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Helge Kragh [51]Helge S. Kragh [4]
  1. Helge Kragh (2014). Chemical Elements, Discoveries, and Disputes. Metascience 23 (2):373-375.
    Among the subjects that attract historians of chemistry and philosophers of chemistry alike are the chemical elements and their classification within the periodic system. In 2007, Eric Scerri, a distinguished philosopher of the chemical sciences, published The Periodic Table (Oxford University Press), a comprehensive and critical account of the subject. He describes the present work as “a follow-up book,” and a few of the chapters are indeed condensed versions of chapters appearing in the 2007 book. Nonetheless, A Tale of 7 (...)
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  2. Helge Kragh (2014). Testability and Epistemic Shifts in Modern Cosmology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 46 (1):48-56.
    During the last decade new developments in theoretical and speculative cosmology have reopened the old discussion of cosmology's scientific status and the more general question of the demarcation between science and non-science. The multiverse hypothesis, in particular, is central to this discussion and controversial because it seems to disagree with methodological and epistemic standards traditionally accepted in the physical sciences. But what are these standards and how sacrosanct are they? Does anthropic multiverse cosmology rest on evaluation criteria that conflict with (...)
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  3. Helge Kragh (2014). The Science of the Universe: Cosmology and Science Education. In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. 643-665.
    Cosmology differs in some respects significantly from other sciences, primarily because of its intimate association with issues of a conceptual and philosophical nature. Because cosmology in the broader sense relates to the students’ world views, it provides a means for bridging the gap between the teaching of science and the teaching of humanistic subjects. Students should of course learn to distinguish between what is right and wrong about the science of the universe. No less importantly, they should learn to recognize (...)
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  4. J. L. Heilbron & Helge Kragh (2013). Von Leibniz'Metaphysik (2001), Leibniz: Metaphilosophy and Metaphysics, 1666–1686 (2005), and Biomedical Ontology and the Metaphysics of Composite Substances, 1540–1670 (2010). Martin Campbell-Kelly is Emeritus Professor in the Department of Com-Puter Science at the University of Warwick, Where He Specializes in The. [REVIEW] Perspectives on Science 21 (3).
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  5. Helge Kragh (2013). Heinrich Hertz. Annals of Science 70 (1):141-143.
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  6. Helge Kragh (2013). Peter Achinstein: Evidence and Method: Scientific Strategies of Isaac Newton and James Clerk Maxwell. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 44 (2):405-408.
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  7. Helge Kragh (2013). "The Most Philosophically Important of All the Sciences": Karl Popper and Physical Cosmology. Perspectives on Science 21 (3):325-357.
    While Karl Popper’s philosophy of science has only few followers among modern philosophers, it is easily the view of science with the biggest impact on practicing scientists. According to Peter Medawar, Nobel laureate and eminent physiologist, Popper was the greatest authority ever on the scientific method. He praised the “great strength of Karl Popper’s conception of the scientific process,” a main reason for the praise being “that it is realistic—it gives a pretty fair picture of what goes on in real (...)
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  8. Helge Kragh & Kristian Hvidtfelt Nielsen (2013). Spreading the Gospel: A Popular Book on the Bohr Atom in its Historical Context. Annals of Science 70 (2):257-283.
    Summary The emergence of quantum theory in the early decades of the twentieth century was accompanied by a wide range of popular science books, all of which presented in words, and a few in images, new scientific ideas about the structure of the atom. The work of physicists such as Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr, among others, was pivotal to the so-called planetary model of the atom, which, still today, is used in popular accounts and in science textbooks. In an (...)
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  9. Helge Kragh (2012). The Isotope Effect: Prediction, Discussion, and Discovery. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 43 (3):176-183.
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  10. Helge S. Kragh (2012). Chemistry and Technology. In Jan Kyrre Berg Olsen Friis, Stig Andur Pedersen & Vincent F. Hendricks (eds.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology. Wiley-Blackwell.
     
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  11. Helge Kragh (2011). Fermilab: Physics, the Frontier & Megascience. Annals of Science 68 (3):437-440.
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  12. Helge Kragh (2011). Sommerfeld, the Quantum, and the Problem Approach to Physics. Metascience 20 (1):87-90.
    In the early phase of the new history of physics that emerged at about 1970 and was pioneered by John Heilbron, Thomas Kuhn, Paul Forman, and others, the quantum and atomic theories of the first three decades of the twentieth century played a central role. Since then, interest in the area has continued, but for the last few decades at a slower rate. While other areas of the new physics—such as the general theory of relativity—have attracted much attention, only relatively (...)
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  13. Helge Kragh, When is a Prediction Anthropic? Fred Hoyle and the 7.65 Mev Carbon Resonance.
    The case of Fred Hoyle’s prediction of a resonance state in carbon-12, unknown in 1953 when it was predicted, is often mentioned as an example of anthropic prediction. An investigation of the historical circumstances of the prediction and its subsequent experimental confirmation shows that Hoyle and his contemporaries did not associate the level in the carbon nucleus with life at all. Only in the 1980s, after the emergence of the anthropic principle, did it become common to see Hoyle’s prediction as (...)
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  14. Hanne Andersen, Louis Klostergaard, Henrik Knudsen, Helge Kragh, Keld Nielsen, Kurt Mã¸Ller Pedersen & Henrik Kragh Sã¸Rensen (2009). Vedkommende Videnskabsteori. Aktuel Naturvidenskab (1):32--35.
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  15. Helge Kragh (2009). Continual Fascination: The Oscillating Universe in Modern Cosmology. Science in Context 22 (4):587.
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  16. Helge Kragh (2009). Contemporary History of Cosmology and the Controversy Over the Multiverse. Annals of Science 66 (4):529-551.
    Cosmology has always been different from other areas of the natural sciences. Although an observationally supported standard model of the universe emerged in the 1960s, more speculative models and conceptions continued to attract attention. During the last decade, ideas of multiple universes based on anthropic reasoning have become very popular among cosmologists and theoretical physicists. This had led to a major debate within the scientific community of the epistemic standards of modern cosmology. Is the multiverse a scientific hypothesis, or is (...)
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  17. Helge Kragh (2009). Krise Og Modernisme I den Teoretiske Fysik. In Ole Hã¸Iris & Thomas Ledet (eds.), Modernitetens Verden: Tiden, Videnskab, Historien Og Kunst. Aarhus Universitetsforlag. 171.
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  18. Helge Kragh (2009). Michela Massimi Pauli's Exclusion Principle: The Origin and Validation of a Scientific Principle. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (1):235-238.
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  19. Helge Kragh (2009). The Solar Element: A Reconsideration of Helium's Early History. Annals of Science 66 (2):157-182.
    Apart from hydrogen, helium is the most abundant chemical element in the universe, and yet it was only discovered on the Earth in 1895. Its early history is unique because it encompasses astronomy as well as chemistry, two sciences which the spectroscope brought into contact during the second half of the nineteenth century. In the modest form of a yellow spectral line known as D3, ‘helium’ was sometimes supposed to exist in the Sun's atmosphere, an idea which is traditionally ascribed (...)
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  20. Helge Kragh (2008). Drawing Theories Apart: The Dispersion of Feynman Diagrams in Postwar Physics. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 41 (1):151-152.
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  21. Helge Kragh (2007). Michael Frayn's Copenhagen in Debate: Historical Essays and Documents on the 1941 Meeting Between Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 40 (1):115-116.
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  22. Helge S. Kragh & Dominique Lambert (2007). The Context of Discovery: Lemaître and the Origin of the Primeval-Atom Universe. Annals of Science 64 (4):445-470.
    In spite of the paradigmatic status of the Big Bang model of the universe, the genesis of this idea has never been examined in detail. This paper investigates how the Belgian physicist and cosmologist Georges Lemaître in 1931 arrived at the hypothesis that the universe had begun in a Big Bang, or what he called a ‘primeval atom’. Four years earlier, he had suggested a closed expanding model in which the universe slowly inflated from an equilibrium Einstein state, but in (...)
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  23. Helge Kragh (2006). From Curiosity to Industry: The Early History of Cryolite Soda Manufacture. Annals of Science 52 (3):285-301.
    The history of the Greenlandic mineral cryolite is outlined from its discovery in late-eighteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century, when its potential for industrial use was first recognized by the Danish chemist Julius Thomsen. During the 1850s, several attempts were made to exploit cryolite for the production of soda and/or aluminium, of which only the soda process became implemented on an industrial scale. The main part of the paper examines the early cryolite soda manufacture, its chemical basis as well as (...)
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  24. Helge S. Kragh (2006). Conceptions of Cosmos: From Myths to the Accelerating Universe: A History of Cosmology. Oup Oxford.
    This book presents the history of how the universe at large became the object of scientific understanding. Starting with the ancient creation myths, it offers an integrated and comprehensive account of cosmology that covers all major events from Aristotle's Earth-centred cosmos to the recent discovery of the accelearting universe.
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  25. Helge S. Kragh (2006). Cosmologies with Varying Speed of Light: A Historical Perspective. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 37 (4):726-737.
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  26. Helge Kragh & Robert W. Smith (2003). Who Discovered the Expanding Universe? History of Science 41:141-162.
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  27. Helge Kragh (2002). Book Review: By Jagdish Mehra and Helmut Rechenberg. Springer, New York, 2000, Xxxvi+ 1612 Pp., $149.00 (Hardcover). [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 32 (1):187-189.
  28. Helge Kragh (2002). Book Review: The Historical Development of Quantum Theory, Volume 6: The Completion of Quantum Mechanics 1926–1941. By Jagdish Mehra and Helmut Rechenberg. Springer, New York, 2000, Xxxvi + 1612 Pp., $149.00 (Hardcover). [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 32 (1):187-189.
  29. Helge Kragh (2002). Experimental Essays – Versuch Zum Experiment. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 35 (3):347-379.
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  30. Helge Kragh (2002). (Review Of:) A. Pais, The Genius of Science: A Portrait of 20th Century Physicists (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999). [REVIEW] Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 33:357-359.
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  31. Helge Kragh (2001). The Electron, the Protyle, and the Unity of Matter. In A. Warwick (ed.), Histories of the Electron: The Birth of Microphysics.
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  32. Helge Kragh (2001). The First Subatomic Explanations of the Periodic System. Foundations of Chemistry 3 (2):129-143.
    Attempts to explain the periodic system as a manifestation of regularities in the structure of the atoms of the elements are as old as the system itself. The paper analyses some of the most important of these attempts, in particular such works that are historically connected with the recognition of the electron as a fundamental building block of all matter. The history of the periodic system, the discovery of the electron, and ideas of early atomic structure are closely interwoven and (...)
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  33. Helge Kragh (2000). The Chemistry of the Universe: Historical Roots of Modern Cosmochemistry. Annals of Science 57 (4):353-368.
    During the second half of the twentieth century, the domain of geochemistry has greatly expanded and the field is today often seen as a branch of an extended chemistry of the Earth, called cosmochemistry. This paper is a historical introduction to cosmochemistry in which the wider cosmic aspects are surveyed up to about 1915, when nuclear physics changed the scene. These wider aspects or themes include, firstly, the attempts to determine the relative abundances of the elements, secondly, the extension of (...)
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  34. Helge Kragh (1997). Remarks on the Historiography and Philosophy of Modern Cosmology. Danish Yearbook of Philosophy 32:65.
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  35. Helge Kragh (1997). The Electrical Universe: Grand Cosmological Theory Versus Mundane Experiments. Perspectives on Science 5:199-231.
     
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  36. Helge Kragh (1995). Arthur March, Werner Heisenberg, and the Search for a Smallest Length/Arthur March, Werner Heisenberg, Et la Notion de Longueur Minimale. Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 48 (4):401-434.
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  37. Helge Kragh (1994). Alexander A. Friedmann: The Man Who Made the Universe Expand. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 27 (3):377-378.
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  38. Helge Kragh & Bruno Carazza (1994). From Time Atoms to Space-Time Quantization: The Idea of Discrete Time, Ca 1925–1936. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 25 (3):437-462.
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  39. Helge Kragh (1993). Between Physics and Chemistry: Helmholtz's Route to a Theory of Chemical Thermodynamics. In David Cahan (ed.), Hermann von Helmholtz and the Foundations of Nineteenth-Century Science. University of California Press. 403--431.
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  40. Helge Kragh (1993). Studies in the History of General Relativity. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 26 (1):123-124.
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  41. Helge Kragh (1992). A Sense of History: History of Science and the Teaching of Introductory Quantum Theory. Science and Education 1 (4):349-363.
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  42. Helge Kragh (1992). Bohr's Quantum Philosophy: On the Shoulders of a Giant. Danish Yearbook of Philosophy 27:109-118.
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  43. Helge Kragh (1992). Chandra: A Biography of S. Chandrasekhar. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 25 (2):287-288.
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  44. Helge Kragh (1991). Moments in the Life of a Scientist. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 24 (4):478-479.
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  45. Helge Kragh (1991). Pions to Quarks: Particle Physics in the 1950s. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 24 (4):477-478.
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  46. Helge Kragh (1990). Appropriating the Weather. Vilhelm Bjerknes and the Construction of a Modern Meteorology. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 23 (2):248-249.
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  47. Helge Kragh (1990). Metaphysics Only? Danish Yearbook of Philosophy 25:107-111.
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  48. Bruno Carazza & Helge Kragh (1989). Adolfo Bartoli and the Problem of Radiant Heat. Annals of Science 46 (2):183-194.
    In 1876 the Italian physicist and physical chemist Adolfo Bartoli discussed a thought experiment in which he connected the second law of thermodynamics with the hypothetical pressure of radiation. Bartoli's work, published in Italian, exerted some influence on the subsequent development of black-body theory and light pressure research. This influence was mainly due to Boltzmann, who came to the Stefan-Boltzmann radiation law via a reworking of Bartoli's thought experiment. However, contrary to what is usually assumed, Bartoli was himself reluctant to (...)
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  49. Helge Kragh (1986). Werner Heisenberg. A Bibliography of His Writings. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 19 (2):232-232.
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  50. Helge Kragh (1984). Julius Thomsen and Classical Thermochemistry. British Journal for the History of Science 17 (3):255-272.
    Classical thermochemistry is inextricably bound up with the problem of chemical affinity. In 1851, when Julius Thomsen began his career in thermochemistry, the concept of chemical affinity had been in the centre of chemical enquiry for more than a century. In spite of many suggestions, preferably to explain affinity in terms of electrical or gravitational forces, almost nothing was known about the cause and nature of affinity. In this state of puzzling uncertainty some chemists felt it more advantageous to establish (...)
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