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  1. Mika Koivisto, Henry Railo & Niina Salminen-Vaparanta (2011). Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of Early Visual Cortex Interferes with Subjective Visual Awareness and Objective Forced-Choice Performance. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):288-298.
    In order to study whether there exist a period of activity in the human early visual cortex that contributes exclusively to visual awareness, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation over the early visual cortex and measured subjective visual awareness during visual forced-choice symbol or orientation discrimination tasks. TMS produced one dip in awareness 60–120 ms after stimulus onset, while forced-choice orientation discrimination was suppressed between 60 and 90 ms and symbol discrimination between 60 and 120 ms. Thus, a time window specific (...)
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  2. Henry Railo, Mika Koivisto & Antti Revonsuo (2011). Tracking the Processes Behind Conscious Perception: A Review of Event-Related Potential Correlates of Visual Consciousness. [REVIEW] Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):972-983.
    Event-related potential studies have attempted to discover the processes that underlie conscious visual perception by contrasting ERPs produced by stimuli that are consciously perceived with those that are not. Variability of the proposed ERP correlates of consciousness is considerable: the earliest proposed ERP correlate of consciousness coincides with sensory processes and the last one marks postperceptual processes. A negative difference wave called visual awareness negativity , typically observed around 200 ms after stimulus onset in occipitotemporal sites, gains strong support for (...)
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  3. Jussi Jylkkä, Henry Railo & Jussi Haukioja (2009). Psychological Essentialism and Semantic Externalism: Evidence for Externalism in Lay Speakers' Language Use. Philosophical Psychology 22 (1):37-60.
    Some experimental studies have recently claimed to undermine semantic externalism about natural kind terms. However, it is unclear how philosophical accounts of reference can be experimentally tested. We present two externalistic adaptations of psychological placeholder essentialism, a strict externalist and a hybrid externalist view, which are experimentally testable. We examine Braisby's et al. (1996) study which claims to undermine externalism, and argue that the study fails in its aims. We conducted two experiments, the results of which undermine internalism and the (...)
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  4. Henry Railo & Mika Koivisto (2009). Reply to Bachmann on ERP Correlates of Visual Awareness☆. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (3):809-810.
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  5. Henry Railo & Mika Koivisto (2009). The Electrophysiological Correlates of Stimulus Visibility and Metacontrast Masking. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (3):794-803.
    There are conflicting views concerning the electrophysiological correlates of visual consciousness. Whereas one view considers a relatively late positive deflection as a primary correlate of consciousness, another model links consciousness with earlier negativity . The present experiment utilized metacontrast masking in investigating the electrophysiological correlates of visual consciousness. The participants were presented with target-mask sequences in three stimulus onset asynchronies. The target stimuli were followed by either a metacontrast mask or a similar-looking, but ineffective pseudomask. The results showed that the (...)
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  6. Jussi Jylkka, Henry Railo & Jussi Haukioja (2008). Psychological Essentialism and Semantic Externalism Evidence for Externalism in Lay Speakers' Language Use. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 39 (1):105-110.
    Some experimental studies have recently claimed to undermine semantic externalism about natural kind terms. However, it is unclear how philosophical accounts of reference can be experimentally tested. We present two externalistic adaptations of psychological placeholder essentialism, a strict externalist and a hybrid externalist view, which are experimentally testable. We examine Braisby’s et al. (1996) study which claims to undermine externalism, and argue that the study fails in its aims. We conducted two experiments, the results of which undermine internalism and the (...)
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  7. Henry Railo, Mika Koivisto, Antti Revonsuo & Minna M. Hannula (2008). The Role of Attention in Subitizing. Cognition 107 (1):82-104.
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