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  1. Henk Aarts & Andrew J. Elliot (eds.) (2012). Goal-Directed Behavior. Psychology Press.
    This volume presents chapters from internationally renowned scholars in the area of goals and social behavior.
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  2. Ap Dijksterhuis & Henk Aarts (2012). Control, Consciousness, and Agency. In Henk Aarts & Andrew J. Elliot (eds.), Goal-Directed Behavior. Psychology Press.
  3. Ap Dijksterhuis & Henk Aarts (2012). I F You Find Yourself in the Local Fast-Food Establishment, Eating a Juicy Cheese-Burger with Fries Just a Day After You Promised Yourself That You Would Lose. In Henk Aarts & Andrew J. Elliot (eds.), Goal-Directed Behavior. Psychology Press. 301.
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  4. Ap Dijksterhuis & Henk Aarts (2012). If You Find Yourself in the Local Fast-Food Establishment, Eating. In Henk Aarts & Andrew J. Elliot (eds.), Goal-Directed Behavior. Psychology Press. 61.
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  5. Myrthel Dogge, Marloes Schaap, Ruud Custers, Daniel M. Wegner & Henk Aarts (2012). When Moving Without Volition: Implied Self-Causation Enhances Binding Strength Between Involuntary Actions and Effects. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):501-506.
    The conscious awareness of voluntary action is associated with systematic changes in time perception: The interval between actions and outcomes is experienced as compressed in time. Although this temporal binding is thought to result from voluntary movement and provides a window to the sense of agency, recent studies challenge this idea by demonstrating binding in involuntary movement. We offer a potential account for these findings by proposing that binding between involuntary actions and effects can occur when self-causation is implied. Participants (...)
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  6. Kirsten I. Ruys, Henk Aarts, Esther K. Papies, Masanori Oikawa & Haruka Oikawa (2012). Perceiving an Exclusive Cause of Affect Prevents Misattribution. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):1009-1015.
    Affect misattribution occurs when affective cues color subsequent unrelated evaluations. Research suggests that affect misattribution decreases when one is aware that affective cues are unrelated to the evaluation at hand. We propose that affect misattribution may even occur when one is aware that affective cues are irrelevant, as long as the source of these cues seems ambiguous. When source ambiguity exists, affective cues may freely influence upcoming unrelated evaluations. We examined this using an adapted affect misattribution procedure where pleasant and (...)
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  7. Ruud Custers & Henk Aarts (2011). Learning of Predictive Relations Between Events Depends on Attention, Not on Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):368-378.
    It is generally assumed that storing predictive relations between two events in memory as bi-directional associations does not require conscious awareness of this relation, whereas the formation of unidirectional associations that capture the direction of the relation does. This study reports a set of experiments demonstrating that unidirectional associations can be formed even when awareness of the relation is actively prevented, if attention is “tuned” to process predictive relations. When participants engaged in predicting targets based on cues in an unrelated (...)
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  8. Masanori Oikawa, Henk Aarts & Haruka Oikawa (2011). There is a Fire Burning in My Heart: The Role of Causal Attribution in Affect Transfer. Cognition and Emotion 25 (1):156-163.
  9. Anouk van der Weiden, Henk Aarts & Kirsten I. Ruys (2011). Prime and Probability: Causal Knowledge Affects Inferential and Predictive Effects on Self-Agency Experiences. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1865-1871.
    Experiences of having caused a certain outcome may arise from motor predictions based on action–outcome probabilities and causal inferences based on pre-activated outcome representations. However, when and how both indicators combine to affect such self-agency experiences is still unclear. Based on previous research on prediction and inference effects on self-agency, we propose that their contribution crucially depends on whether people have knowledge about the causal relation between actions and outcomes that is relevant to subsequent self-agency experiences. Therefore, we manipulated causal (...)
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  10. Harm Veling & Henk Aarts (2011). Unintentional Preparation of Motor Impulses After Incidental Perception of Need-Rewarding Objects. Cognition and Emotion 25 (6):1131-1138.
  11. Claire M. Zedelius, Harm Veling & Henk Aarts (2011). Boosting or Choking – How Conscious and Unconscious Reward Processing Modulate the Active Maintenance of Goal-Relevant Information. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):355-362.
    Two experiments examined similarities and differences in the effects of consciously and unconsciously perceived rewards on the active maintenance of goal-relevant information. Participants could gain high and low monetary rewards for performance on a word span task. The reward value was presented supraliminally or subliminally at different stages during the task. In Experiment 1, rewards were presented before participants processed the target words. Enhanced performance was found in response to higher rewards, regardless whether they were presented supraliminally or subliminally. In (...)
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  12. Claire M. Zedelius, Harm Veling & Henk Aarts (2011). Beware the Reward – How Conscious Processing of Rewards Impairs Active Maintenance Performance. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):366-367.
    Recently, we showed that conscious and unconscious rewards affect the active maintenance of goal-relevant information differently. Here, we elaborate on the mechanisms enabling the boosting or disrupting effects of consciously processed high rewards, and discuss a few methodological and theoretical implications that may be worth considering in future research on the role of reward processing in working memory performance.
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  13. Erik Bijleveld, Ruud Custers & Henk Aarts (2010). Unconscious Reward Cues Increase Invested Effort, but Do Not Change Speed–Accuracy Tradeoffs. Cognition 115 (2):330-335.
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  14. Anouk van Der Weiden, Henk Aarts & Kirsten I. Ruys (2010). Reflecting on the Action or its Outcome: Behavior Representation Level Modulates High Level Outcome Priming Effects on Self-Agency Experiences. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):21-32.
    Recent research suggests that one can have the feeling of being the cause of an action’s outcome, even in the absence of a prior intention to act. That is, experienced self-agency over behavior increases when outcome representations are primed outside of awareness, prior to executing the action and observing the resulting outcome. Based on the notion that behavior can be represented at different levels, we propose that priming outcome representations is more likely to augment self-agency experiences when the primed representation (...)
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  15. Ran R. Hassin, Henk Aarts, Baruch Eitam, Ruud Custers & Tali Kleiman (2009). Non-Conscious Goal Pursuit and the Effortful Control of Behavior. In Ezequiel Morsella, John A. Bargh & Peter M. Gollwitzer (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Human Action. Oxford University Press.
  16. Frederick Aardema, Henk Aarts, Anna Abraham, Richard L. Abrams, Richard J. Addante, Karzan Jalal Ali, William P. Banks, Cristina Becchio, D. Ben Shalom & Cesare Bertone (2005). Haider, Hilde, 495 Hobson, J. Allan, 429 Huntjens, Rafaële JC, 377 Huron, Caroline, 535. Consciousness and Cognition 14:788-789.
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  17. Henk Aarts, Ruud Custers & Daniel M. Wegner (2005). On the Inference of Personal Authorship: Enhancing Experienced Agency by Priming Effect Information☆. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (3):439-458.
    Three experiments examined whether the mere priming of potential action effects enhances people’s feeling of causing these effects when they occur. In a computer task, participants and the computer independently moved a rapidly moving square on a display. Participants had to press a key, thereby stopping the movement. However, the participant or the computer could have caused the square to stop on the observed position, and accordingly, the stopped position of the square could be conceived of as the potential effect (...)
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  18. Ap Dijksterhuis, Henk Aarts & Pamela K. Smith (2005). In a Word, is Not the Subliminal Self Superior to the Conscious Self?—Henri Poincare. In Ran R. Hassin, James S. Uleman & John A. Bargh (eds.), The New Unconscious. Oxford University Press. 77.
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  19. Ap Dijksterhuis, Henk Aarts & Pamela K. Smith (2005). The Power of the Subliminal: On Subliminal Persuasion and Other Potential Applications. In Ran R. Hassin, James S. Uleman & John A. Bargh (eds.), The New Unconscious. Oxford University Press. 77-106.