This study provides an evaluation of ethical business perception of busIness students from three countries: Australia, Taiwan and the United States. Although statistically significant differences do exist there is significant agreement with the way students perceive ethical/unethical practices in business. The findings of this paper indicate a universality of business ethical perceptions.
The quantum dynamics of a hydrogen molecule encapsulated inside the cage of a C60 fullerene molecule is investigated using inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The emphasis is on the temperature dependence of the INS spectra which were recorded using time-of-flight spectrometers. The hydrogen endofullerene system is highly quantum mechanical, exhibiting both translational and rotational quantization. The profound influence of the Pauli exclusion principle is revealed through nuclear spin isomerism. INS is shown to be exceptionally able to drive transitions between ortho-hydrogen and (...) para-hydrogen which are spin-forbidden to photon spectroscopies. Spectra in the temperature range 1.6≤T≤280 K are presented, and examples are given which demonstrate how the temperature dependence of the INS peak amplitudes can provide an effective tool for assigning the transitions. It is also shown in a preliminary investigation how the temperature dependence may conceivably be used to probe crystal field effects and inter-fullerene interactions. (shrink)
The purpose of this study was to develop a Physician's Spiritual Well-Being Scale (PSpWBS). The significance of a physician's spiritual well-being was explored through in-depth interviews with and qualitative data collection from focus groups. Based on the results of qualitative analysis and related literature, the PSpWBS consisting of 25 questions was established. Reliability and validity tests were performed on 177 subjects. Four domains of the PSpWBS were devised: physician's characteristics; medical practice challenges; response to changes; and overall well-being. The explainable (...) total variance was 65.65%. Cronbach α was 0.864 when the internal consistency of the whole scale was calculated. Factor analysis showed that the internal consistency Cronbach α value for each factor was between 0.625 and 0.794 and the split-half reliability was 0.865. The scale has satisfactory reliability and validity and could serve as the basis for assessment of the spiritual well-being of a physician. (shrink)
The cyclometallated Ru(II) complexes cis-[Ru(phpy)(phen)(CH3CN)2](PF6) (1; phpy−=deprotonated 2-phenylpyridine, phen=1,10-phenanthroline) and cis-[Ru(phpy)(bpy)(CH3CN)2](PF6) (2; bpy=2,2′-bipyridine) were investigated as potential agents for photodynamic therapy. The presence of phpy− in the coordination sphere results in a red-shift of the Ru→phen and Ru→bpy metal-to-ligand charge transfer of 1 and 2, respectively, thus improving the tissue penetration of light while maintaining the efficient photo-induced ligand exchange required for DNA binding. The 14-fold enhancement of OVCAR-5 cell death that occurs upon irradiation with 690 nm light can be (...) attributed to photo-aquation. The role of glutathione (GSH) on the toxicity of the complex was also explored. Complexes 1 and 2 undergo ligand substitution in the presence of GSH in the dark, such that the metal may covalently bind to biomolecules. The combination of photo-induced ligand exchange and GSH-facilitated ligand exchange may explain the observed cytotoxicity. (shrink)
Monolithic Ag and Ni films and Ag/Ni multilayers with individual layer thickness of 5 and 50?nm were subjected to in situ Kr ion irradiation at room temperature to 1 displacement-per-atom (a fluence of 2???1014?ions/cm2). Monolithic Ag has high density of small loops (4?nm in diameter), whereas Ni has fewer but much greater loops (exceeding 20?nm). In comparison, dislocation loops, ?4?nm in diameter, were the major defects in the irradiated Ag/Ni 50?nm film, while the loops were barely observed in the Ag/Ni (...) 5?nm film. At 0.2?dpa (0.4???1014?ions/cm), defect density in both monolithic Ag and Ni saturated at 1.6 and 0.2???1023/m3, compared with 0.8???1023/m3 in Ag/Ni 50?nm multilayer at a saturation fluence of ?1?dpa (2???1014?ions/cm2). Direct observations of frequent loop absorption by layer interfaces suggest that these interfaces are efficient defect sinks. Ag/Ni 5?nm multilayer showed a superior morphological stability against radiation compared to Ag/Ni 50?nm film. (shrink)
Due to their excellent wear resistant properties and high strength, as well as a low Young's modulus, Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are potentially suitable biomaterials for low-friction arthroplasty. The wear characteristics of the Zr60.14Cu22.31Fe4.85Al9.7Ag3 bulk amorphous alloy against ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) compared to a CoCrMo/UHMWPE combination were investigated in two different wear screening test devices, reciprocating and unidirectional. Hank's solution and sterile calf bovine serum were selected as the lubricant fluid media. It was found that different fluid media had (...) insignificant effect on polyethylene wear against BMG counterfaces. The wear behaviour obtained on both test devices demonstrated that Zr-based BMG achieved UHMWPE counterface wear rates superior to conventional cast CoCrMo alloy, where the wear rate of UHMWPE is decreased by over 20 times. The tribological performance of these joints is superior to that of conventional metal-on-polymer designs. Contact angle measurements suggested that the advantage of BMG over a CoCrMo alloy counterface is attributed to its highly hydrophilic surfaces. (shrink)
Hydrogen is one of the few molecules that has been incarcerated in the molecular cage of C60 to form the endohedral supramolecular complex H2@C60. In this confinement, hydrogen acquires new properties. Its translation motion, within the C60 cavity, becomes quantized, is correlated with its rotation and breaks inversion symmetry that induces infrared (IR) activity of H2. We apply IR spectroscopy to study the dynamics of hydrogen isotopologues H2, D2 and HD incarcerated in C60. The translation and rotation modes appear as (...) side bands to the hydrogen vibration mode in the mid-IR part of the absorption spectrum. Because of the large mass difference of hydrogen and C60 and the high symmetry of C60 the problem is almost identical to a vibrating rotor moving in a three-dimensional spherical potential. We derive potential, rotation, vibration and dipole moment parameters from the analysis of the IR absorption spectra. Our results were used to derive the parameters of a pairwise additive five-dimensional potential energy surface for H2@C60. The same parameters were used to predict H2 energies inside C70. We compare the predicted energies and the low-temperature IR absorption spectra of H2@C70. (shrink)
An extruded Mg?1Mn?1Nd (wt%) (MN11) alloy was tested in tension in an SEM at temperatures of 323?K (50°C), 423?K (150°C), and 523?K (250°C) to analyse the local deformation mechanisms through in situ observations. Electron backscatter diffraction was performed before and after the deformation. It was found that the tensile strength decreased with increasing temperature, and the relative activity of different twinning and slip systems was quantified. At 323?K (50°C), extension twinning, basal, prismatic ?a?, and pyramidal ?c?+?a? slip were active. Much (...) less extension twinning was observed at 423?K (150°C), while basal slip and prismatic ?a? slip were dominant and presented similar activities. At 523?K (250°C), twinning was not observed, and basal slip controlled the deformation. (shrink)
This paper investigates potential motivations for late adopting U.S. companies to begin disclosing environmental liability amounts in their financial statements. Based on a review of 10-K reports filed from 1998 through 2012, inclusive, we identified 55 firms initiating environmental liability disclosure over the period, with all but three doing so by 2006. Focusing on the disclosers up through 2006, we argue that the companies may have used the disclosure as a tool of impression management to avoid potential stakeholder mis-estimation of (...) previously undisclosed liability exposures. We first compute tests to identify firms that may have begun the disclosure due to (1) materiality and (2) concerns of having proprietary costs imposed upon them due to changes in their environmental media coverage and environmental performance, and we find very few cases where these explanations might hold. For the remaining companies, we compared their newly disclosed liability amount, on average, with the mean level of environmental liability being disclosed by other firms in the year prior to the sample companies’ initiation, and find that it is significantly smaller, thus supporting our impression management argument. Finally, we find that overall level of environmental liability amounts was consistently decreasing over the time frame examined, suggesting that earlier adoption would have made more sense. However, it may also explain why almost no new firms began disclosing after the mid-2000s. (shrink)
Amartya Sen has made deep and lasting contributions to the academic disciplines of economics, philosophy, and the social sciences more broadly. He has engaged in policy dialogue and public debate, advancing the cause of a human development focused policy agenda, and a tolerant and democratic polity. This argumentative Indian has made the case for the poorest of the poor, and for plurality in cultural perspective. It is not surprising that he has won the highest awards, ranging from the Nobel Prize (...) in Economics to the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honor. This public recognition has gone hand in hand with the affection and admiration that Amartya's friends and students hold for him. -/- This volume of essays, written in honor of his 75th birthday by his students and peers, covers the range of contributions that Sen has made to knowledge. They are written by some of the world's leading economists, philosophers and social scientists, and address topics such as ethics, welfare economics, poverty, gender, human development, society and politics. -/- Contributors include: Bina Agarwal, Isher Ahluwalia, Montek S Ahluwalia, Ingela Alger, Sabina Alkire, Paul Anand, Sudhir Anand, Kwame Anthony Appiah, Muhammad Asali, Department of Economics, A. B. Atkinson, Amiya Kumar Bagchi, Pranab Bardhan, Lourdes Benería, Francois Bourguignon, Sugata Bose, Walter Bossert, John Broome, Satya R. Chakravarty, Lincoln C. Chen, Martha Alter Chen, Kanchan Chopra, Rajat Deb, Simon Dietz, Bhaskar Dutta, James E. Foster, Sakiko Fukuda-Parr, Wulf Gaertner, Indranil K. Ghosh, Jonathan Glover, Peter Hammond, Christopher Handy, Christopher Harris, Cameron Hepburn, Jane Humphries, Rizwanul Islam, Satish K. Jain, Ayesha Jalal, Mary Kaldor, Sunil Khilnani, Stephan Klasen, Jocelyn Kynch, Isaac Levi, Oliver Linton, Enrica Chiappero Martinetti, Kirsty McNay, Martha C. Nussbaum, Siddiqur R. Osmani, Elinor Ostrom, Prasanta K. Pattanaik, Edmund S. Phelps, Mozaffar Qizilbash, Gustav Ranis, Martin Ravallion, Sanjay G. Reddy, Kevin Roberts, Ingrid Robeyns, Maurice Salles, Emma Samman, Cristina Santos, Thomas. M. Scanlon, Arjun Sengupta, Tae Kun Seo, Anthony Shorrocks, Ronald Smith, Rehman Sobhan, Robert M. Solow, Nicholas Stern, Frances Stewart, Joseph E. Stiglitz, S. Subramanian, Kotaro Suzumura, Alain Trannoy, Ashutosh Varshney, Sujata Visaria, Guanghua Wan, Jörgen W. Weibull, John A. Weymark, and Yongsheng Xu. (shrink)
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