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Henry P. Stapp [93]Henry Pierce Stapp [4]
  1. Jeffrey M. Schwartz, Henry P. Stapp & Mario Beauregard, Quantum Physics in Neuroscience and Psychology: A Neurophysical Model of Mind–Brain Interaction.
    Neuropsychological research on the neural basis of behaviour generally posits that brain mechanisms will ultimately suffice to explain all psychologically described phenomena. This assumption stems from the idea that the brain is made up entirely of material particles and fields, and that all causal mechanisms relevant to neuroscience can therefore be formulated solely in terms of properties of these elements. Thus, terms having intrinsic mentalistic and/or experiential content (e.g. ‘feeling’, ‘knowing’ and ‘effort’) are not included as primary causal factors. This (...)
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  2. Henry P. Stapp, ASCII Conventions: #X# is Boldface X; ^X^ is Superscript X; ~X~ is Subscript X; *X* is Italicized X.
    It is argued on the basis of certain mathematical characteristics that classical mechanics is not constitutionally suited to accommodate consciousness, whereas quantum mechanics is. These mathematical characteristics pertain to the nature of the information represented in the state of the brain, and the way this information enters into the dynamics.
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  3. Henry P. Stapp, Causally Effective Free Will.
    The mainstream view today in neuroscience, biology, psychology, and philosophy, is that your conscious will has no effect upon your bodily actions beyond what is already caused by purely mechanical processes acting alone. Thus you are claimed to be, in essence, a mechanical automaton, with perhaps some elements of pure chance thrown in. Your natural belief that your willful efforts can have physical effects is called, accordingly, “The Illusion of Conscious Will”.
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  4. Henry P. Stapp, Quantum Mechanics in the Brain.
    Christof Koch and Klaus Hepp, in a recent essay in this journal1, issued a challenge to “those who call upon consciousness to carry the burden of the measurement problem in quantum mechanics.” Lest absence of a response be construed as admission of a failure of the idea that consciousness can play, via quantum measurement effects, a crucial role in neurodynamics, or that this idea has been in any rational way damaged by the arguments put forth in the cited article, (...)
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  5. Henry P. Stapp, Retrocausal Effects as a Consequence of Orthodox Quantum Mechanics Refined to Accommodate The Principle of Sufficient Reason.
    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of (...)
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  6. Henry P. Stapp, Relativistic Whiteheadian Quantum Field Theory: Serial Order and Creative Advance.
    Alfred North Whitehead in his book Process and Reality describes the history of the universe in terms of a process of ‘creative advance into novelty.’ This advance is produced by a collection of happenings called ‘actual occasions’, or ‘actual entities’. Each actual entity has an associated actual world, and it arises from its own peculiar actual world. (PR 284). Two occasions are termed ‘contemporary’ if neither lies in the actual world of the other. A key issue is whether the words (...)
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  7. Henry P. Stapp, Session II: What is the Fundamental Nature of the World?
    This question is important because our beliefs about our relationship to the world underlie our values, and our values determine the sort of world we strive to create.
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  8. Henry P. Stapp, The Causal Role of Consciousness in the Quantum Brain.
    Science is basically about correlations between conscious human experiences: that is what makes it both useful and testable in the realm of our expanding human knowledge. Explicit recognition of this understanding lies at the core of the formulation of quantum theory that was originally developed during the twenties by its founders.
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  9. Henry P. Stapp, The Emergence of Consciousness.
    It is widely believed by both scientists and philosophers that consciousness, as we experience it, was not always present in this universe, but emerged gradually from a more purely physical stratum in conjunction with the development of biological systems, and, in particular, nervous systems. But if one assumes that the physical foundation from which consciousness emerged is adequately described by classical physical theory then one is put in a quandry by the deterministic character of that theory. For the dynamical completeness (...)
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  10. Henry P. Stapp, Tutorial in Quantum Mechanics and the Mind-Brain Connection.
    I have written extensively of the topic of this tutorial. But in order to reach a broad audience I have in many of my more recent works refrained from using equations. That approach makes those works accessible in principle both to readers who are repelled by equations, and also to quantum physicists who are sufficiently familiar with the details of the quantum theory of measurement to be able to fill in for themselves the omitted equations. However, that approach means also (...)
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  11. Henry P. Stapp, \Vskip .25in.
    {\large \bf A QUANTUM THEORY OF THE MIND--BRAIN INTERFACE} \footnote{This work was supported by the Director, Office of Energy Research, Office of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Division of High Energy Physics of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract..
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  12. Henry P. Stapp & Jeffrey M. Schwartz, The Implications of Psychological Treatment Effects on Cerebral Function for the Physics of Mind-Brain Interaction.
    The data emerging from the clinical and brain studies described above suggest that, in the case of OCD, there are two pertinent brain mechanisms that are distinguishable both in terms of neuro-dynamics and in terms of the conscious experiences that accompany them. These mechanisms can be characterized, on anatomical and perhaps evolutionary grounds, as a lower-level and a higher-level mechanism. The clinical treatment has, when successful, an activating effect on the higher-level mechanism, and a suppressive effect on the lower-level one.
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  13. Henry P. Stapp, A Model of the Quantum-Classical and Mind-Brain Connections, and of the Role of The Quantum Zeno Effect in the Physical Implementation of Conscious Intent.
    A simple exactly solvable model is given of the dynamical coupling between a person’s classically described perceptions and that person’s quantum mechanically described brain. The model is based jointly upon von Neumann’s theory of measurements and the empirical findings of close connections between conscious intentions and synchronous oscillations in well separated parts of the brain. A quantum-Zeno-effect-based mechanism is described that allows conscious intentions to influence brain activity in a functionally appropriate way. The robustness of this mechanism in the face (...)
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  14. Henry P. Stapp, Compatibility of Contemporary Physical Theory with Personality Survival.
    Orthodox quantum mechanics is technically built around an element that von Neumann called Process 1. In its basic form it consists of an action that reduces the prior state of a physical system to a sum of two parts, which can be regarded as the parts corresponding to the answers ‘Yes’ and ‘No’ to a specific question that this action poses, or ‘puts to nature’. Nature returns one answer or the other, in accordance with statistical weightings specified by the theory. (...)
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  15. Henry P. Stapp, Dear Walter, My Article ``Whiteheadian Process and Quantum Theory of Mind'' Was the First `Target Article' on the E Forum.
    There is already in quantum theory the huge *fact* of the apparent nonlocal (faster than light) connections: if one rejects the many worlds notion that all things happen [and I believe that that idea must be rejected for technical reasons --but that is a whole long argument itself] then there is an absolute need for some sort of FTL transfer of information. There simply must be a strong interconnectedness of the universe: FTL influence is unavoidable in quantum theory, if many (...)
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  16. Henry P. Stapp, Free Will.
    A criterion for the existence of human free will is specified: a human action is asserted to be a manifestations of human free-will if this action is a specific physical action that is experienced as being consciously chosen and willed to occur by a human agent, and is not determined within physical theory either in terms of the physically described aspects of nature or by any non-human agency. This criterion is tied to the structure of a physical theory. It is (...)
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  17. Henry P. Stapp, Lbnl.
    It is argued that the principles of classical physics are inimical to the development of a satisfactory science of consciousness The problem is that insofar as the classical principles are valid consciousness can have no e ect on the behavior and hence on the survival prospects of the organisms in which it inheres Thus within the classical framework it is not possible to explain in natural terms the development of consciousness to the high level form found in human beings In (...)
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  18. Henry P. Stapp, Lbl Expanded.
    The Heisenberg quantum mechanical conception of nature is extended and applied to the brain Strict adherence to the principle of parsimony and to quantum thinking produces naturally on the basis of an overview of brain operation compatible with the information provided by the brain sciences a uni ed description of the physical and mental aspects of nature that can account in principle for the full content of felt human experience..
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  19. Henry P. Stapp, Mental Causation.
    _ Theoretical Physics Group_ _ Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory_ _ University of California_ _ Berkeley, California 94720_.
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  20. Henry P. Stapp, Meaning of Counterfactual Statements in Quantum Physics.
    David Mermin suggests that my recent proof pertaining to quan tum nonlocality is undermined by an essential ambiguity pertaining to the meaning of counterfactual statements in quantum physics The ambiguity he cites arise from his imposition of a certain criterion for the meaningfulness of such counterfactual statements That criterion con ates the meaning of a counterfactual statement with the details of a proof of its validity in such a way as to make the meaning of such a statement dependent upon (...)
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  21. Henry P. Stapp, Placebo: A Clinically Significant Quantum Effect.
    His words effectively assert, within a scientific context, that the mental realities that comprise a person’s stream of conscious experiences can influence the state of that person’s physically described body. That claim neither follows naturally from, nor meshes rationally with, the basic physical theory that, in 1799, had prevailed in science for more than a century---since the 1687 publication of Isaac Newton’s Principia---and that would continue to prevail for an additional century, until its replacement during the twentieth century by quantum (...)
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  22. Henry P. Stapp, Pragmatic Approach to Consciousness.
    Physical scientists were driven during the late twenties to abandon a fundamental idea that had reigned since the time of Issac Newton To obtain a rationally coherent and practically useful theory of all physical phenomena they turned to a pragmatic approach The core idea was that the basic physical theory was no longer directly about a physical world that was conceived to exists apart from anyone s knowledge of it Rather the theory was regarded as being directly about certain of (...)
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  23. Henry P. Stapp, Physics in Neuroscience.
    Classical physics is a theory of nature that originated with the work of Isaac Newton in the seventeenth century and was advanced by the contributions of James Clerk Maxwell and Albert Einstein. Newton based his theory on the work of Johannes Kepler, who found that the planets appeared to move in accordance with a simple mathematical law, and in ways wholly determined by their spatial relationships to other objects. Those motions were apparently independent of our human observations of them.
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  24. Henry P. Stapp, Philosophy of Mind and the Problem of Free Will in the Light of Quantum Mechanics.
    Arguments pertaining to the mind-brain connection and to the physical effectiveness of our conscious choices have been presented in two recent books, one by John Searle, the other by Jaegwon Kim. These arguments are examined, and it is explained how the encountered difficulties arise from a defective understanding and application of a pertinent part of contemporary science, namely quantum mechanics. The principled quantum uncertainties entering at the microscopic levels of brain processing cannot be confined to the micro level, but percolate (...)
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  25. Henry P. Stapp, Quantum Mechanical Coherence, Resonance, and Mind.
    Norbert Wiener and J.B.S. Haldane suggested during the early thirties that the profound changes in our conception of matter entailed by quantum theory opens the way for our thoughts, and other experiential or mind-like qualities, to play a role in nature that is causally interactive and effective, rather than purely epiphenomenal, as required by classical mechanics. The mathematical basis of this suggestion is described here, and it is then shown how, by giving mind this efficacious role in natural process, the (...)
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  26. Henry P. Stapp, Quantum Mechanics of Presentiment in Binocular Rivalry.
    This is a brief account of a theory of presentiment/retrocausation in the context of a proposed binocular rivalry experiment. According to orthodox (classical or quantum mechanical) physics there can be no retrocausal effects. In order to accommodate such effects one must go beyond/outside orthodox theories. The simplest way to modify QM in a way that would permit such effects is to accept the hypothesis of Eccles (1987) that mental involvement (mental effort or emotion) can alter the orthodox statistical weighting factors (...)
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  27. Henry P. Stapp, Quantum Ontology and Mind Matter Synthesis.
    The Solvay conference of marked the birth of quantum the ory This theory constitutes a radical break with prior tradition in physics because it avers if taken seriously that nature is built not out of matter but out of knowings However the founders of the theory stipulated cautiously that the theory was not to be taken seriously in this sense as a description of nature herself but was to be construed as merely a way of computing expectations about future knowings (...)
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  28. Henry P. Stapp, Quantum Reality and Mind.
    Two fundamental questions are addressed within the framework orthodox quantum mechanics. The first is the duality-nonduality conflict arising from the fact that our scientific description of nature has two disparate parts: an empirical component and a theoretical component. The second question is the possibility of meaningful free will in a quantum world concordant with the principle of sufficient reason, which asserts that nothing happens without a sufficient reason. The two issues are resolved by an examination of the conceptual and mathematical (...)
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  29. Henry P. Stapp, Reply to "On Stapp’s ‘Nonlocal Character of Quantum Theory’.
    The question raised by Shimony and Stein is examined and used to explain in more detail a key point of my proof that any theory that conforms to certain general ideas of orthodox relativistic quantum field theory must permit transfers of information over spacelike intervals. lt is also explained why this result is not a problem for relativistic quantum theory, but, on the contrary, opens the door to a satisfactory realistic relativistic quantum theory based on the ideas of Tomonaga, Schwinger, (...)
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  30. Henry P. Stapp, Searle's “Dualism Revisited”.
    John Searle begins his recent article “Dualism Revisited” by stating his belief that the philosophical problem of consciousness has a scientific solution. He then claims to refute dualism. It is therefore appropriate to examine his arguments against dualism from a scientific perspective.
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  31. Henry P. Stapp, Subj: Physics and Philosophy.
    In order to derive any conclusions from CM about a specific system one must, of course, specify what the system is, and do so within the language and conceptual framework of that theory. These specifications within the mathematical framework of CM are the `boundary conditions' that a physicist must introduce to make the problem mathematically well defined.
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  32. Henry P. Stapp, Subj: QM in Stapp&Sarfatti Vs Penrose and Hameroff.
    The key difference between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics, at least in the "orthodox" view of Niels Bohr, is tied to the difference within these two theories of the relationship between the observer and the observed. In classical mechanics the observed system is characterized exactly by what an idealized disembodied observer could know about the system without actually interacting with it, or disturbing it. Thus in classical mechanics the physical system is specified by what could be known by an observer (...)
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  33. Henry P. Stapp, Subj: Re: Imitation QM.
    Zurek: "In other words, a question that is unaddressed and, indeed, obscured by MWI is the very central question of the interpretation of quantum theory: How does the unambiguous correspondence between the theory and our individual perceptions come about? The Many Worlds Interpretation avoids this issue by tacitly assuming the "consciousness" will perceive the wave function of the universe "branch by branch." In other words, the properties of consciousness are being in the end blamed for what appears to have happened (...)
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  34. Henry P. Stapp, Subj: Re: "Now".
    About "now", I agree with Pat that the idea of "the present now" is pretty incomprehensible within the "standard" picture, where one just adds a fourth dimension to the three spatial dimensions. This simple addition of time to the spatial dimensions is sometimes called the spatialization of time, and although Einstein himself generally avoided making ontological commitments he is sometimes credited with believing that this mathematical step is somehow closely connected to ontology. I think this attribution is merely on the (...)
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  35. Henry P. Stapp, Subj: Re: QM and Consciousness.
    William Robinson has asked some detailed and pertinent questions that probe essential features of the quantum mind matter synthesis I proposed. They demand detailed answers, which I shall give here. These answers rest on technical properties of quantum theory. But I believed I can describe the points in a way will be clear to non physicist.
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  36. Henry P. Stapp, Subj: Re: References and Causal Linkage.
    The antithesis is the identity theory/functionalism viewpoint. It stems from the fact that conscious experience cannot be defined in terms of anything else: any characterization of it in terms of something else would leave out its most essential feature. So it can only be characterized in terms of its internal structure, which is causally incomplete; being intertwined, at the very least, with unconscious or subconscious elements. It has recently been defended on this forum by Neil Rickert.
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  37. Henry P. Stapp, Subj: Re: Wrapping Up QM and C.
    The discussions were obscured by an initial misunderstanding. I made it clear from the outset that I was making here only the claim that " the principles of CM do not *entail* the existence of consciousness", not that "consciouness was *incompatible* with the principles of CM. This weak claim, namely that "CM does not entail C", I thought to be obviously true, and I had taken taken it as a secure starting point of the arguments in my paper "The Evolution (...)
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  38. Henry P. Stapp, The Basis Problem in Many-Worlds Theories.
    It is emphasized that a many-worlds interpretation of quantum theory exists only to the extent that the associated basis problem is solved. The core basis problem is that the robust enduring states specified by environmental decoherence effects are essentially Gaussian wave packets that form continua of non-orthogonal states. Hence they are not a discrete set of orthogonal basis states to which finite probabilities can be assigned by the usual rules. The natural way to get an orthogonal basis without going outside (...)
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  39. Henry P. Stapp, The Effect of Mind Upon Brain.
    A physics-based understanding of how our conscious thoughts can affect our physically described brains is described. This understanding depends on the shift from the mechanical conception of nature that prevailed in science from the time of Isaac Newton until the dawn of the twentieth century to the psychophysical conception that emerged from the findings of Planck, Bohr, and Heisenberg.. This shift converted the role of our conscious thoughts from that of passive observers of a causally closed physically described universe to (...)
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  40. Henry P. Stapp, Values and the Quantum Conception of Man.
    Classical mechanics is based upon a mechanical picture of nature that is fundamentally incorrect It has been replaced at the basic level by a radically di erent theory quantum mechanics This change entails an enormous shift in our basic conception of nature one that can profoundly alter the scienti c image of man himself Self image is the foundation of values and the replacement of the mechanistic self image derived from classical mechanics by one concordant with quantum mechanics may pro (...)
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  41. Henry P. Stapp, Whiteheadian Process and Quantum Theory.
    Quantum theory has been formulated in several different ways. The original version was ‘Copenhagen’ quantum theory, which was formulated as a practical set of rules for making predictions about what we human observers would observe under certain well-defined sets of conditions. However, the human observers themselves were excluded from the system, in much the same way that Descartes excluded human beings from the part of the world governed by the natural physical laws. This exclusion of human beings from the world (...)
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  42. Henry P. Stapp & Jeffrey M. Schwartz, Appendix to Schwartz's Paper in J. Consc. Studies.
    The data emerging from the clinical and brain studies described above suggest that, in the case of OCD, there are two pertinent brain mechanisms that are distinguishable both in terms of neuro dynamics and in terms of the conscious experiences that accompany them. These mechanisms can be characterized, on anatomical and perhaps evolutionary grounds, as a lower level and a higher level mechanism. The clinical treatment has, when successful, an activating effect on the higher level mechanism, and a suppressive effect (...)
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  43. Henry P. Stapp (2014). Mind, Brain, and Neuroscience. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 10 (1):227-231.
    Quantum mechanics as conceived by Niels Bohr and formulated in rigorous terms by John von Neumann is expressed as quantum neuroscience: a description of the relationship between certain conscious experiences of an observer that are described in terms of the concepts of classical physics and neural processes that are described in terms of the concepts of quantum physics. The theory is applied to recent neuroscience data to determine the rapidity of the observer's probing actions that is needed to account for (...)
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  44. Henry P. Stapp (2012). Quantum Locality? Foundations of Physics 42 (5):647-655.
    Robert Griffiths has recently addressed, within the framework of a ‘consistent quantum theory’ that he has developed, the issue of whether, as is often claimed, quantum mechanics entails a need for faster-than-light transfers of information over long distances. He argues that the putative proofs of this property that involve hidden variables include in their premises some essentially classical-physics-type assumptions that are not entailed by the precepts of quantum mechanics. Thus whatever is proved is not a feature of quantum mechanics, but (...)
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  45. Henry P. Stapp (2011). Mindful Universe: Quantum Mechanics and the Participating Observer. Springer-Verlag.
    The classical mechanistic idea of nature that prevailed in science during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was an essentially mindless conception: the ...
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  46. Henry Pierce Stapp (2010). Interpretacja Kopenhaska (przełożył Adam Śliwiński). Hybris 15.
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  47. Henry P. Stapp (2009). Quantum Collapse and the Emergence of Actuality From Potentiality. Process Studies 38 (2):319-339.
    Orthodox quantum mechanics is built upon psychophysical collapse events that are the close analogs, within contemporary physical theory, of the the Whiteheadian actual occasions, with their mental and physical poles. This article describes the way in which these events enter into quantum theory, and mediate the emergence of actuality from potentiality.
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  48. Henry P. Stapp (2009). The Role of Human Beings in the Quantum Universe. World Futures 65 (1):7 – 18.
    A profound change in our scientific understanding of the role of human beings in the unfolding of our streams of conscious experiences was wrought by the 20th-century switch from classical mechanics to quantum mechanics. The streams of consciousness thoughts of human beings were converted from causally inert passive witnesses of the unfolding of a mechanically controlled and causally self-sufficient physical universe into logically needed dynamical inputs into the physical aspects of nature. These physical aspects, as they are now understood, contain (...)
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  49. Henry P. Stapp (2007). Quantum Mechanical Theories of Consciousness. In Max Velmans & Susan Schneider (eds.), A Companion to Consciousness. Blackwell. 300--312.
    Quantum mechanical theories of consciousness are contrasted to classical ones. A key difference is that the quantum laws are fundamentally psychophysical and provide an explanation of the causal effect of conscious effort on neural processes, while the laws of classical physics, being purely physical, cannot. The quantum approach provides causal explanations, deduced from the laws of physics, of correlations found in psychology and in neuropsychology.
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