for a system with fermions, is even more visible for , but fades away for and . For large , the classical behaviour is obtained; however, when the heat capacity tends to zero exponentially, not (...) linearly, as in macroscopic and even mesoscopic systems. The physical relevance of these results is discussed. (shrink)
Summary Contrary to common belief, Lavoisier's greatest phlogistic rival was not Joseph Priestley but Richard Kirwan, a fact that was firmly recognized by both the Lavoisians as well as Priestley himself. During the 1780s, which saw the unprecedented rise of the chemistry of air(s), Kirwan's ?ingenious modifications?into the theory of phlogiston?, in Mme. Lavoisier's words, became the most dominant alternative to the revisionist pneumatic interpretations of the French. A genealogical contextualization of Kirwan's phlogistic contributions, the circumstances of their emergence and (...) the nature of their evolution and impact, reveals the intricate process of transformation that pneumatic phlogistic thought and practice have undergone during the final years of phlogiston's existence. Originally introduced as an adverse reaction to Scheele's phlogistic reasoning, Kirwan's work evolved as a sophisticated integration between notions of aerial permutations and Adair Crawford's innovative formulation of the phlogistic role of heat, with its origins in the Scottish pneumatic tradition of Black and Irvine. Examining Kirwan's views against the background of metaphysical conflicts over the constitution of pneumatic entities and the role of phlogiston in pneumatic processes traces their origins and advances to a complex interplay between innovation and renovation, proclamation and reclamation, thus depicting the dynamics of (dis-)continuity in the broader phlogistic sphere from which Kirwan's ?modifications? have stemmed and which they came to forcefully represent. (shrink)
Measurements of low frequency Raman scattering and low temperature specific heat between 2 and 20 K have been performed in two glassy, heterocyclic polymer networks. The effective network densities of heterocyclic polymer networks are varied by changing the ratio of bi- and mono-functional isocyanate monomers, leaving the overall chemical structure essentially unchanged. A boson peak at ? 20 cm?1 characterizes the Raman spectra at room temperature of both samples. Below 10 K, the specific heats deviate from a cubic temperature (...) dependence, as predicted by the Debye theory, and reveal an excess specific heat, having the shape of a well-defined peak in a C p/T 3 plot with a maximum at ? 5 K. The increase in effective network density is accompanied by a slight decrease in excess specific heat. These observations have been explained in terms of additional low-energy vibrations associated with the monomers building the polymer networks. (shrink)
The heat capacity of 160 g of diamonds has been measured in the temperature range 12·8° to 277°k with estimated accuracies of ±20% at 13°k, ±6% at 20°k, ±0·8% at 100°k and ±0·2% for T200°k. Fitting of the results in the region Theat capacity gives ?0 = 2219 ± 20°k; this agrees excellently with ? (elastic) = 2240 ± 5°k, derived from elastic constants determined by McSkimin and Bond. Down to (...) 75°k the results are in reasonable agreement with earlier measurements of DeSorbo, but at lower temperatures an anomaly reported by DeSorbo has not been confirmed. (shrink)
When some entropy is transferred, by means of a reversible engine, from a hot heat source to a colder one, the maximum efficiency occurs, i.e. the maximum available work is obtained. Similarly, a reversible heat pumps transfer entropy from a cold heat source to a hotter one with the minimum expense of energy. In contrast, if we are faced with non-reversible devices, there is some lost work for heat engines, and some extra work for heat (...) pumps. These quantities are both related to entropy production. The lost work, i.e. , is also called ?degraded energy? or ?energy unavailable to do work?. The extra work, i.e. , is the excess of work performed on the system in the irreversible process with respect to the reversible one (or the excess of heat given to the hotter source in the irreversible process). Both quantities are analysed in detail and are evaluated for a complex process, i.e. the stepwise circular cycle, which is similar to the stepwise Carnot cycle. The stepwise circular cycle is a cycle performed by means of N small weights, dw, which are first added and then removed from the piston of the vessel containing the gas or vice versa. The work performed by the gas can be found as the increase of the potential energy of the dw's. Each single dw is identified and its increase, i.e. its increase in potential energy, evaluated. In such a way it is found how the energy output of the cycle is distributed among the dw's. The size of the dw's affects entropy production and therefore the lost and extra work. The distribution of increases depends on the chosen removal process. (shrink)
In a previous paper, we reported the formation of a dodecagonal quasicrystal (DDQC) in a quasi-two-dimensional lattice Monte Carlo simulation of a star-shaped polymer. In this paper, we show a series of Archimedean and quasicrystalline phases (4.82)???(184.108.40.206)???DDQC???(4.6.12) with increase of one component of ABC star polymers. The phase behaviour can be regarded as a transition between square tiling and triangle tiling via square-triangle tiling. We compare the specific heat for the phases and find that the DDQC sample possesses higher (...) specific heat at high temperatures, which may be attributed to phason dynamics. (shrink)
This paper is not about the medical condition of AIDS. Nor is it about the history of the condition since it was first reported in Atlanta, Georgia in 1981. It looks rather, at the catalogue of legislative and other legal responses to the spread of AIDS. The paper analyses the AIDS condition in its historical context. The hysteria accompanying the outbreak of AIDS is contrasted with the similar hysteria associated with other previous epidemics experienced in Australia over the past two (...) centuries. The paper categorises the responses of lawmakers to the condition, according to the approach taken; from 'full blast', through 'moderate heat' to 'low key' or an attempt to avoid or minimise legal intervention. It is suggested that the appropriate response should depend upon such factors as the present magnitude of the condition, its likely future course, the availability of cures and protections against its spread and objectives being sought by intervention. Unless these factors are taken into account gross over-reaction can occur, causing social disruption and much personal injustice. (shrink)
A new genetic alloy design approach based on thermodynamic and kinetic principles is presented to calculate the optimal composition of MX carbonitrides precipitation strengthened austenitic heat-resistant steels. Taking the coarsening of the MX carbonitrides as the process controlling the life time for steels in high temperature use, the high temperature strength is calculated as a function of steel chemistry, service temperature and time. New steel compositions for different service conditions are found yielding optimal combinations of strength and stability of (...) the strengthening precipitation for specific applications such as fire-resistant steels (short-time property guarantee) and creep-resistant steels (long-time property guarantee). Using the same modelling approach, the high temperature strength and lifetime of existing commercial austenitic creep-resistant steels were also calculated and a good qualitative agreement with reported experimental results was obtained. According to the evaluation parameter employed, the newly defined steel compositions may have higher and more stable precipitation strengthening factors than existing high-temperature precipitate-strengthened austenite steels. (shrink)
Experiments are described in which sine waves of heat are propagated in liquid helium at temperatures between 0·25°k and 0·6°k. Although propagation takes place in a closed tube, resonance does not occur, but, by measuring the phase and amplitude of the temperature waves, values are deduced for the velocity and attenuation of the waves at frequencies between 60 c/s and 2 kc/s. The velocity increases with frequency; at 0·5°k it tends to a limit of about 133 m sec?1 at (...) high frequencies, but at 0·25°k it reaches about 190 m sec?l at 2 kc/s and is still increasing. The attenuation per wavelength decreases with increasing frequency being nearly 2π at the lowest frequencies. At temperatures up to 0·4°k it is shown that the mean free path of the phonons must be greater than the tube diameter (2 cm) and that their reflection at the wall must be partly diffuse. The data are quantitatively explained if about one-third of the phonons suffer diffuse reflection and the remainder suffer specular reflection. Above 0·5°k the mean free path is found to be smaller than the tube diameter, being about 0·08 cm at 0·54°k and about 0·04 cm at 0·58°k. (shrink)
Experimental evidence is presented which indicates that the total heat capacity in the Al63Cu25Fe12 icosahedral phase contains a contribution associated with inconstancy of the charge carrier concentration. The contribution has an oscillating temperature dependence and is supposedly traceable to two Schottky-like heat anomalies.
Differential scanning calorimetry was used to study glassy Se100- x Sb x (x = 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10) alloys at a heating rate of 10°C min?1 under non-isothermal conditions. An extremely large increase in the specific heat, Cp , was observed at the glass-transition temperature. It was also found that the values of Cp below and above the glass-transition temperature, Cpg and Cpe , respectively, are highly composition dependent. This indicates that the Sb additive used in the (...) present study influences the structure of the a-Se. The variation of Cp reveals local extrema in the Se?Sb glassy system at x = 4 and x = 8. The composition dependence of both Cpe and Cpg is explained in terms of the atomic structure. (shrink)
The high-temperature specific heat, cp (T), of icosahedral Al?Cu?Fe and decagonal Al?Ni?Co was measured at various temperature ranges between 420 and 1350 K. For both materials, the specific heat increases with increasing temperature, reaching the values that are substantially higher than the Dulong and Petit value. Comparisons are made with previously reported data for icosahedral and decagonal phases.
An analytical transmission electron microscopy study was performed on the nature of nanosize secondary phase precipitates that form in standard heat-treated commercial nickel base superalloy IN 738. In addition to M5B3 borides and M23C6 carbides, the precipitates were found to also consist of particles of M2B-type boride phase, which is previously unreported in the alloy and rarely reported in nickel base superalloys. The M2B borides exhibited a dual crystallographic structure: body centered tetragonal and face centered orthorhombic. Analyses of electron (...) diffraction patterns and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images indicated that both crystal structures can co-exist in a single M2B particle as an intergrowth with the formation of planar defects. Crystallographic relationship between microconstituent phases in the heat-treated alloy were elucidated and the influence of the borides on resistance to grain boundary liquation cracking during high-temperature material processing, such as laser beam treatment, is discussed. (shrink)
Measurements of the velocity and attenuation of plane sound waves in a number of organic liquids at pressures up to 10 000 lb/in.2 have been made. From the velocity, the adiabatic compressibility is derived and from this, by comparison with the measured isothermal compressibility, the ratio of specific heats as a function of pressure is calculated. By introducing the measured attenuation into the Kirchhoff formula an ?ultrasonic? viscosity as a function of pressure is also derived.
Philosophical discussions regarding the status of emotion as a scientific domain usually get framed in terms of the question whether emotion is a natural kind. That approach to the issues is wrongheaded for two reasons. First, it has led to an intractable philosophical impasse that ultimately misconstrues the character of the relevant debate in emotion science. Second, and most important, it entirely ignores valence, a central feature of emotion experience, and probably the most promising criterion for demarcating emotion from cognition (...) and other related domains. An alternate philosophical hypothesis for addressing the issues is pro- posed. It is that emotion is a naturally occurring valenced phenomenon that is.. (shrink)